Project Gutenberg's Beowulf, by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

Copyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the
copyright laws for your country before downloading or redistributing
this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook.

This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project
Gutenberg file.  Please do not remove it.  Do not change or edit the
header without written permission.

Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the
eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of this file.  Included is
important information about your specific rights and restrictions in
how the file may be used.  You can also find out about how to make a
donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved.


**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts**

**eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971**

*****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!*****


Title: Beowulf

Author: James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

Release Date: January, 2006 [EBook #9700]
[Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule]
[This file was first posted on October 12, 2003]

Edition: 10

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BEOWULF ***




Produced by Karl Hagen and PG Distributed Proofreaders





Contents

Preface to the Project Gutenberg Edition of Beowulf

This text is a corrected version of the fourth edition of Harrison and Sharp in its entirety. It comes in two basic versions. The base version (available in 8-bit (Latin-1) text and HTML) presents the original text as printed. This file contains the original version. It preserves the source-text's idiosyncratic use of accented vowels with the exception of y-circumflex (ŷ), which is replaced by y-acute (ý) to fit within the Latin-1 character set. Manifestly unintentional errors in the text have been corrected. In general, this has only been done when the text is internally inconsistent (e.g., a quotation in the glossary does not match the main text). Forms that represent deliberate editorial choice have not been altered, even where they appear wrong. (For example, some of the markings of vowel length do not reflect current scholarly consensus.) Where an uncorrected problem may confuse the reader, I have inserted a note explaining the difficulty, signed KTH. A complete list of the changes made is appended at the end of the file. In order to make the text more useful to modern readers, I have also produced a revised edition, available in Unicode (UTF-8) and HTML. Notes from the source text that indicate changes adopted in later editions have been incorporated directly into the text and apparatus. Further, long vowels are indicated with macrons, as is the common practice of most modern editions. Finally, the quantity of some words has been altered to the values currently accepted as correct. Quantities have not been changed when the difference is a matter of editorial interpretation (e.g., gst vs. gst in l. 102, etc.) A list of these altered quantities appears at the end of the list of corrections. Your browser must support the Unicode character set to use this file. To tell if your browser supports the necessary characters, check the table of vowel equivalents below. If you see any empty boxes or question marks in the "revised" columns, you should use the basic version.

Explanation of the Vowel Accenting

In general, Harrison and Sharp use circumflex accents over vowels to mark long vowels. For ash, however, the actual character 'æ' represents the long vowel. Short ash is rendered with a-umlaut (ä). The long diphthongs (ēo, ēa, etc.) are indicated with an acute accent over the second vowel (eó, eá, etc.).

Vowel Equivalents in Different Versions:

Orig.RevisedOrig.Revised
äæûū
ÄÆÛŪ
æǣý
ÆǢÝ
âāēa
ÂĀĒa
êēēo
ÊĒĒo
îīīa
ÎĪĪa
ôōīo
ÔŌĪo

I. BEWULF:

AN ANGLO-SAXON POEM.

II. THE FIGHT AT FINNSBURH:

A FRAGMENT.

WITH TEXT AND GLOSSARY ON THE

BASIS OF M. HEYNE.

EDITED, CORRECTED, AND ENLARGED, BY

JAMES A. HARRISON, LL.D., LITT. D.,

PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH AND MODERN LANGUAGES,

WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY,

AND

ROBERT SHARP (PH.D. LIPS.),

PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND ENGLISH,

TULANE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA.

FOURTH EDITION. REVISED, WITH NOTES.

GINN & COMPANY

BOSTON—NEW YORK—CHICAGO—LONDON


Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1883, by

JAMES ALBERT HARRISON AND ROBERT SHARP

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.


DEDICATED

TO

PROFESSOR F. A. MARCH,

OF LAFAYETTE COLLEGE, PA.,

AND

FREDERICK J. FURNIVALL, ESQ.

FOUNDER OF THE "NEW SHAKSPERE SOCIETY,"

THE "CHAUCER SOCIETY," ETC., ETC.


PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.

The favor with which the successive editions of "Bewulf" have been received during the past thirteen years emboldens the editors to continue the work of revision in a fourth issue, the most noticeable feature of which is a considerable body of explanatory Notes, now for the first time added. These Notes mainly concern themselves with new textual readings, with here and there grammatical, geographical, and archological points that seemed worthy of explanation. Parallelisms and parallel passages are constantly compared, with the view of making the poem illustrate and explain itself. A few emendations and textual changes are suggested by the editors with all possible diffidence; numerous corrections have been made in the Glossary and List of Names; and the valuable parts of former Appendices have been embodied in the Notes.

For the Notes, the editors are much indebted to the various German periodicals mentioned on page 116, to the recent publications of Professors Earle and J. L. Hall, to Mr. S. A. Brooke, and to the Heyne-Socin edition of "Bewulf." No change has been made in the system of accentuation, though a few errors in quantity have been corrected. The editors are looking forward to an eventual fifth edition, in which an entirely new text will be presented.

October, 1893.

NOTE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

This third edition of the American issue of Bewulf will, the editors hope, be found more accurate and useful than either of the preceding editions. Further corrections in text and glossary have been made, and some additional new readings and suggestions will be found in two brief appendices at the back of the book. Students of the metrical system of Bewulf will find ample material for their studies in Sievers' exhaustive essay on that subject (Beitrge, X. 209-314).

Socin's edition of Heyne's Bewulf (called the fifth edition) has been utilized to some extent in this edition, though it unfortunately came too late to be freely used. While it repeats many of the omissions and inaccuracies of Heyne's fourth edition, it contains much that is valuable to the student, particularly in the notes and commentary. Students of the poem, which has been subjected to much searching criticism during the last decade, will also derive especial help from the contributions of Sievers and Kluge on difficult questions appertaining to it. Wlker's new edition (in the Grein Bibliothek) is of the highest value, however one may dissent from particular textual views laid down in the 'Berichtigter Text.' Paul and Braune's Beitrge contain a varied miscellany of hints, corrections, and suggestions principally embodying the views of Kluge, Cosijn, Sievers, and Bugge, some of the more important of which are found in the appendices to the present and the preceding edition. Holder and Zupitza, Sarrazin and Hermann Mller (Kiel, 1883), Heinzel (Anzeiger f.d. Alterthum, X.), Gering (Zacher's Zeitschrift, XII.), Brenner (Eng. Studien, IX.), and the contributors to Anglia, have assisted materially in the textual and metrical interpretation of the poem.

The subject of Anglo-Saxon quantity has been discussed in several able essays by Sievers, Sweet, Ten Brink (Anzeiger, f.d. Alterthum, V.), Kluge (Beitrge, XI.), and others; but so much is uncertain in this field that the editors have left undisturbed the marking of vowels found in the text of their original edition, while indicating in the appendices the now accepted views of scholars on the quantity of the personal pronouns (m, w, þ, þ, g, h); the adverb n, etc. Perhaps it would be best to banish absolutely all attempts at marking quantities except in cases where the Ms. has them marked.

An approximately complete Bibliography of Bewulf literature will be found in Wlker's Grundriss and in Garnett's translation of the poem.

JAMES A. HARRISON,

ROBERT SHARP.

WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY, LEXINGTON, VA., May, 1888.

NOTE TO THE SECOND REVISED EDITION.

The editors feel so encouraged at the kind reception accorded their edition of Bewulf (1883), that, in spite of its many shortcomings, they have determined to prepare a second revised edition of the book, and thus endeavor to extend its sphere of usefulness. About twenty errors had, notwithstanding a vigilant proof-reading, crept into the text,—errors in single letters, accents, and punctuation. These have been corrected, and it is hoped that the text has been rendered generally accurate and trustworthy. In the List of Names one or two corrections have been made, and in the Glossary numerous mistakes in gender, classification, and translation, apparently unavoidable in a first edition, have been rectified. Wherever these mistakes concern single letters, or occupy very small space, they have been corrected in the plates; where they are longer, and the expense of correcting them in the plates would have been very great, the editors have thought it best to include them in an Appendix of Corrections and Additions, which will be found at the back of the book. Students are accordingly referred to this Appendix for important longer corrections and additions. It is believed that the value of the book has been much enhanced by an Appendix of Recent Readings, based on late criticisms and essays from the pens of Sievers, Kluge, Cosijn, Holder, Wlker, and Sweet. A perplexed student, in turning to these suggested readings, will often find great help in unravelling obscure or corrupt passages.

The objectionable ä and æ, for the short and the long diphthong, have been retained in the revised edition, owing to the impossibility of removing them without entirely recasting the plates.

In conclusion, the editors would acknowledge their great indebtedness to the friends and critics whose remarks and criticisms have materially aided in the correction of the text,—particularly to Profs. C.P.G. Scott, Baskervill, Price, and J.M. Hart; to Prof. J.W. Bright; and to the authorities of Cornell University, for the loan of periodicals necessary to the completeness of the revision. While the second revised edition still contains much that might be improved, the editors cannot but hope that it is an advance on its predecessor, and that it will continue its work of extending the study of Old English throughout the land.

JUNE, 1885.

NOTE I.

The present work, carefully edited from Heyne's fourth edition, (Paderborn, 1879), is designed primarily for college classes in Anglo-Saxon, rather than for independent investigators or for seekers after a restored or ideal text. The need of an American edition of "Bewulf" has long been felt, as, hitherto, students have had either to send to Germany for a text, or secure, with great trouble, one of the scarce and expensive English editions. Heyne's first edition came out in 1863, and was followed in 1867 and 1873 by a second and a third edition, all three having essentially the same text.

So many important contributions to the "Bewulf" literature were, however, made between 1873 and 1879 that Heyne found it necessary to put forth a new edition (1879). In this new, last edition, the text was subjected to a careful revision, and was fortified by the views, contributions, and criticisms of other zealous scholars. In it the collation of the unique "Bewulf" Ms. (Vitellius A. 15: Cottonian Mss. of the British Museum), as made by E. Klbing in Herrig's Archiv (Bd. 56; 1876), was followed wherever the present condition of the Ms. had to be discussed; and the researches of Bugge, Bieger, and others, on single passages, were made use of. The discussion of the metrical structure of the poem, as occurring in the second and third editions, was omitted in the fourth, owing to the many controversies in which the subject is still involved. The present editor has thought it best to do the same, though, happily, the subject of Old English Metrik is undergoing a steady illumination through the labors of Schipper and others.

Some errors and misplaced accents in Heyne's text have been corrected in the present edition, in which, as in the general revision of the text, the editor has been most kindly aided by Prof. J.M. Garnett, late Principal of St. John's College, Maryland.

In the preparation of the present school edition it has been thought best to omit Heyne's notes, as they concern themselves principally with conjectural emendations, substitutions of one reading for another, and discussions of the condition of the Ms. Until Wlker's text and the photographic fac-simile of the original Ms. are in the hands of all scholars, it will be better not to introduce such matters in the school room, where they would puzzle without instructing.

For convenience of reference, the editor has added a head-line to each "fit" of the poem, with a view to facilitate a knowledge of its episodes.

WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY, LEXINGTON, VA., June, 1882.

NOTE II.

The editors now have the pleasure of presenting to the public a complete text and a tolerably complete glossary of "Bewulf." The edition is the first published in America, and the first of its special kind presented to the English public, and it is the initial volume of a "Library of Anglo-Saxon Poetry," to be edited under the same auspices and with the coperation of distinguished scholars in this country. Among these scholars may be mentioned Professors F.A. March of Lafayette College, T.K. Price of Columbia College, and W.M. Baskervill of Vanderbilt University.

In the preparation of the Glossary the editors found it necessary to abandon a literal and exact translation of Heyne for several reasons, and among others from the fact that Heyne seems to be wrong in the translation of some of his illustrative quotations, and even translates the same passage in two or three different ways under different headings. The orthography of his glossary differs considerably from the orthography of his text. He fails to discriminate with due nicety the meanings of many of the words in his vocabulary, while criticism more recent than his latest edition (1879) has illustrated or overthrown several of his renderings. The references were found to be incorrect in innumerable instances, and had to be verified in every individual case so far as this was possible, a few only, which resisted all efforts at verification, having to be indicated by an interrogation point (?). The references are exceedingly numerous, and the labor of verifying them was naturally great. To many passages in the Glossary, where Heyne's translation could not be trusted with entire certainty, the editors have added other translations of phrases and sentences or of special words; and in this they have been aided by a careful study of the text and a comparison and utilization of the views of Kemble and Professor J.M. Garnett (who takes Grein for his foundation). Many new references have been added; and the various passages in which Heyne fails to indicate whether a given verb is weak or strong, or fails to point out the number, etc., of the illustrative form, have been corrected and made to harmonize with the general plan of the work. Numerous misprints in the glossary have also been corrected, and a brief glossary to the Finnsburh-fragment, prepared by Dr. Wm. Hand Browne, and supplemented and adapted by the editor-in-chief, has been added.

The editors think that they may without immodesty put forth for themselves something more than the claim of being re-translators of a translation: the present edition is, so far as they were able to make it so, an adaptation, correction, and extension of the work of the great German scholar to whose loving appreciation of the Anglo-Saxon epic all students of Old English owe a debt of gratitude. While following his usually sure and cautious guidance, and in the main appropriating his results, they have thought it best to deviate from him in the manner above indicated, whenever it seemed that he was wrong. The careful reader will notice at once the marks of interrogation which point out these deviations, or which introduce a point of view illustrative of, or supplementary to, the one given by the German editor. No doubt the editors are wrong themselves in many places,—"Bewulf" is a most difficult poem,—but their view may at least be defended by a reference to the original text, which they have faithfully and constantly consulted.

A good many cognate Modern English words have been introduced here and there in the Glossary with a view to illustration, and other addenda will be found between brackets and parenthetical marks.

It is hoped that the present edition of the most famous of Old English poems will do something to promote a valuable and interesting study.

JAMES A. HARRISON, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va.

ROBERT SHARP, University of Louisiana, New Orleans.

April, 1883.

The responsibility of the editors is as follows: H. is responsible for the Text, and for the Glossary from hrnan on; S. for the List of Names, and for the Glossary as far as hrnan.


ARGUMENT.

The only national [Anglo-Saxon] epic which has been preserved entire is Bewulf. Its argument is briefly as follows:—The poem opens with a few verses in praise of the Danish Kings, especially Scild, the son of Sceaf. His death is related, and his descendants briefly traced down to Hroðgar. Hroðgar, elated with his prosperity and success in war, builds a magnificent hall, which he calls Heorot. In this hall Hroðgar and his retainers live in joy and festivity, until a malignant fiend, called Grendel, jealous of their happiness, carries off by night thirty of Hroðgar's men, and devours them in his moorland retreat. These ravages go on for twelve years. Bewulf, a thane of Hygelac, King of the Goths, hearing of Hroðgar's calamities, sails from Sweden with fourteen warriors—to help him. They reach the Danish coast in safety; and, after an animated parley with Hroðgar's coastguard, who at first takes them for pirates, they are allowed to proceed to the royal hall, where they are well received by Hroðgar. A banquet ensues, during which Bewulf is taunted by the envious Hunferhð about his swimming-match with Breca, King of the Brondings. Bewulf gives the true account of the contest, and silences Hunferhð. At night-fall the King departs, leaving Bewulf in charge of the hall. Grendel soon breaks in, seizes and devours one of Bewulf's companions; is attacked by Bewulf, and, after losing an arm, which is torn off by Bewulf, escapes to the fens. The joy of Hroðgar and the Danes, and their festivities, are described, various episodes are introduced, and Bewulf and his companions receive splendid gifts. The next night Grendel's mother revenges her son by carrying off schere, the friend and councillor of Hroðgar, during the absence of Bewulf. Hroðgar appeals to Bewulf for vengeance, and describes the haunts of Grendel and his mother. They all proceed thither; the scenery of the lake, and the monsters that dwell in it, are described. Bewulf plunges into the water, and attacks Grendel's mother in her dwelling at the bottom of the lake. He at length overcomes her, and cuts off her head, together with that of Grendel, and brings the heads to Hroðgar. He then takes leave of Hroðgar, sails back to Sweden, and relates his adventures to Hygelac. Here the first half of the poem ends. The second begins with the accession of Bewulf to the throne, after the fall of Hygelac and his son Heardred. He rules prosperously for fifty years, till a dragon, brooding over a hidden treasure, begins to ravage the country, and destroys Bewulf's palace with fire. Bewulf sets out in quest of its hiding-place, with twelve men. Having a presentiment of his approaching end, he pauses and recalls to mind his past life and exploits. He then takes leave of his followers, one by one, and advances alone to attack the dragon. Unable, from the heat, to enter the cavern, he shouts aloud, and the dragon comes forth. The dragon's scaly hide is proof against Bewulf's sword, and he is reduced to great straits. Then Wiglaf, one of his followers, advances to help him. Wiglaf's shield is consumed by the dragon's fiery breath, and he is compelled to seek shelter under Bewulf's shield of iron. Bewulf's sword snaps asunder, and he is seized by the dragon. Wiglaf stabs the dragon from underneath, and Bewulf cuts it in two with his dagger. Feeling that his end is near, he bids Wiglaf bring out the treasures from the cavern, that he may see them before he dies. Wiglaf enters the dragon's den, which is described, returns to Bewulf, and receives his last commands. Bewulf dies, and Wiglaf bitterly reproaches his companions for their cowardice. The disastrous consequences of Bewulf's death are then foretold, and the poem ends with his funeral.—H. Sweet, in Warton's History of English Poetry, Vol. II. (ed. 1871). Cf. also Ten Brink's History of English Literature.

BEWULF.

I. THE PASSING OF SCYLD.

Hwt! we Gr-Dena      in ger-dagum
þed-cyninga      þrym gefrunon,
h þ ðelingas      ellen fremedon.
Oft Scyld Scfing      sceaðena þretum,
5
monegum mgðum      meodo-setla ofteh.
Egsode eorl,      syððan rest wearð
fe-sceaft funden:      he þs frfre gebd,
wex under wolcnum,      weorð-myndum ðh,
ð þt him ghwylc      þra ymb-sittendra
10
ofer hron-rde      hran scolde,
gomban gyldan:      þt ws gd cyning!
þm eafera ws      fter cenned
geong in geardum,      þone god sende
folce t frfre;      fyren-þearfe ongeat,
15
þt hie r drugon      aldor-lese
lange hwle.      Him þs lf-fre,
wuldres wealdend,      worold-re forgeaf;
Bewulf ws breme      (bld wde sprang),
Scyldes eafera      Scede-landum in.
20
Sw sceal geong guma,      gde gewyrcean,
fromum feoh-giftum      on fder wine,
þt hine on ylde      eft gewunigen
wil-gesðas,      þonne wg cume,
lede gelsten:      lof-ddum sceal
25
in mgða gehwre      man geþen.
Him þ Scyld gewt      t gescp-hwle
fela-hrr fran      on fren wre;
hi hyne þ tbron      t brimes faroðe.
swse gesðas,      sw he selfa bd,
30
þenden wordum weld      wine Scyldinga,
lef land-fruma      lange hte.
Þr t hðe std      hringed-stefna,
sig and tfs,      ðelinges fr;
-ldon þ      lefne þeden,
35
bega bryttan      on bearm scipes,
mrne be mste.      Þr ws mdma fela,
of feor-wegum      frtwa gelded:
ne hrde ic cymlcor      cel gegyrwan
hilde-wpnum      and heaðo-wdum,
40
billum and byrnum;      him on bearme lg
mdma mnigo,      þ him mid scoldon
on fldes ht      feor gewtan.
Nalas hi hine lssan      lcum tedan,
þed-gestrenum,      þonne þ dydon,
45
þe hine t frumsceafte      forð onsendon
nne ofer ðe      umbor wesende:
þ gyt hie him setton      segen gyldenne
heh ofer hefod,      lton holm beran,
gefon on gr-secg:      him ws gemor sefa,
50
murnende md.      Men ne cunnon
secgan t soðe      sele-rdende,
hleð under heofenum,      hw þm hlste onfng.

II. THE HALL HEOROT.

Þ ws on burgum      Bewulf Scyldinga,
lef led-cyning,      longe þrage
55
folcum gefrge      (fder ellor hwearf,
aldor of earde),      ð þt him eft onwc
heh Healfdene;      held þenden lifde,
gamol and gð-rew,      glde Scyldingas.
Þm fewer bearn      forð-germed
60
in worold wcun,      weoroda rswan,
Heorogr and Hrðgr      and Hlga til;
hrde ic, þat Elan cwn      Ongenþewes ws
Heaðoscilfinges      heals-gebedde.
Þ ws Hrðgre      here-spd gyfen,
65
wges weorð-mynd,      þt him his wine-mgas
georne hrdon,      ð þt se geogoð gewex,
mago-driht micel.      Him on md bearn,
þt heal-reced      htan wolde,
medo-rn micel      men gewyrcean,
70
þone yldo bearn      fre gefrunon,
and þr on innan      eall gedlan
geongum and ealdum,      swylc him god sealde,
bton folc-scare      and feorum gumena.
Þ ic wde gefrgn      weorc gebannan
75
manigre mgðe      geond þisne middan-geard,
folc-stede frtwan.      Him on fyrste gelomp
dre mid yldum,      þt hit wearð eal gearo,
heal-rna mst;      scp him Heort naman,
se þe his wordes geweald      wde hfde.
80
He bet ne lh,      begas dlde,
sinc t symle.      Sele hlifade
heh and horn-gep:      heaðo-wylma bd,
lðan lges;      ne ws hit lenge þ gen
þt se ecg-hete      ðum-swerian
85
fter wl-nðe      wcnan scolde.
Þ se ellen-gst      earfoðlce
þrage geþolode,      se þe in þstrum bd,
þt he dgora gehwm      drem gehrde
hldne in healle;      þr ws hearpan swg,
90
swutol sang scpes.      Sgde se þe cðe
frum-sceaft fira      feorran reccan,
cwð þt se lmihtiga      eorðan worhte,
wlite-beorhtne wang,      sw wter bebgeð,
gesette sige-hrðig      sunnan and mnan
95
leman t lehte      land-bendum,
and gefrtwade      foldan scetas
leomum and lefum;      lf ec gescep
cynna gehwylcum,      þra þe cwice hwyrfað.
Sw þ driht-guman      dremum lifdon
100
ediglce,      ð þt n ongan
fyrene fremman,      fend on helle:
ws se grimma gst      Grendel hten,
mre mearc-stapa,      se þe mras held,
fen and fsten;      ffel-cynnes eard
105
won-slig wer      weardode hwle,
siððan him scyppend      forscrifen hfde.
In Caines cynne      þone cwealm gewrc,
ce drihten,      þs þe he Abel slg;
ne gefeah he þre fhðe,      ac he hine feor forwrc,
110
metod for þ mne      man-cynne fram.
Þanon untydras      ealle onwcon,
eotenas and ylfe      and orcnas,
swylce gigantas,      þ wið gode wunnon
lange þrage;      he him þs len forgeald.

III. GRENDEL'S VISITS.

115
Gewt þ nesian,      syððan niht becom,
hen hses,      h hit Hring-Dene
fter ber-þege      gebn hfdon.
Fand þ þr inne      ðelinga gedriht
swefan fter symble;      sorge ne cðon,
120
won-sceaft wera.      Wiht unhlo
grim and grdig      gearo sna ws,
rec and rðe,      and on rste genam
þritig þegna:      þanon eft gewt
hðe hrmig      t hm faran,
125
mid þre wl-fylle      wca nesan.
Þ ws on uhtan      mid r-dge
Grendles gð-crft      gumum undyrne:
þ ws fter wiste      wp up hafen,
micel morgen-swg.      Mre þeden,
130
ðeling r-gd,      unblðe st,
þolode þrð-swð,      þegn-sorge dreh,
syððan hie þs lðan      lst scewedon,
wergan gstes;      ws þt gewin t strang,
lð and longsum.      Ns hit lengra fyrst,
135
ac ymb ne niht      eft gefremede
morð-beala mre      and n mearn fore
fhðe and fyrene;      ws t fst on þm.
Þ ws eð-fynde,      þe him elles hwr
germlcor      rste shte,
140
bed fter brum,      þ him gebecnod ws,
gesgd sðlce      sweotolan tcne
heal-þegnes hete;      held hine syððan
fyr and fstor,      se þm fende twand.
Sw rxode      and wið rihte wan
145
na wið eallum,      ð þt del std
hsa slest.      Ws se hwl micel:
twelf wintra td      torn geþolode
wine Scyldinga,      wena gehwelcne,
sdra sorga;      forþam syððan wearð
150
ylda bearnum      undyrne cð,
gyddum gemore,      þtte Grendel wan,
hwle wið Hrðgr;—      hete-nðas wg,
fyrene and fhðe      fela missera,
singale sce,      sibbe ne wolde
155
wið manna hwone      mgenes Deniga
feorh-bealo feorran,      fe þingian,
ne þr nnig witena      wnan þorfte
beorhtre bte      t banan folmum;
atol glca      htende ws,
160
deorc deð-sca      duguðe and geogoðe
seomade and syrede.      Sin-nihte held
mistige mras;      men ne cunnon,
hwyder hel-rnan      hwyrftum scrðað.
Sw fela fyrena      fend man-cynnes,
165
atol n-gengea,      oft gefremede
heardra hnða;      Heorot eardode,
sinc-fge sel      sweartum nihtum
(n he þone gif-stl      grtan mste,
mððum for metode,      ne his myne wisse);
170
þt ws wrc micel      wine Scyldinga,
mdes brecða.      Monig-oft gest
rce t rne;      rd eahtedon,
hwt swð-ferhðum      slest wre
wið fr-gryrum      t gefremmanne.
175
Hwlum hie gehton      t hrg-trafum
wig-weorðunga,      wordum bdon,
þt him gst-bona      gece gefremede
wið þed-þreum.      Swylc ws þew hyra,
hðenra hyht;      helle gemundon
180
in md-sefan,      metod hie ne cðon,
dda dmend,      ne wiston hie drihten god,
ne hie hru heofena helm      hrian ne cðon,
wuldres waldend.      W bið þm þe sceal
þurh slðne nð      swle bescfan
185
in fres fðm,      frfre ne wnan,
wihte gewendan;      wel bið þm þe mt
fter deð-dge      drihten scean
and t fder fðmum      freoðo wilnian.

IV. HYGELAC'S THANE.

Sw þ ml-ceare      maga Healfdenes
190
singala seð;      ne mihte snotor hleð
wen onwendan:      ws þt gewin t swð,
lð and longsum,      þe on þ lede becom,
nd-wracu nð-grim,      niht-bealwa mst.
Þt fram hm gefrgn      Higelces þegn,
195
gd mid Getum,      Grendles dda:
se ws mon-cynnes      mgenes strengest
on þm dge      þysses lfes,
ðele and ecen.      Ht him ð-lidan
gdne gegyrwan;      cwð he gð-cyning
200
ofer swan-rde      scean wolde,
mrne þeden,      þ him ws manna þearf.
Þone sð-ft him      snotere ceorlas
lyt-hwn lgon,      þeh he him lef wre;
hwetton higerfne,      hl scewedon.
205
Hfde se gda      Geta leda
cempan gecorone,      þra þe he cnoste
findan mihte;      fftena sum
sund-wudu shte;      secg wsade,
lagu-crftig mon,      land-gemyrcu.
210
Fyrst forð gewt:      flota ws on ðum,
bt under beorge.      Beornas gearwe
on stefn stigon;      stremas wundon
sund wið sande;      secgas bron
on bearm nacan      beorhte frtwe,
215
gð-searo geatolc;      guman t scufon,
weras on wil-sð      wudu bundenne.
Gewt þ ofer wg-holm      winde gefsed
flota fmig-heals      fugle gelcost,
ð þt ymb n-td      ðres dgores
220
wunden-stefna      gewaden hfde,
þt þ lðende      land geswon,
brim-clifu blcan,      beorgas stepe,
sde s-nssas:      þ ws sund liden,
eoletes t ende.      Þanon up hraðe
225
Wedera lede      on wang stigon,
s-wudu sldon      (syrcan hrysedon,
gð-gewdo);      gode þancedon,
þs þe him ð-lde      eðe wurdon.
Þ of wealle geseah      weard Scildinga,
230
se þe holm-clifu      healdan scolde,
beran ofer bolcan      beorhte randas,
fyrd-searu fslcu;      hine fyrwyt brc
md-gehygdum,      hwt þ men wron.
Gewt him þ t waroðe      wicge rdan
235
þegn Hrðgres,      þrymmum cwehte
mgen-wudu mundum,      meðel-wordum frgn:
"Hwt syndon ge      searo-hbbendra
"byrnum werede,      þe þus brontne cel
"ofer lagu-strte      ldan cwmon,
240
"hider ofer holmas      helmas bron?
"Ic ws ende-sta,      g-wearde held,
"þt on land Dena      lðra nnig
"mid scip-herge      sceððan ne meahte.
"N her cðlcor      cuman ongunnon
245
"lind-hbbende;      ne ge lefnes-word
"gð-fremmendra      gearwe ne wisson,
"mga gemdu.      Nfre ic mran geseah
"eorla ofer eorðan,      þonne is ewer sum,
"secg on searwum;      nis þt seld-guma
250
"wpnum geweorðad,      nfne him his wlite lege,
"nlc an-sn.      Nu ic ewer sceal
"frum-cyn witan,      r ge fyr heonan
"lese sceweras      on land Dena
"furður fran.      Nu ge feor-bend,
255
"mere-lðende,      mnne gehrað
"n-fealdne geþht:      fost is slest
"t gecðanne,      hwanan ewre cyme syndon."

V. THE ERRAND.

Him se yldesta      andswarode,
werodes wsa,      word-hord onlec:
260
"We synt gum-cynnes      Geta lede
"and Higelces      heorð-genetas.
"Ws mn fder      folcum gecðed,
"ðele ord-fruma      Ecgþew hten;
"gebd wintra worn,      r he on weg hwurfe,
265
"gamol of geardum;      hine gearwe geman
"witena wel-hwylc      wde geond eorðan.—
"We þurh holdne hige      hlford þinne,
"sunu Healfdenes,      scean cwmon,
"led-gebyrgean:      wes þu s lrena gd!
270
"Habbað we t þm mran      micel rende
"Deniga fren;      ne sceal þr dyrne sum
"wesan, þs ic wne.      Þu wst, gif hit is,
"sw we sðlice      secgan hrdon,
"þt mid Scyldingum      sceaða ic nt hwylc,
275
"degol dd-hata,      deorcum nihtum
"eweð þurh egsan      uncðne nð,
"hnðu and hr-fyl.      Ic þs Hrðgr mg
"þurh rmne sefan      rd gelran,
"h he frd and gd      fend oferswðeð,
280
"gyf him ed-wendan      fre scolde
"bealuwa bisigu,      bt eft cuman
"and þ cear-wylmas      clran wurðað;
"oððe syððan      earfoð-þrage,
"þre-nd þolað,      þenden þr wunað
285
"on heh-stede      hsa slest."
Weard maðelode,      þr on wicge st
ombeht unforht:      "ghwðres sceal
"scearp scyld-wga      gescd witan,
"worda and worca,      se þe wel þenceð.
290
"Ic þt gehre,      þt þis is hold weorod
"fren Scyldinga.      Gewtað forð beran
"wpen and gewdu,      ic ew wsige:
"swylce ic magu-þegnas      mne hte
"wið fenda gehwone      flotan ewerne,
295
"niw-tyrwedne      nacan on sande
"rum healdan,      ð þt eft byreð
"ofer lagu-stremas      lefne mannan
"wudu wunden-hals      t Weder-mearce.
"Gð-fremmendra      swylcum gifeðe bið,
300
"þt þone hilde-rs      hl gedgeð."
Gewiton him þ fran      (flota stille bd,
seomode on sle      sd-fðmed scyp,
on ancre fst);      eofor-lc scionon
ofer hler-beran      gehroden golde
305
fh and fr-heard,      ferh wearde held.
Gðmde grummon,      guman onetton,
sigon tsomne,      ð þt hy sl timbred
geatolc and gold-fh      ongytan mihton;
þt ws fore-mrost      fold-bendum
310
receda under roderum,      on þm se rca bd;
lixte se lema      ofer landa fela.
Him þ hilde-der      hof mdigra
torht gethte,      þt hie him t mihton
gegnum gangan;      gð-beorna sum
315
wicg gewende,      word fter cwð:
"Ml is me t fran;      fder alwalda
"mid r-stafum      ewic gehealde
"sða gesunde!      ic t s wille,
"wið wrð werod      wearde healdan."

VI. BEWULF'S SPEECH.

320
Strt ws stn-fh,      stg wsode
gumum tgdere.      Gð-byrne scn
heard hond-locen,      hring-ren scr
song in searwum,      þ hie t sele furðum
in hyra gryre-geatwum      gangan cwmon.
325
Setton s-mðe      sde scyldas,
rondas regn-hearde      wið þs recedes weal,
bugon þ t bence;      byrnan hringdon,
gð-searo gumena;      gras stdon,
s-manna searo,      samod tgdere,
330
sc-holt ufan grg:      ws se ren-þret
wpnum gewurðad.      Þ þr wlonc hleð
oret-mecgas      fter ðelum frgn:
"Hwanon ferigeað ge      ftte scyldas,
"grge syrcan      and grm-helmas,
335
"here-sceafta hep?—      Ic eom Hrðgres
"r and ombiht.      Ne seah ic el-þedige
"þus manige men      mdiglcran.
"Wn' ic þt ge for wlenco,      nalles for wrc-sðum,
"ac for hige-þrymmum      Hrðgr shton."
340
Him þ ellen-rf      andswarode,
wlanc Wedera led      word fter sprc,
heard under helme:      "We synt Higelces
"bed-genetas;      Bewulf is mn nama.
"Wille ic secgan      suna Healfdenes,
345
"mrum þedne      mn rende,
"aldre þnum,      gif he s geunnan wile,
"þt we hine sw gdne      grtan mton."
Wulfgr maðelode      (þt ws Wendla led,
ws his md-sefa      manegum gecðed,
350
wg and ws-dm):      "ic þs wine Deniga,
"fren Scildinga      frinan wille,
"bega bryttan,      sw þu bna eart,
"þeden mrne      ymb þnne sð ;
"and þe þ andsware      dre gecðan,
355
"þe me se gda      gifan þenceð."
Hwearf þ hrdlce,      þr Hrðgr st,
eald and unhr      mid his eorla gedriht;
eode ellen-rf,      þt he for eaxlum gestd
Deniga fren,      cðe he duguðe þew.
360
Wulfgr maðelode      t his wine-drihtne:
"Her syndon geferede      feorran cumene
"ofer geofenes begang      Geta lede:
"þone yldestan      oret-mecgas
"Bewulf nemnað.      Hy bnan synt,
365
"þt hie, þeden mn,      wið þe mton
"wordum wrixlan;      n þu him wearne geteh,
"þnra gegn-cwida      gldnian, Hrðgr!
"Hy on wg-geatwum      wyrðe þinceað
"eorla gehtlan;      hru se aldor deh,
370
"se þm heaðo-rincum      hider wsade."

VII. HROTHGAR'S WELCOME.

Hrðgr maðelode,      helm Scyldinga:
"Ic hine cðe      cniht-wesende.
"Ws his eald-fder      Ecgþe hten,
"þm t hm forgeaf      Hrðel Geta
375
"ngan dhtor;      is his eafora nu
"heard her cumen,      shte holdne wine.
"þonne sgdon þt      s-lðende,
"þ þe gif-sceattas      Geta fyredon
"þyder t þance,      þt he þrittiges
380
"manna mgen-crft      on his mund-grpe
"heaðo-rf hbbe.      Hine hlig god
"for r-stafum      us onsende,
"t West-Denum,      þs ic wn hbbe,
"wið Grendles gryre:      ic þm gdan sceal
385
"for his md-þrce      mdmas bedan.
"Be þu on feste,      ht hig in gn,
"sen sibbe-gedriht      samod tgdere;
"gesaga him ec wordum,      þt hie sint wil-cuman
"Deniga ledum."      Þ wið duru healle
390
Wulfgr eode,      word inne bed:
"Ew ht secgan      sige-drihten mn,
"aldor Est-Dena,      þt he ewer ðelu can
"and ge him syndon      ofer s-wylmas,
"heard-hicgende,      hider wil-cuman.
395
"Nu ge mton gangan      in ewrum guð-geatawum,
"under here-grman,      Hrðgr gesen;
"ltað hilde-bord      her onbidian,
"wudu wl-sceaftas,      worda geþinges."
rs þ se rca,      ymb hine rinc manig,
400
þryðlc þegna hep;      sume þr bidon,
heaðo-ref heldon,      sw him se hearda bebed.
Snyredon tsomne,      þ secg wsode
under Heorotes hrf;      hyge-rf eode,
heard under helme,      þt he on heoðe gestd.
405
Bewulf maðelode      (on him byrne scn,
searo-net sewed      smiðes or-þancum):
"Wes þu Hrðgr hl!      ic eom Higelces
"mg and mago-þegn;      hbbe ic mrða fela
"ongunnen on geogoðe.      Me wearð Grendles þing
410
"on mnre ðel-tyrf      undyrne cð:
"secgað s-lðend,      þt þes sele stande,
"reced slesta,      rinca gehwylcum
"del and unnyt,      siððan fen-leht
"under heofenes hdor      beholen weorðeð.
415
"Þ me þt gelrdon      lede mne,
"þ slestan,      snotere ceorlas,
"þeden Hrðgr,      þt ic þe shte;
"forþan hie mgenes crft      mnne cðon:
"selfe oferswon,      þ ic of searwum cwom,
420
"fh from fendum,      þr ic ffe geband,
"ðde eotena cyn,      and on ðum slg
"niceras nihtes,      nearo-þearfe dreh,
"wrc Wedera nð      (wen hsodon)
"forgrand gramum;      and nu wið Grendel sceal,
425
"wið þam aglcan,      na gehegan
"þing wið þyrse.      Ic þe nu þ,
"brego Beorht-Dena,      biddan wille,
"eodor Scyldinga,      nre bne;
"þt þu me ne forwyrne,      wgendra hle,
430
"fre-wine folca,      nu ic þus feorran com,
"þt ic mte na      and mnra eorla gedryht,
"þes hearda hep,      Heorot flsian.
"Hbbe ic ec gehsod,      þt se glca
"for his won-hdum      wpna ne rceð;
435
"ic þt þonne forhicge,      sw me Higelc se,
"mn mon-drihten,      mdes blðe,
"þt ic sweord bere      oððe sdne scyld
"geolo-rand t gðe;      ac ic mid grpe sceal
"fn wið fende      and ymb feorh sacan,
440
"lð wið lðum;      þr gelfan sceal
"dryhtnes dme      se þe hine deð nimeð.
"Wn' ic þt he wille,      gif he wealdan mt,
"in þm gð-sele      Getena lede
"etan unforhte,      sw he oft dyde
445
"mgen Hrðmanna.      N þu mnne þearft
"hafalan hdan,      ac he me habban wile
"drere fhne,      gif mec deð nimeð;
"byreð bldig wl,      byrgean þenceð,
"eteð n-genga      unmurnlce,
450
"mearcað mr-hopu:      n þu ymb mnes ne þearft
"lces feorme      leng sorgian.
"Onsend Higelce,      gif mec hild nime,
"beadu-scrda betst,      þt mne brest wereð,
"hrgla slest;      þt is Hrðlan lf,
455
"Wlandes geweorc.      Gð Wyrd sw hi scel!"

VIII. HROTHGAR TELLS OF GRENDEL.

Hrðgr maðelode,      helm Scyldinga:
"for were-fyhtum þu,      wine mn Bewulf,
"and for r-stafum      sic shtest.
"Geslh þin fder      fhðe mste,
460
"wearð he Heaðolfe      t hand-bonan
"mid Wilfingum;      þ hine Wedera cyn
"for here-brgan      habban ne mihte.
"Þanon he geshte      Sð-Dena folc
"ofer ða gewealc,      r-Scyldinga;
465
"þ ic furðum weld      folce Deninga,
"and on geogoðe held      gimme-rce
"hord-burh hleða:      þ ws Heregr ded,
"mn yldra mg      unlifigende,
"bearn Healfdenes.      Se ws betera þonne ic!
470
"Siððan þ fhðe      fe þingode;
"sende ic Wylfingum      ofer wteres hrycg
"ealde mdmas:      he me ðas swr.
"Sorh is me t secganne      on sefan mnum
"gumena ngum,      hwt me Grendel hafað
475
"hnðo on Heorote      mid his hete-þancum,
"fr-nða gefremed.      Is mn flet-werod,
"wg-hep gewanod;      hie Wyrd forswep
"on Grendles gryre.      God eðe mg
"þone dol-scaðan      dda getwfan!
480
"Ful oft gebetedon      bere druncne
"ofer ealo-wge      oret-mecgas,
"þt hie in ber-sele      bdan woldon
"Grendles gðe      mid gryrum ecga.
"Þonne ws þes medo-heal      on morgen-td,
485
"driht-sele drer-fh,      þonne dg lixte,
"eal benc-þelu      blde bestmed,
"heall heoru-drere:      hte ic holdra þ ls,
"derre duguðe,      þe þ deð fornam.
"Site nu t symle      and onsl meoto,
490
"sige-hrð secgum,      sw þn sefa hwette!"
Þ ws Get-mcgum      geador tsomne
on ber-sele      benc germed;
þr swð-ferhðe      sittan eodon
þryðum dealle.      Þegn nytte beheld,
495
se þe on handa br      hroden ealo-wge,
scencte scr wered.      Scp hwlum sang
hdor on Heorote;      þr ws hleða drem,
duguð unlytel      Dena and Wedera.

IX. HUNFERTH OBJECTS TO BEWULF.

nferð maðelode,      Ecglfes bearn,
500
þe t ftum st      fren Scyldinga;
onband beadu-rne      (ws him Bewulfes sð,
mdges mere-faran,      micel f-þunca,
forþon þe he ne ðe,      þt nig ðer man
fre mrða þon m      middan-geardes
505
gehdde under heofenum      þonne he sylfa):
"Eart þu se Bewulf,      se þe wið Brecan wunne,
"on sdne s      ymb sund flite,
"þr git for wlence      wada cunnedon
"and for dol-gilpe      on dep wter
510
"aldrum nðdon?      Ne inc nig mon,
"ne lef ne lð,      belen mihte
"sorh-fullne sð;      þ git on sund ren,
"þr git egor-strem      earmum þehton,
"mton mere-strta,      mundum brugdon,
515
"glidon ofer gr-secg;      geofon ðum wel,
"wintres wylme.      Git on wteres ht
"seofon niht swuncon;      he þe t sunde oferflt,
"hfde mre mgen.      Þ hine on morgen-td
"on Heaðo-rmas      holm up tbr,
520
"þonon he geshte      swsne ðel
"lef his ledum      lond Brondinga,
"freoðo-burh fgere,      þr he folc hte,
"burg and begas.      Bet eal wið þe
"sunu Benstnes      sðe gelste.
525
"Þonne wne ic t þe      wyrsan geþinges,
"þeh þu heaðo-rsa      gehwr dohte,
"grimre gðe,      gif þu Grendles dearst
"niht-longne fyrst      nen bdan!"
Bewulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþewes:
530
"Hwt þu worn fela,      wine mn nferð,
"bere druncen      ymb Brecan sprce,
"sgdest from his sðe!      Sð ic talige,
"þt ic mere-strengo      mran hte,
"earfeðo on ðum,      þonne nig ðer man.
535
"Wit þt gecwdon      cniht-wesende
"and gebetedon      (wron begen þ git
"on geogoð-feore)      þt wit on gr-secg t
"aldrum nðdon;      and þt gefndon sw.
"Hfdon swurd nacod,      þ wit on sund ren,
540
"heard on handa,      wit unc wið hron-fixas
"werian þhton.      N he wiht fram me
"fld-ðum feor      fletan meahte,
"hraðor on holme,      n ic fram him wolde.
"Þ wit tsomne      on s wron
545
"ff nihta fyrst,      ð þt unc fld tdrf,
"wado weallende,      wedera cealdost,
"npende niht      and norðan wind
"heaðo-grim andhwearf;      hre wron ða,
"Ws mere-fixa      md onhrred:
550
"þr me wið lðum      lc-syrce mn,
"heard hond-locen,      helpe gefremede;
"beado-hrgl broden      on brestum lg,
"golde gegyrwed.      Me t grunde teh
"fh fend-scaða,      fste hfde
555
"grim on grpe:      hwðre me gyfeðe wearð,
"þt ic aglcan      orde gerhte,
"hilde-bille;      heaðo-rs fornam
"mihtig mere-der      þurh mne hand.

X. BEWULF'S CONTEST WITH BRECA.—THE FEAST.

"Sw mec gelme      lð-getenan
560
"þretedon þearle.      Ic him þnode
"deran sweorde,      sw hit gedfe ws;
"ns hie þre fylle      gefen hfdon,
"mn-forddlan,      þt hie me þgon,
"symbel ymb-ston      s-grunde neh,
565
"ac on mergenne      mcum wunde
"be ð-lfe      uppe lgon,
"sweordum swefede,      þt syððan n
"ymb brontne ford      brim-lðende
"lde ne letton.      Leht estan com,
570
"beorht becen godes;      brimu swaðredon,
"þt ic s-nssas      gesen mihte,
"windige weallas.      Wyrd oft nereð
"unfgne eorl,      ðonne his ellen deh!
"Hwðere me geslde,      þt ic mid sweorde ofslh
575
"niceras nigene.      N ic on niht gefrgn
"under heofones hwealf      heardran feohtan,
"ne on g-stremum      earmran mannan;
"hwðere ic fra feng      feore gedgde,
"siðes wrig.      Þ mec s ðbr,
580
"fld fter faroðe,      on Finna land,
"wadu weallendu.      N ic wiht fram þe
"swylcra searo-nða      secgan hrde,
"billa brgan:      Breca nfre git
"t heaðo-lce,      ne gehwðer incer
585
"sw derlce      dd gefremede
"fgum sweordum      . . . . . . .
". . . . . . .      n ic þs gylpe;
"þeh þu þnum brðrum      t banan wurde,
"hefod-mgum;      þs þu in helle scealt
590
"werhðo dregan,      þeh þn wit duge,
"Secge ic þe t sðe,      sunu Ecglfes,
"þt nfre Grendel sw fela      gryra gefremede,
"atol glca      ealdre þnum,
"hnðo on Heorote,      gif þn hige wre,
595
"sefa sw searo-grim,      sw þu self talast.
"Ac he hafað onfunden,      þt he þ fhðe ne þearf,
"atole ecg-þrce      ewer lede
"swðe onsittan,      Sige-Scyldinga;
"nymeð nd-bde,      nnegum rað
600
"lede Deniga,      ac he on lust wgeð,
"swefeð ond sendeð,      secce ne wneð
"t Gr-Denum.      Ac him Geta sceal
"eafoð and ellen      ungera nu
"gðe gebedan.      Gð eft se þe mt
605
"t medo mdig,      siððan morgen-leht
"ofer ylda bearn      ðres dgores,
"sunne swegl-wered      sðan scneð!"
Þ ws on slum      sinces brytta
gamol-feax and gð-rf,      gece gelfde
610
brego Beorht-Dena;      gehrde on Bewulfe
folces hyrde      fst-rdne geþht.
Þr ws hleða hleahtor;      hlyn swynsode,
word wron wynsume.      Eode Wealhþew forð,
cwn Hrðgres,      cynna gemyndig,
615
grtte gold-hroden      guman on healle,
and þ frelc wf      ful gesealde
rest Est-Dena      ðel-wearde,
bd hine blðne      t þre ber-þege,
ledum lefne;      he on lust geþeah
620
symbel and sele-ful,      sige-rf kyning.
Ymb-eode þ      ides Helminga
duguðe and geogoðe      dl ghwylcne;
sinc-fato sealde,      ð þt sl lamp,
þt hi Bewulfe,      beg-hroden cwn,
625
mde geþungen,      medo-ful tbr;
grtte Geta led,      gode þancode
ws-fst wordum,      þs þe hire se willa gelamp,
þt he on nigne      eorl gelfde
fyrena frfre.      He þt ful geþeah,
630
wl-rew wga      t Wealhþen,
and þ gyddode      gðe gefsed,
Bewulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþewes:
"Ic þt hogode,      þ ic on holm gesth,
"s-bt gest      mid mnra secga gedriht,
635
"þt ic nunga      ewra leda
"willan geworhte,      oððe on wl crunge,
"fend-grpum fst.      Ic gefremman sceal
"eorlc ellen,      oððe ende-dg
"on þisse meodu-healle      mnne gebdan."
640
Þam wfe þ word      wel lcodon,
gilp-cwide Getes;      eode gold-hroden
frelcu folc-cwn      t hire fren sittan.
Þ ws eft sw r      inne on healle
þryð-word sprecen,      þed on slum,
645
sige-folca swg,      ð þt semninga
sunu Healfdenes      scean wolde
fen-rste;      wiste t þm ahlcan
t þm heh-sele      hilde geþinged,
siððan hie sunnan leht      gesen ne meahton,
650
oððe npende      niht ofer ealle,
scadu-helma gesceapu      scrðan cwman,
wan under wolcnum.      Werod eall rs.
Grtte þ giddum      guma ðerne,
Hrðgr Bewulf,      and him hl bed,
655
wn-rnes geweald      and þt word cwð:
"Nfre ic negum men      r lfde,
"siððan ic hond and rond      hebban mihte,
"þryð-rn Dena      bton þe nu þ.
"Hafa nu and geheald      hsa slest;
660
"gemyne mrðo,      mgen-ellen cð,
"waca wið wrðum!      Ne bið þe wilna gd,
"gif þu þt ellen-weorc      aldre gedgest."

XI. THE WATCH FOR GRENDEL.

Þ him Hrðgr gewt      mid his hleða gedryht,
eodur Scyldinga      t of healle;
665
wolde wg-fruma      Wealhþe scan,
cwn t gebeddan      Hfde kyninga wuldor
Grendle t-genes,      sw guman gefrungon,
sele-weard seted,      sundor-nytte beheld
ymb aldor Dena,      eoton weard bed;
670
hru Geta led      georne trwode
mdgan mgnes,      metodes hyldo.
Þ he him of dyde      sern-byrnan,
helm of hafelan,      sealde his hyrsted sweord,
rena cyst      ombiht-þegne,
675
and gehealdan ht      hilde-geatwe.
Gesprc þ se gda      gylp-worda sum
Bewulf Geta,      r he on bed stige:
"N ic me an here-wsmum      hngran talige
"gð-geweorca,      þonne Grendel hine;
680
"forþan ic hine sweorde      swebban nelle,
"aldre benetan,      þeh ic eal mge.
"Nt he þra gda,      þt he me on-gen sle,
"rand gehewe,      þeh þe he rf se
"nð-geweorca;      ac wit on niht sculon
685
"secge ofersittan,      gif he gescean dear
"wg ofer wpen,      and siððan witig god
"on sw hwðere hond      hlig dryhten
"mrðo dme,      sw him gemet þince."
Hylde hine þ heaðo-der,      hler-bolster onfng
690
eorles andwlitan;      and hine ymb monig
snellc s-rinc      sele-reste gebeh.
Nnig heora þhte      þt he þanon scolde
eft eard-lufan      fre gescean,
folc oððe fre-burh,      þr he fded ws,
695
ac hie hfdon gefrunen,      þt hie r t fela micles
in þm wn-sele      wl-deð fornam,
Denigea lede.      Ac him dryhten forgeaf
wg-spda gewiofu,      Wedera ledum
frfor and fultum,      þt hie fend heora
700
þurh nes crft      ealle ofercmon,
selfes mihtum:      sð is gecðed,
þt mihtig god      manna cynnes
weld wde-ferhð.      Com on wanre niht
scrðan sceadu-genga.      Scetend swfon,
705
þ þt horn-reced      healdan scoldon,
ealle bton num.      Þt ws yldum cð,
þt hie ne mste,      þ metod nolde,
se syn-scaða      under sceadu bregdan;
ac he wccende      wrðum on andan
710
bd bolgen-md      beadwa geþinges.

XII. GRENDEL'S RAID.

Þ com of mre      under mist-hleoðum
Grendel gongan,      godes yrre br.
Mynte se mn-scaða      manna cynnes
sumne besyrwan      in sele þam hen;
715
wd under wolcnum,      t þs þe he wn-reced,
gold-sele gumena,      gearwost wisse
fttum fhne.      Ne ws þt forma sð,
þt he Hrðgres      hm geshte:
nfre he on aldor-dagum      r ne siððan
720
heardran hle,      heal-þegnas fand!
Com þ t recede      rinc sðian
dremum bedled.      Duru sna onarn
fr-bendum fst,      syððan he hire folmum hrn;
onbrd þ bealo-hydig,      þ he bolgen ws,
725
recedes mðan.      Raðe fter þon
on fgne flr      fend treddode,
eode yrre-md;      him of egum std
lge gelcost      leht unfger.
Geseah he in recede      rinca manige,
730
swefan sibbe-gedriht      samod tgdere,
mago-rinca hep:      þ his md hlg,
mynte þt he gedlde,      r þon dg cwme,
atol aglca,      nra gehwylces
lf wið lce,      þ him lumpen ws
735
wist-fylle wn.      Ne ws þt wyrd þ gen,
þt he m mste      manna cynnes
þicgean ofer þ niht.      Þrð-swð beheld
mg Higelces,      h se mn-scaða
under fr-gripum      gefaran wolde.
740
Ne þt se aglca      yldan þhte,
ac he gefng hraðe      forman siðe
slpendne rinc,      slt unwearnum,
bt bn-locan,      bld drum dranc,
syn-sndum swealh:      sna hfde
745
unlyfigendes      eal gefeormod
ft and folma.      Forð ner tstp,
nam þ mid handa      hige-þihtigne
rinc on rste;      rhte ongen
fend mid folme,      he onfng hraðe
750
inwit-þancum      and wið earm gest.
Sna þt onfunde      fyrena hyrde,
þt he ne mtte      middan-geardes
eorðan sceta      on elran men
mund-gripe mran:      he on mde wearð
755
forht on ferhðe,      n þ r fram meahte;
hyge ws him hin-fs,      wolde on heolster flen,
scan defla gedrg:      ne ws his drohtoð þr,
swylce he on ealder-dagum      r gemtte.
Gemunde þ se gda      mg Higelces
760
fen-sprce,      up-lang std
and him fste wiðfng.      Fingras burston;
eoten ws t-weard,      eorl furður stp.
Mynte se mra,      þr he meahte sw,
wdre gewindan      and on weg þanon
765
flen on fen-hopu;      wiste his fingra geweald
on grames grpum.      Þt ws gecor sð,
þt se hearm-scaða      t Heorute teh:
dryht-sele dynede,      Denum eallum wearð,
ceaster-bendum,      cnra gehwylcum,
770
eorlum ealu-scerwen.      Yrre wron begen,
rðe rn-weardas.      Reced hlynsode;
þ ws wundor micel,      þt se wn-sele
wiðhfde heaðo-derum,      þt he on hrusan ne fel,
fger fold-bold;      ac he þs fste ws
775
innan and tan      ren-bendum
searo-þoncum besmiðod.      Þr fram sylle beg
medu-benc monig      mne gefrge,
golde geregnad,      þr þ graman wunnon;
þs ne wndon r      witan Scyldinga,
780
þt hit mid gemete      manna nig
betlc and bn-fg      tbrecan meahte,
listum tlcan,      nymðe lges fðm
swulge on swaðule.      Swg up stg
niwe geneahhe;      Norð-Denum std
785
atelc egesa      nra gehwylcum
þra þe of wealle      wp gehrdon,
gryre-leð galan      godes andsacan,
sige-lesne sang,      sr wnigean
helle hftan.      Held hine t fste
790
se þe manna ws      mgene strengest
on þm dge      þysses lfes.

XIII. BEWULF TEARS OFF GRENDEL'S ARM.

Nolde eorla hle      nige þinga
þone cwealm-cuman      cwicne forltan,
ne his lf-dagas      leda nigum
795
nytte tealde.      Þr genehost brgd
eorl Bewulfes      ealde lfe,
wolde fre-drihtnes      feorh ealgian
mres þednes,      þr hie meahton sw;
hie þt ne wiston,      þ hie gewin drugon,
800
heard-hicgende      hilde-mecgas,
and on healfa gehwone      hewan þhton,
swle scan,      þt þone syn-scaðan
nig ofer eorðan      renna cyst,
gð-billa nn      grtan nolde;
805
ac he sige-wpnum      forsworen hfde,
ecga gehwylcre.      Scolde his aldor-gedl
on þm dge      þysses lfes
earmlc wurðan      and se ellor-gst
on fenda geweald      feor sðian.
810
Þ þt onfunde      se þe fela ror
mdes myrðe      manna cynne
fyrene gefremede      (he ws fg wið god)
þt him se lc-homa      lstan nolde,
ac hine se mdega      mg Hygelces
815
hfde be honda;      ws gehwðer ðrum
lifigende lð.      Lc-sr gebd
atol glca,      him on eaxle wearð
syn-dolh sweotol,      seonowe onsprungon
burston bn-locan.      Bewulfe wearð
820
gð-hrð gyfeðe;      scolde Grendel þonan
feorh-sec flen      under fen-hleoðu,
scean wyn-les wc;      wiste þ geornor,
þt his aldres ws      ende gegongen,
dgera dg-rm.      Denum eallum wearð
825
fter þam wl-rse      willa gelumpen.
Hfde þ geflsod,      se þe r feorran com,
snotor and swð-ferhð      sele Hrðgres,
genered wið nðe.      Niht-weorce gefeh,
ellen-mrðum;      hfde Est-Denum
830
Get-mecga led      gilp gelsted,
swylce oncððe      ealle gebtte,
inwid-sorge,      þe hie r drugon
and for þre-ndum      þolian scoldon,
torn unlytel.      Þt ws tcen sweotol,
835
syððan hilde-der      hond legde,
earm and eaxle      (þr ws eal geador
Grendles grpe)      under gepne hrf.

XIV. THE JOY AT HEOROT.

Þ ws on morgen      mne gefrge
ymb þ gif-healle      gð-rinc monig:
840
frdon folc-togan      feorran and nen
geond wd-wegas      wundor scewian,
lðes lstas.      N his lf-gedl
srlc þhte      secga negum,
þra þe tr-leses      trode scewode,
845
h he wrig-md      on weg þanon,
nða ofercumen,      on nicera mere
fge and geflmed      feorh-lstas br.
Þr ws on blde      brim weallende,
atol ða geswing      eal gemenged
850
htan heolfre,      heoro-drere wel;
deð-fge deg,      siððan drema les
in fen-freoðo      feorh legde
hðene swle,      þr him hel onfng.
Þanon eft gewiton      eald-gesðas,
855
swylce geong manig      of gomen-wðe,
fram mere mdge,      mearum rdan,
beornas on blancum.      Þr ws Bewulfes
mrðo mned;      monig oft gecwð,
þtte sð ne norð      be sm tweonum
860
ofer eormen-grund      ðer nnig
under swegles begong      slra nre
rond-hbbendra,      rces wyrðra.
Ne hie hru wine-drihten      wiht ne lgon,
gldne Hrðgr,      ac þt ws gd cyning.
865
Hwlum heaðo-rfe      hlepan lton,
on geflt faran      fealwe mearas,
þr him fold-wegas      fgere þhton,
cystum cðe;      hwlum cyninges þegn,
guma gilp-hlden      gidda gemyndig,
870
se þe eal-fela      eald-gesegena
worn gemunde,      word ðer fand
sðe gebunden:      secg eft ongan
sð Bewulfes      snyttrum styrian
and on spd wrecan      spel gerde,
875
wordum wrixlan,      wel-hwylc gecwð,
þt he fram Sigemunde      secgan hrde,
ellen-ddum,      uncðes fela,
Wlsinges gewin,      wde sðas,
þra þe gumena bearn      gearwe ne wiston,
880
fhðe and fyrene,      bton Fitela mid hine,
þonne he swylces hwt      secgan wolde
em his nefan,      sw hie wron
t nða gehwm      nd-gesteallan:
hfdon eal-fela      eotena cynnes
885
sweordum gesged.      Sigemunde gesprong
fter deð-dge      dm unltel,
syððan wges heard      wyrm cwealde,
hordes hyrde;      he under hrne stn,
ðelinges bearn,      na genðde
890
frcne dde;      ne ws him Fitela mid.
Hwðre him geslde,      þt þt swurd þurhwd
wrtlcne wyrm,      þt hit on wealle tstd,
dryhtlc ren;      draca morðre swealt.
Hfde aglca      elne gegongen,
895
þt he beh-hordes      brcan mste
selfes dme:      s-bt gehld,
br on bearm scipes      beorhte frtwa,
Wlses eafera;      wyrm ht gemealt.
Se ws wreccena      wde mrost
900
ofer wer-þede,      wgendra hle
ellen-ddum:      he þs ron þh.
Siððan Heremdes      hild sweðrode
eafoð and ellen.      He mid eotenum wearð
on fenda geweald      forð forlcen,
905
snde forsended.      Hine sorh-wylmas
lemede t lange,      he his ledum wearð,
eallum ðelingum      t aldor-ceare;
swylce oft bemearn      rran mlum
swð-ferhðes sð      snotor ceorl monig,
910
se þe him bealwa t      bte gelfde,
þt þt þednes bearn      geþen scolde,
fder-ðelum onfn,      folc gehealdan,
hord and hle-burh,      hleða rce,
ðel Scyldinga.      He þr eallum wearð,
915
mg Higelces      manna cynne,
frendum gefgra;      hine fyren onwd.
Hwlum fltende      fealwe strte
mearum mton.      Þ ws morgen-leht
scofen and scynded.      Eode scealc monig
920
swð-hicgende      t sele þam hen,
searo-wundor sen,      swylce self cyning,
of brd-bre      beh-horda weard,
tryddode tr-fst      getrume micle,
cystum gecðed,      and his cwn mid him
925
medo-stg gemt      mgða hse.

XV. HROTHGAR'S GRATULATION.

Hrðgr maðelode      (he t healle geng,
std on stapole,      geseah stepne hrf
golde fhne      and Grendles hond):
"þisse ansne      al-wealdan þanc
930
"lungre gelimpe!      Fela ic lðes gebd,
"grynna t Grendle:       mg god wyrcan
"wunder fter wundre,      wuldres hyrde!
"Þt ws ungera,      þt ic nigra me
"wena ne wnde      t wdan feore
935
"bte gebdan      þonne blde fh
"hsa slest      heoro-drerig std;
"we wd-scofen      witena gehwylcne
"þra þe ne wndon,      þt hie wde-ferhð
"leda land-geweorc      lðum beweredon
940
"scuccum and scinnum.      Nu scealc hafað
"þurh drihtnes miht      dd gefremede,
"þe we ealle      r ne meahton
"snyttrum besyrwan.      Hwt! þt secgan mg
"efne sw hwylc mgða,      sw þone magan cende
945
"fter gum-cynnum,      gyf he gyt lyfað,
"þt hyre eald-metod      ste wre
"bearn-gebyrdo.      Nu ic Bewulf
"þec, secg betsta,      me for sunu wylle
"fregan on ferhðe;      heald forð tela
950
"niwe sibbe.      Ne bið þe nnigra gd
"worolde wilna,      þe ic geweald hbbe.
"Ful-oft ic for lssan      len teohhode
"hord-weorðunge      hnhran rince,
"smran t scce.      Þu þe self hafast
955
"ddum gefremed,      þt þn dm lyfað
"w t aldre.      Alwalda þec
"gde forgylde,      sw he nu gyt dyde!"
Bewulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþewes:
"We þt ellen-weorc      stum miclum,
960
"feohtan fremedon,      frcne genðdon
"eafoð uncðes;      ðe ic swðor,
"þt þu hinc selfne      gesen mste,
"fend on frtewum      fyl-wrigne!
"Ic hine hrdlce      heardan clammum
965
"on wl-bedde      wrðan þhte,
"þt he for mund-gripe      mnum scolde
"licgean lf-bysig,      btan his lc swice;
"ic hine ne mihte,      þ metod nolde,
"ganges getwman,      n ic him þs georne tfealh,
970
"feorh-genðlan;      ws t fore-mihtig
"fend on fðe.      Hwðere he his folme forlt
"t lf-wraðe      lst weardian,
"earm and eaxle;      n þr nige sw þeh
"fe-sceaft guma      frfre gebohte:
975
"n þ leng leofað      lð-getena
"synnum geswenced,      ac hyne sr hafað
"in nd-gripe      nearwe befongen,
"balwon bendum:      þr bdan sceal
"maga mne fh      miclan dmes,
980
"h him scr metod      scrfan wille."
Þ ws swgra secg,      sunu Ecglfes,
on gylp-sprce      gð-geweorca,
siððan ðelingas      eorles crfte
ofer hehne hrf      hand scewedon,
985
fendes fingras,      foran ghwylc;
ws stde ngla gehwylc,      stle gelcost,
hðenes hand-sporu      hilde-rinces
egle unheru;      g-hwylc gecwð,
þt him heardra nn      hrnan wolde
990
ren r-gd,      þt þs ahlcan
bldge beadu-folme      onberan wolde.

XVI. THE BANQUET AND THE GIFTS.

Þ ws hten hreðe      Heort innan-weard
folmum gefrtwod:      fela þra ws
wera and wfa,      þe þt wn-reced,
995
gest-sele gyredon.      Gold-fg scinon
web fter wagum,      wundor-sina fela
secga gehwylcum      þra þe on swylc starað
Ws þt beorhte bold      tbrocen swðe
eal inne-weard      ren-bendum fst,
1000
heorras thlidene;      hrf na gens
ealles ansund,      þ se aglca
fyren-ddum fg      on flem gewand,
aldres or-wna.      N þt ðe byð
t beflenne      (fremme se þe wille!)
1005
ac gesacan sceal      swl-berendra
nde gendde      niðða bearna
grund-bendra      gearwe stwe,
þr his lc-homa      leger-bedde fst
swefeð fter symle.      Þ ws sl and ml,
1010
þt t healle gang      Healfdenes sunu;
wolde self cyning      symbel þicgan.
Ne gefrgen ic þ mgðe      mran weorode
ymb hyra sinc-gyfan      sl gebran.
Bugon þ t bence      bld-gende,
1015
fylle gefgon.      Fgere geþgon
medo-ful manig      mgas † þra
swð-hicgende      on sele þam hen,
Hrðgr and Hrðulf.      Heorot innan ws
frendum fylled;      nalles fcen-stafas
1020
Þed-Scyldingas      þenden fremedon.
Forgeaf þ Bewulfe      bearn Healfdenes
segen gyldenne      sigores t lene,
hroden hilte-cumbor,      helm and byrnan;
mre mððum-sweord      manige geswon
1025
beforan beorn beran.      Bewulf geþah
ful on flette;      n he þre feoh-gyfte
for scetendum      scamigan þorfte,
ne gefrgn ic frendlcor      fewer mdmas
golde gegyrede      gum-manna fela
1030
in ealo-bence      ðrum gesellan.
Ymb þs helmes hrf      hefod-beorge
wrum bewunden      walan tan held,
þt him fla lfe      frcne ne meahton
scr-heard sceððan,      þonne scyld-freca
1035
ongen gramum      gangan scolde.
Hht þ eorla hle      eahta mearas,
fted-hlere,      on flet ten
in under eoderas;      þra num std
sadol searwum fh      since gewurðad,
1040
þt ws hilde-setl      heh-cyninges,
þonne sweorda gelc      sunu Healfdenes
efnan wolde;      nfre on re lg
wd-cðes wg,      þonne walu fellon.
And þ Bewulfe      bega gehwðres
1045
eodor Ingwina      onweald geteh,
wicga and wpna;      ht hine wel brcan.
Sw manlce      mre þeden,
hord-weard hleða      heaðo-rsas geald
mearum and mdmum,      sw h nfre man lyhð,
1050
se þe secgan wile      sð fter rihte.

XVII. SONG OF HROTHGAR'S POET—THE LAY OF HNAEF AND HENGEST.

Þ gyt ghwylcum      eorla drihten
þra þe mid Bewulfe      brim-lde teh,
on þre medu-bence      mððum gesealde,
yrfe-lfe,      and þone nne hht
1055
golde forgyldan,      þone þe Grendel r
mne cwealde,      sw he hyra m wolde,
nefne him witig god      wyrd forstde
and þs mannes md:      metod eallum weld
gumena cynnes,      sw he nu git dð;
1060
forþan bið andgit      ghwr slest,
ferhðes fore-þanc!      fela sceal gebdan
lefes and lðes,      se þe longe her
on þyssum win-dagum      worolde brceð.
Þr ws sang and swg      samod tgdere
1065
fore Healfdenes      hilde-wsan,
gomen-wudu grted,      gid oft wrecen,
þonne heal-gamen      Hrðgres scp
fter medo-bence      mnan scolde
Finnes eaferum,      þ hie se fr begeat:
1070
"Hleð Healfdenes,      Hnf Scyldinga,
"in Fr..es wle      feallan scolde.
"Ne hru Hildeburh      hrian þorfte
"Eotena trewe:      unsynnum wearð
"beloren lefum      t þam lind-plegan
1075
"bearnum and brðrum;      hie on gebyrd hruron
"gre wunde;      þt ws gemuru ides.
"Nalles hlinga      Hces dhtor
"meotod-sceaft bemearn,      syððan morgen com,
"þ he under swegle      gesen meahte
1080
"morðor-bealo mga,      þr he r mste held
"worolde wynne:      wg ealle fornam
"Finnes þegnas,      nemne feum num,
"þt he ne mehte      on þm meðel-stede
"wg Hengeste      wiht gefeohtan,
1085
"ne þ we-lfe      wge forþringan
"þednes þegne;       ac hig him geþingo budon,
"þt hie him ðer flet      eal germdon,
"healle and heh-setl,      þt hie healfre geweald
"wið Eotena bearn      gan mston,
1090
"and t feoh-gyftum      Folcwaldan sunu
"dgra gehwylce      Dene weorðode,
"Hengestes hep      hringum wenede,
"efne sw swðe      sinc-gestrenum
"fttan goldes,      sw he Fresena cyn
1095
"on ber-sele      byldan wolde.
"Þ hie getrwedon      on tw healfa
"fste frioðu-wre;      Fin Hengeste
"elne unflitme      ðum benemde,
"þt he þ we-lfe      weotena dme
1100
"rum heolde,      þt þr nig mon
"wordum ne worcum      wre ne brce,
"ne þurh inwit-searo      fre gemnden,
"þeh hie hira beg-gyfan      banan folgedon
"þeden-lese,      þ him sw geþearfod ws:
1105
"gyf þonne Frysna hwylc      frcnan sprce
"þs morðor-hetes      myndgiend wre,
"þonne hit sweordes ecg      syððan scolde.
"ð ws gefned      and icge gold
"hfen of horde.      Here-Scyldinga
1110
"betst beado-rinca      ws on bl gearu;
"t þm de ws      ð-gesne
"swt-fh syrce,      swn eal-gylden,
"eofer ren-heard,      ðeling manig
"wundum wyrded;      sume on wle crungon.
1115
"Ht þ Hildeburh      t Hnfes de
"hire selfre sunu      sweoloðe befstan,
"bn-fatu brnan      and on bl dn.
"Earme on eaxle      ides gnornode,
"gemrode giddum;      gð-rinc sth.
1120
"Wand t wolcnum      wl-fra mst,
"hlynode for hlwe;      hafelan multon,
"ben-geato burston,      þonne bld tspranc
"lð-bite lces.      Lg ealle forswealg,
"gsta gfrost,      þra þe þr gð fornam
1125
"bega folces;      ws hira bld scacen.

XVIII. THE GLEEMAN'S TALE IS ENDED.

"Gewiton him þ wgend      wca nesian,
"frendum befeallen      Frysland gesen,
"hmas and he-burh.      Hengest þ gyt
"wl-fgne winter      wunode mid Finne
1130
"ealles unhlitme;      eard gemunde,
"þeh þe he ne meahte      on mere drfan
"hringed-stefnan;      holm storme wel,
"won wið winde;      winter ðe belec
"s-gebinde      ð þt ðer com
1135
"ger in geardas,      sw nu gyt dð,
"þ þe syngales      sle bewitiað,
"wuldor-torhtan weder.      Þ ws winter scacen,
"fger foldan bearm;      fundode wrecca,
"gist of geardum;      he t gyrn-wrce
1140
"swðor þhte,      þonne t s-lde,
"gif he torn-gemt      þurhten mihte,
"þt he Eotena bearn      inne gemunde.
"Sw he ne forwyrnde      worold-rdenne,
"þonne him Hnlfing      hilde-leman,
1145
"billa slest,      on bearm dyde:
"þs wron mid Eotenum      ecge cðe.
"Swylce ferhð-frecan      Fin eft begeat
"sweord-bealo slðen      t his selfes hm,
"siððan grimne gripe      Gðlaf ond slf
1150
"fter s-siðe      sorge mndon,
"twiton wena dl;      ne meahte wfre md
"forhabban in hreðre.      Þ ws heal hroden
"fenda feorum,      swilce Fin slgen,
"cyning on corðre,      and se cwn numen.
1155
"Scetend Scyldinga      t scypum feredon
"eal in-gesteald      eorð-cyninges,
"swylce hie t Finnes hm      findan meahton
"sigla searo-gimma.      Hie on s-lde
"drihtlce wf      t Denum feredon,
1160
"lddon t ledum."      Leð ws sungen,
gle-mannes gyd.      Gamen eft sth,
beorhtode benc-swg,      byrelas sealdon
wn of wunder-fatum.      Þ cwom Wealhþe forð
gn under gyldnum bege,      þr þ gdan twegen
1165
ston suhter-gefderan;      þ gyt ws hiera sib tgdere
ghwylc ðrum trwe.      Swylce þr nferð þyle
t ftum st fren Scyldinga:      gehwylc hiora his ferhðe trewde,
þt he hfde md micel,      þeh þe he his mgum nre
rfst t ecga gelcum.      Sprc þ ides Scyldinga:
1170
"Onfh þissum fulle,      fre-drihten mn,
"sinces brytta;      þu on slum wes,
"gold-wine gumena,      and t Getum sprec
"mildum wordum!      Sw sceal man dn.
"Be wið Getas gld,      geofena gemyndig;
1175
"nen and feorran      þu nu friðu hafast.
"Me man sgde,      þt þu þe for sunu wolde
"here-rinc habban.      Heorot is geflsod,
"beh-sele beorhta;      brc þenden þu mte
"manigra mda      and þnum mgum lf
1180
"folc and rce,      þonne þu forð scyle
"metod-sceaft sen.      Ic mnne can
"gldne Hrðulf,      þt he þ geogoðe wile
"rum healdan,      gyf þu r þonne he,
"wine Scildinga,      worold ofltest;
1185
"wne ic, þt he mid gde      gyldan wille
"uncran eaferan,      gif he þt eal gemon,
"hwt wit t willan      and t worð-myndum
"umbor wesendum r      rna gefremedon."
Hwearf þ b bence,      þr hyre byre wron,
1190
Hrðrc and Hrðmund,      and hleða bearn,
giogoð tgdere;      þr se gda st
Bewulf Geta      be þm gebrðrum twm.

XIX. BEWULF'S JEWELLED COLLAR. THE HEROES REST.

Him ws ful boren      and frend-laðu
wordum bewgned      and wunden gold
1195
stum geewed,      earm-hrede tw,
hrgl and hringas,      heals-bega mst
þra þe ic on foldan      gefrgen hbbe.
Nnigne ic under swegle      slran hrde
hord-mððum hleða,      syððan Hma twg
1200
t þre byrhtan byrig      Brosinga mene,
sigle and sinc-ft,      searo-nðas fealh
Eormenrces,      geces cne rd.
Þone hring hfde      Higelc Geta,
nefa Swertinges,      nhstan sðe,
1205
siððan he under segne      sinc ealgode,
wl-ref werede;      hyne Wyrd fornam,
syððan he for wlenco      wen hsode,
fhðe t Frysum;      he þ frtwe wg,
eorclan-stnas      ofer ða ful,
1210
rce þeden,      he under rande gecranc;
gehwearf þ in Francna fðm      feorh cyninges,
brest-gewdu      and se beh somod:
wyrsan wg-frecan      wl refedon
fter gð-sceare,      Geta lede
1215
hre-wc heldon.      Heal swge onfng.
Wealhþe maðelode,      he fore þm werede sprc:
"Brc þisses beges,      Bewulf, lefa
"hyse, mid hle,      and þisses hrgles net
"þed-gestrena,      and geþeh tela,
1220
"cen þec mid crfte      and þyssum cnyhtum wes
"lra lðe!      ic þe þs len geman.
"Hafast þu gefred,      þt þe feor and neh
"ealne wde-ferhð      weras ehtigað,
"efne sw sde      sw s bebgeð
1225
"windige weallas.      Wes, þenden þu lifige,
"ðeling edig!      ic þe an tela
"sinc-gestrena.      Be þu suna mnum
"ddum gedfe      drem healdende!
"Her is ghwylc eorl      ðrum getrwe,
1230
"mdes milde,      man-drihtne hold,
"þegnas syndon geþwre,      þed eal gearo:
"druncne dryht-guman,      dð sw ic bidde!"
Eode þ t setle.      Þr ws symbla cyst,
druncon wn weras:      wyrd ne cðon,
1235
ge-sceaft grimme,      sw hit gangen wearð
eorla manegum,      syððan fen cwom
and him Hrðgr gewt      t hofe snum,
rce t rste.      Reced weardode
unrm eorla,      sw hie oft r dydon:
1240
benc-þelu beredon,      hit geond-brded wearð
beddum and bolstrum.      Ber-scealca sum
fs and fge      flet-rste gebeg.
Setton him t hefdum      hilde-randas,
bord-wudu beorhtan;      þr on bence ws
1245
ofer ðelinge      ð-gesne
heaðo-stepa helm,      hringed byrne,
þrec-wudu þrymlc.      Ws þew hyra,
þt hie oft wron      an wg gearwe,
ge t hm ge on herge,      ge gehwðer þra
1250
efne swylce mla,      swylce hira man-dryhtne
þearf geslde;      ws se þed tilu.

XX. GRENDEL'S MOTHER ATTACKS THE RING-DANES.

Sigon þ t slpe.      Sum sre angeald
fen-rste,      sw him ful-oft gelamp,
siððan gold-sele      Grendel warode,
1255
unriht fnde,      ð þt ende becwom,
swylt fter synnum.      Þt gesne wearð,
wd-cð werum,      þtte wrecend þ gyt
lifde fter lðum,      lange þrage
fter gð-ceare;      Grendles mdor,
1260
ides aglc-wf      yrmðe gemunde,
se þe wter-egesan      wunian scolde,
cealde stremas,      siððan Cain wearð
t ecg-banan      ngan brðer,
fderen-mge;      he þ fg gewt,
1265
morðre gemearcod      man-drem flen,
wsten warode.      Þanon wc fela
gesceaft-gsta;      ws þra Grendel sum,
heoro-wearh hetelc,      se t Heorote fand
wccendne wer      wges bdan,
1270
þr him aglca      t-grpe wearð;
hwðre he gemunde      mgenes strenge,
gim-fste gife,      þe him god sealde,
and him t anwaldan      re gelfde,
frfre and fultum:      þ he þone fend ofercwom,
1275
gehngde helle gst:      þ he hen gewt,
dreme bedled      deð-wc sen,
man-cynnes fend.      And his mdor þ gyt
gfre and galg-md      gegn wolde
sorh-fulne sð,      suna deð wrecan.
1280
Com þ t Heorote,      þr Hring-Dene
geond þt sld swfun.      Þ þr sna wearð
ed-hwyrft eorlum,      siððan inne fealh
Grendles mdor;      ws se gryre lssa
efne sw micle,      sw bið mgða crft,
1285
wg-gryre wfes      be wpned-men,
þonne heoru bunden,      hamere geþuren,
sweord swte fh      swn ofer helme,
ecgum dyhtig      andweard scireð.
Þ ws on healle      heard-ecg togen,
1290
sweord ofer setlum,      sd-rand manig
hafen handa fst;      helm ne gemunde,
byrnan sde,      þe hine se brga angeat.
He ws on fste,      wolde t þanon
feore beorgan,      þ he onfunden ws;
1295
hraðe he ðelinga      nne hfde
fste befangen,      þ he t fenne gang;
se ws Hrðgre      hleða lefost
on gesðes hd      be sm tweonum,
rce rand-wga,      þone þe he on rste bret,
1300
bld-fstne beorn.      Ns Bewulf þr,
ac ws ðer in      r geteohhod
fter mððum-gife      mrum Gete.
Hrem wearð on Heorote.      He under heolfre genam
cðe folme;      cearu ws geniwod
1305
geworden in wcum:      ne ws þt gewrixle til,
þt hie on b healfa      bicgan scoldon
frenda feorum.      Þ ws frd cyning,
hr hilde-rinc,      on hren mde,
syððan he aldor-þegn      unlyfigendne,
1310
þone derestan      dedne wisse.
Hraðe ws t bre      Bewulf fetod,
sigor-edig secg.      Samod r-dge
eode eorla sum,      ðele cempa
self mid gesðum,      þr se snottra bd,
1315
hwðre him al-walda      fre wille
fter we-spelle      wyrpe gefremman.
Gang þ fter flre      fyrd-wyrðe man
mid his hand-scale      (heal-wudu dynede)
þt he þone wsan      wordum hngde
1320
fren Ingwina;      frgn gif him wre
fter ned-laðu      niht getse.

XXI. SORROW AT HEOROT: SCHERE'S DEATH

Hrðgr maðelode,      helm Scildinga:
"Ne frin þu fter slum!      Sorh is geniwod
"Denigea ledum.      Ded is sc-here,
1325
"Yrmenlfes      yldra brðor,
"mn rn-wita      and mn rd-bora,
"eaxl-gestealla,      þonne we on orlege
"hafelan weredon,      þonne hniton fðan,
"eoferas cnysedan;      swylc scolde eorl wesan
1330
"ðeling r-gd,      swylc sc-here ws.
"Wearð him on Heorote      t hand-banan
"wl-gst wfre;      ic ne wt hwder
"atol se wlanc      eft-sðas teh,
"fylle gefrgnod.      He þ fhðe wrc,
1335
"þe þu gystran niht      Grendel cwealdest
"þurh hstne hd      heardum clammum,
"forþan he t lange      lede mne
"wanode and wyrde.      He t wge gecrang
"ealdres scyldig,      and nu ðer cwom
1340
"mihtig mn-scaða,      wolde hyre mg wrecan,
"ge feor hafað      fhðe gestled,
"þs þe þincean mg      þegne monegum,
"se þe fter sinc-gyfan      on sefan greteð,
"hreðer-bealo hearde;      nu se hand ligeð,
1345
"se þe ew wel-hwylcra      wilna dohte.
"Ic þt lond-bend      lede mne
"sele-rdende      secgan hrde,
"þt hie geswon      swylce twegen
"micle mearc-stapan      mras healdan,
1350
"ellor-gstas:      þra ðer ws,
"þs þe hie gewislcost      gewitan meahton,
"idese onlcnes,      ðer earm-sceapen
"on weres wstmum      wrc-lstas trd,
"nfne he ws mra      þonne nig man ðer,
1355
"þone on ger-dagum      Grendel nemdon
"fold-bende:      n hie fder cunnon,
"hwðer him nig ws      r cenned
"dyrnra gsta.      Hie dgel lond
"warigeað, wulf-hleoðu,      windige nssas,
1360
"frcne fen-geld,      þr fyrgen-strem
"under nssa genipu      niðer gewteð,
"fld under foldan;      nis þt feor heonon
"ml-gemearces,      þt se mere standeð,
"ofer þm hongiað      hrmge bearwas,
1365
"wudu wyrtum fst,      wter oferhelmað.
"Þr mg nihta gehwm      nð-wundor sen,
"fr on flde;      n þs frd leofað
"gumena bearna,      þt þone grund wite;
"þeh þe hð-stapa      hundum geswenced,
1370
"heorot hornum trum      holt-wudu sce,
"feorran geflmed,      r he feorh seleð,
"aldor on fre,      r he in wille,
"hafelan hdan.      Nis þt heru stw:
"þonon ð-geblond      up stgeð
1375
"won t wolcnum,      þonne wind styreð
"lð gewidru,      ð þt lyft drysmað,
"roderas retað.      Nu is rd gelang
"eft t þe num!      Eard git ne const,
"frcne stwe,      þr þu findan miht
1380
"sinnigne secg:      sc gif þu dyrre!
"Ic þe þ fhðe      fe lenige,
"eald-gestrenum,      sw ic r dyde,
"wundnum golde,      gyf þu on weg cymest."

XXII. BEWULF SEEKS THE MONSTER IN THE HAUNTS OF THE NIXIES.

Bewulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþewes:
1385
"Ne sorga, snotor guma!      slre bið ghwm,
"þt he his frend wrece,      þonne he fela murne;
"re ghwylc sceal      ende gebdan
"worolde lfes;      wyrce se þe mte
"dmes r deðe!      þt bið driht-guman
1390
"unlifgendum      fter slest.
"rs, rces weard;      uton hraðe fran,
"Grendles mgan      gang scewigan!
"Ic hit þe gehte:      n he on helm losað,
"ne on foldan fðm,      ne on fyrgen-holt,
1395
"ne on gyfenes grund,      g þr he wille.
"Þys dgor þu      geþyld hafa
"wena gehwylces,      sw ic þe wne t!"
hlep þ se gomela,      gode þancode,
mihtigan drihtne,      þs se man gesprc.
1400
Þ ws Hrðgre      hors gebted,
wicg wunden-feax.      Wsa fengel
geatolc gengde;      gum-fða stp
lind-hbbendra.      Lstas wron
fter wald-swaðum      wde gesne,
1405
gang ofer grundas;      gegnum fr þ
ofer myrcan mr,      mago-þegna br
þone slestan      swol-lesne,
þra þe mid Hrðgre      hm eahtode.
Ofer-eode þ      ðelinga bearn
1410
step stn-hliðo,      stge nearwe,
enge n-paðas,      un-cð geld,
neowle nssas,      nicor-hsa fela;
he fera sum      beforan gengde
wsra monna,      wong scewian,
1415
ð þt he fringa      fyrgen-bemas
ofer hrne stn      hleonian funde,
wyn-lesne wudu;      wter under std
drerig and gedrfed.      Denum eallum ws,
winum Scyldinga,      weorce on mde,
1420
t geþolianne      þegne monegum,
oncð eorla gehwm,      syððan sc-heres
on þam holm-clife      hafelan mtton.
Fld blde wel      (folc t sgon)
htan heolfre.      Horn stundum song
1425
fslc fyrd-leð.      Fða eal gest;
geswon þ fter wtere      wyrm-cynnes fela,
sellce s-dracan      sund cunnian,
swylce on ns-hleoðum      nicras licgean,
þ on undern-ml      oft bewitigað
1430
sorh-fulne sð      on segl-rde,
wyrmas and wil-der;      hie on weg hruron
bitere and gebolgne,      bearhtm ongeton,
gð-horn galan.      Sumne Geta led
of fln-bogan      feores getwfde,
1435
ð-gewinnes,      þt him on aldre std
here-strl hearda;      he on holme ws
sundes þe snra,      þe hyne swylt fornam.
Hrðe wearð on ðum      mid eofer-spretum
heoro-hcyhtum      hearde genearwod,
1440
nða genged      and on ns togen
wundorlc wg-bora;      weras scewedon
gryrelcne gist.      Gyrede hine Bewulf
eorl-gewdum,      nalles for ealdre mearn:
scolde here-byrne      hondum gebroden,
1445
sd and searo-fh,      sund cunnian,
se þe bn-cfan      beorgan cðe,
þt him hilde-grp      hreðre ne mihte,
eorres inwit-feng,      aldre gesceððan;
ac se hwta helm      hafelan werede,
1450
se þe mere-grundas      mengan scolde,
scan sund-gebland      since geweorðad,
befongen fre-wrsnum,      sw hine fyrn-dagum
worhte wpna smið,      wundrum tede,
besette swn-lcum,      þt hine syððan n
1455
brond ne beado-mcas      btan ne meahton.
Ns þt þonne mtost      mgen-fultuma,
þt him on þearfe lh      þyle Hrðgres;
ws þm hft-mce      Hrunting nama,
þt ws n foran      eald-gestrena;
1460
ecg ws ren      ter-terum fh,
hyrded heaðo-swte;      nfre hit t hilde ne swc
manna ngum      þra þe hit mid mundum bewand,
se þe gryre-sðas      gegn dorste,
folc-stede fra;      ns þt forma sð,
1465
þt hit ellen-weorc      fnan scolde.
Hru ne gemunde      mago Ecglfes
eafoðes crftig,      þt he r gesprc
wne druncen,      þ he þs wpnes onlh
slran sweord-frecan:      selfa ne dorste
1470
under ða gewin      aldre genðan,
driht-scype dregan;      þr he dme forles,
ellen-mrðum.      Ne ws þm ðrum sw,
syððan he hine t gðe      gegyred hfde.

XXIII. THE BATTLE WITH THE WATER-DRAKE.

Bewulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþewes:
1475
"geþenc nu, se mra      maga Healfdenes,
"snottra fengel,      nu ic eom sðes fs,
"gold-wine gumena,      hwt wit ge sprcon,
"gif ic t þearfe      þnre scolde
"aldre linnan,      þt þu me wre
1480
"forð-gewitenum      on fder stle;
"wes þu mund-bora mnum      mago-þegnum,
"hond-gesellum,      gif mec hild nime:
"swylce þu þ mdmas,      þe þu me sealdest,
"Hrðgr lefa,      Higelce onsend.
1485
"Mg þonne on þm golde ongitan      Geta dryhten,
"gesen sunu Hrðles,      þonne he on þt sinc starað,
"þt ic gum-cystum      gdne funde
"bega bryttan,      brec þonne mste.
"And þu nferð lt      ealde lfe,
1490
"wrtlc wg-sweord      wd-cðne man
"heard-ecg habban;      ic me mid Hruntinge
"dm gewyrce,      oððe mec deð nimeð."
fter þm wordum      Weder-Geta led
fste mid elne,      nalas andsware
1495
bdan wolde;      brim-wylm onfng
hilde-rince.      Þ ws hwl dges,
r he þone grund-wong      ongytan mehte.
Sna þt onfunde,      se þe flda begong
heoro-gfre beheld      hund missera,
1500
grim and grdig,      þt þr gumena sum
l-wihta eard      ufan cunnode.
Grp þ tgenes,      gð-rinc gefng
atolan clommum;      n þ r in gescd
hlan lce:      hring tan ymb-bearh,
1505
þt he þone fyrd-hom      þurh-fn ne mihte,
locene leoðo-syrcan      lðan fingrum.
Br þ se brim-wylf,      þ he t botme com,
hringa þengel      t hofe snum,
sw he ne mihte n      (he þs mdig ws)
1510
wpna gewealdan,      ac hine wundra þs fela
swencte on sunde,      s-der monig
hilde-tuxum      here-syrcan brc,
hton aglcan.      Þ se eorl ongeat,
þt he in nið-sele      nt-hwylcum ws,
1515
þr him nnig wter      wihte ne sceðede,
ne him for hrf-sele      hrnan ne mehte
fr-gripe fldes:      fr-leht geseah,
blcne leman      beorhte scnan.
Ongeat þ se gda      grund-wyrgenne,
1520
mere-wf mihtig;      mgen-rs forgeaf
hilde-bille,      hond swenge ne ofteh,
þt hire on hafelan      hring-ml gl
grdig gð-leð.      Þ se gist onfand,
þt se beado-lema      btan nolde,
1525
aldre sceððan,      ac se ecg geswc
þedne t þearfe:      þolode r fela
hond-gemta,      helm oft gescr,
fges fyrd-hrgl:      þt ws forma sð
derum mðme,      þt his dm lg.
1530
Eft ws n-rd,      nalas elnes lt,
mrða gemyndig      mg Hygelces;
wearp þ wunden-ml      wrttum gebunden
yrre oretta,      þt hit on eorðan lg,
stð and stl-ecg;      strenge getrwode,
1535
mund-gripe mgenes.      Sw sceal man dn,
þonne he t gðe      gegn þenceð
longsumne lof,      n ymb his lf cearað.
Gefng þ be eaxle      (nalas for fhðe mearn)
Gð-Geta led      Grendles mdor;
1540
brgd þ beadwe heard,      þ he gebolgen ws,
feorh-genðlan,      þt he on flet gebeh.
He him eft hraðe      and-len forgeald
grimman grpum      and him tgenes fng;
oferwearp þ wrig-md      wgena strengest,
1545
fðe-cempa,      þt he on fylle wearð.
Ofst þ þone sele-gyst      and hyre seaxe geteh,
brd and brn-ecg      wolde hire bearn wrecan,
ngan eaferan.      Him on eaxle lg
brest-net broden;      þt gebearh feore,
1550
wið ord and wið ecge      ingang forstd.
Hfde þ forsðod      sunu Ecgþewes
under gynne grund,      Geta cempa,
nemne him heaðo-byrne      helpe gefremede,
here-net hearde,      and hlig god
1555
geweld wg-sigor,      witig drihten;
rodera rdend      hit on ryht gescd,
ðelce      syððan he eft std.

XXIV. BEWULF SLAYS THE SPRITE.

Geseah þ on searwum      sige-edig bil,
eald sweord eotenisc      ecgum þyhtig,
1560
wgena weorð-mynd:      þt ws wpna cyst,
bton hit ws mre      þonne nig mon ðer
t beadu-lce      tberan meahte
gd and geatolc      giganta geweorc.
He gefng þ fetel-hilt,      freca Scildinga,
1565
hreh and heoro-grim      hring-ml gebrgd,
aldres orwna,      yrringa slh,
þt hire wið halse      heard grpode,
bn-hringas brc,      bil eal þurh-wd
fgne flsc-homan,      he on flet gecrong;
1570
sweord ws swtig,      secg weorce gefeh.
Lixte se lema,      leht inne std,
efne sw of hefene      hdre scneð
rodores candel.      He fter recede wlt,
hwearf þ be wealle,      wpen hafenade
1575
heard be hiltum      Higelces þegn,
yrre and n-rd.      Ns se ecg fracod
hilde-rince,      ac he hraðe wolde
Grendle forgyldan      gð-rsa fela
þra þe he geworhte      t West-Denum
1580
oftor micle      þonne on nne sð,
þonne he Hrðgres      heorð-genetas
slh on sweofote,      slpende frt
folces Denigea      ff-tyne men
and ðer swylc      t of-ferede,
1585
lðlcu lc.      He him þs len forgeald,
rðe cempa,      t þs þe he on rste geseah
gð-wrigne      Grendel licgan,
aldor-lesne,      sw him r gescd
hild t Heorote;      hr wde sprong,
1590
syððan he fter deðe      drepe þrowade,
heoro-sweng heardne,      and hine þ hefde becearf,
Sna þt geswon      snottre ceorlas,
þ þe mid Hrðgre      on holm wliton,
þt ws ð-geblond      eal gemenged,
1595
brim blde fh:      blonden-feaxe
gomele ymb gdne      ongeador sprcon,
þt hig þs ðelinges      eft ne wndon,
þt he sige-hrðig      scean cme
mrne þeden;      þ þs monige gewearð,
1600
þt hine se brim-wylf      broten hfde.
Þ com nn dges.      Ns ofgefon
hwate Scyldingas; gewt him hm þonon
gold-wine gumena.      Gistas stan,
mdes sece,      and on mere staredon,
1605
wiston and ne wndon,      þt hie heora wine-drihten
selfne geswon.      Þ þt sweord ongan
fter heaðo-swte      hilde-gicelum
wg-bil wanian;      þt ws wundra sum,
þt hit eal gemealt      se gelcost,
1610
þonne forstes bend      fder onlteð,
onwindeð wl-rpas,      se þe geweald hafað
sla and mla;      þt is sð metod.
Ne nom he in þm wcum,      Weder-Geta led,
mðm-hta m,      þh he þr monige geseah,
1615
bton þone hafelan      and þ hilt somod,
since fge;      sweord r gemealt,
forbarn broden ml:      ws þt bld t þs ht,
ttren ellor-gst,      se þr inne swealt.
Sna ws on sunde,      se þe r t scce gebd
1620
wg-hryre wrðra,      wter up þurh-def;
wron ð-gebland      eal geflsod,
ecne eardas,      þ se ellor-gst
oflt lf-dagas      and þs lnan gesceaft.
Com þ t lande      lid-manna helm
1625
swð-md swymman,      s-lce gefeah,
mgen-byrðenne      þra þe he him mid hfde.
Eodon him þ tgenes,      gode þancodon,
þryðlc þegna hep,      þednes gefgon,
þs þe hi hyne gesundne      gesen mston.
1630
Þ ws of þm hrran      helm and byrne
lungre lsed:      lagu drusade,
wter under wolcnum,      wl-drere fg.
Frdon forð þonon      fðe-lstum
ferhðum fgne,      fold-weg mton,
1635
cðe strte;      cyning-balde men
from þm holm-clife      hafelan bron
earfoðlce      heora ghwðrum
fela-mdigra:      fewer scoldon
on ðm wl-stenge      weorcum geferian
1640
t þm gold-sele      Grendles hefod,
ð þt semninga      t sele cmon
frome fyrd-hwate      fewer-tyne
Geta gongan;      gum-dryhten mid
mdig on gemonge      meodo-wongas trd.
1645
Þ com in gn      ealdor þegna,
dd-cne mon      dme gewurðad,
hle hilde-der.      Hrðgr grtan:
Þ ws be feaxe      on flet boren
Grendles hefod,      þr guman druncon,
1650
egeslc for eorlum      and þre idese mid:
wlite-sen wrtlc      weras onswon.

XXV. HROTHGAR'S GRATITUDE: HE DISCOURSES.

Bewulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþewes:
"Hwt! we þe þs s-lc,      sunu Healfdenes,
"led Scyldinga,      lustum brhton,
1655
"tres t tcne,      þe þu her t lcast.
"Ic þt unsfte      ealdre gedgde:
"wge under wtere      weorc genðde
"earfoðlce,      t-rihte ws
"gð getwfed,      nymðe mec god scylde.
1660
"Ne meahte ic t hilde      mid Hruntinge
"wiht gewyrcan,      þeh þt wpen duge,
"ac me geðe      ylda waldend,
"þt ic on wage geseah      wlitig hangian
"eald sweord ecen      (oftost wsode
1665
"winigea lesum)      þt ic þ wpne gebrd.
"Ofslh þ t þre scce      (þ me sl geald)
"hses hyrdas.      Þ þt hilde-bil
"forbarn, brogden ml,      sw þt bld gesprang,
"htost heaðo-swta:      ic þt hilt þanan
1670
"fendum tferede;      fyren-dda wrc,
"deð-cwealm Denigea,      sw hit gedfe ws.
"Ic hit þe þonne gehte,      þt þu on Heorote mst
"sorh-les swefan      mid þnra secga gedryht,
"and þegna gehwylc      þnra leda,
1675
"duguðe and iogoðe,      þt þu him ondrdan ne þearft,
"þeden Scyldinga,      on þ healfe,
"aldor-bealu eorlum,      sw þu r dydest."
Þ ws gylden hilt      gamelum rince.
hrum hild-fruman,      on hand gyfen,
1680
enta r-geweorc,      hit on ht gehwearf
fter defla hryre      Denigea fren,
wundor-smiða geweorc,      and þ þs worold ofgeaf
grom-heort guma,      godes andsaca,
morðres scyldig,      and his mdor ec;
1685
on geweald gehwearf      worold-cyninga
þm slestan      be sm twenum
þra þe on Sceden-igge      sceattas dlde.
Hrðgr maðelode,      hylt scewode,
ealde lfe,      on þm ws r writen
1690
fyrn-gewinnes:      syððan fld ofslh,
gifen getende,      giganta cyn,
frcne gefrdon:      þt ws fremde þed
cean dryhtne,      him þs ende-len
þurh wteres wylm      waldend sealde.
1695
Sw ws on þm scennum      scran goldes
þurh rn-stafas      rihte gemearcod,
geseted and gesd,      hwm þt sweord geworht,
rena cyst      rest wre,
wreoðen-hilt and wyrm-fh.      þ se wsa sprc
1700
sunu Healfdenes      (swgedon ealle):
"Þt l mg secgan,      se þe sð and riht
"fremeð on folce,      (feor eal gemon
"eald ðel-weard),      þt þes eorl wre
"geboren betera!      Bld is rred
1705
"geond wd-wegas,      wine mn Bewulf,
"þn ofer þeda gehwylce.      Eal þu hit geþyldum healdest,
"mgen mid mdes snyttrum.      Ic þe sceal mne gelstan
"frede, sw wit furðum sprcon;      þu scealt t frfre weorðan
"eal lang-twidig      ledum þnum,
1710
"hleðum t helpe.      Ne wearð Heremd sw
"eaforum Ecgwelan,      r-Scyldingum;
"ne gewex he him t willan,      ac t wl-fealle
"and t deð-cwalum      Deniga ledum;
"bret bolgen-md      bed-genetas,
1715
"eaxl-gesteallan,      ð þt he na hwearf,
"mre þeden.      mon-dremum from:
"þeh þe hine mihtig god      mgenes wynnum,
"eafeðum stpte,      ofer ealle men
"forð gefremede,      hwðere him on ferhðe grew
1720
"brest-hord bld-rew:      nallas begas geaf
"Denum fter dme;      drem-les gebd,
"þt he þs gewinnes      weorc þrowade,
"led-bealo longsum.      Þu þe lr be þon,
"gum-cyste ongit!      ic þis gid be þe
1725
"wrc wintrum frd.      Wundor is t secganne,
"h mihtig god      manna cynne
"þurh sdne sefan      snyttru bryttað,
"eard and eorl-scipe,      he h ealra geweald.
"Hwlum he on lufan      lteð hworfan
1730
"monnes md-geþonc      mran cynnes,
"seleð him on ðle      eorðan wynne,
"t healdanne      hle-burh wera,
"gedð him sw gewealdene      worolde dlas,
"sde rce,      þt he his selfa ne mg
1735
"for his un-snyttrum      ende geþencean;
"wunað he on wiste,      n hine wiht dweleð,
"dl ne yldo,      ne him inwit-sorh
"on sefan sweorceð,      ne gesacu hwr,
"ecg-hete eweð,      ac him eal worold
1740
"wendeð on willan;      he þt wyrse ne con,
"ð þt him on innan      ofer-hygda dl
"weaxeð and wridað,      þonne se weard swefeð,
"swele hyrde:      bið se slp t fst,
"bisgum gebunden,      bona swðe neh,
1745
"se þe of fln-bogan      fyrenum sceteð.

XXVI. THE DISCOURSE IS ENDED.—BEWULF PREPARES TO LEAVE.

"Þonne bið on hreðre      under helm drepen
"biteran strle:      him bebeorgan ne con
"wom wundor-bebodum      wergan gstes;
"þinceð him t lytel,      þt he t lange held,
1750
"gtsað grom-hydig,      nallas on gylp seleð
"ftte begas      and he þ forð-gesceaft
"forgyteð and forgmeð,      þs þe him r god sealde
"wuldres waldend,      weorð-mynda dl.
"Hit on ende-stf      eft gelimpeð,
1755
"þt se lc-homa      lne gedreseð,
"fge gefealleð;      fhð ðer t,
"se þe unmurnlce      mdmas dleð,
"eorles r-gestren,      egesan ne gmeð.
"Bebeorh þe þone bealo-nð,      Bewulf lefa,
1760
"secg se betsta,      and þe þt slre geces,
"ce rdas;      oferhyda ne gm,
"mre cempa!      Nu is þnes mgnes bld
"ne hwle;      eft sna bið,
"þt þec dl oððe ecg      eafoðes getwfeð,
1765
"oððe fres feng      oððe fldes wylm,
"oððe gripe mces      oððe gres fliht,
"oððe atol yldo,      oððe egena bearhtm
"forsiteð and forsworceð;      semninga bið,
"þt þec, dryht-guma,      deð oferswðeð.
1770
"Sw ic Hring-Dena      hund missera
"weld under wolcnum,      and hig wge belec
"manigum mgða      geond þysne middan-geard,
"scum and ecgum,      þt ic me nigne
"under swegles begong      gesacan ne tealde.
1775
"Hwt! me þs on ðle      edwenden cwom,
"gyrn fter gomene,      seoððan Grendel wearð,
"eald-gewinna,      in-genga mn:
"ic þre scne      singales wg
"md-ceare micle.      Þs sig metode þanc,
1780
"cean drihtne,      þs þe ic on aldre gebd,
"þt ic on þone hafelan      heoro-drerigne
"ofer eald gewin      egum starige!
"G nu t setle,      symbel-wynne dreh
"wgge weorðad:      unc sceal worn fela
1785
"mðma gemnra,      siððan morgen bið."
Get ws gld-md,      geng sna t,
setles nesan,      sw se snottra hht.
Þ ws eft sw r      ellen-rfum,
flet-sittendum      fgere gereorded
1790
niwan stefne.      Niht-helm geswearc
deorc ofer dryht-gumum.      Duguð eal rs;
wolde blonden-feax      beddes nesan,
gamela Scylding.      Get ungemetes wel,
rfne rand-wgan      restan lyste:
1795
sna him sele-þegn      sðes wrgum,
feorran-cundum      forð wsade,
se for andrysnum      ealle beweotede
þegnes þearfe,      swylce þ dgore
heðo-lðende      habban scoldon.
1800
Reste hine þ rm-heort;      reced hlifade
gep and gold-fh,      gst inne swf,
ð þt hrefn blaca      heofones wynne
blð-heort bodode.      Þ com beorht sunne
scacan ofer grundas;      scaðan onetton,
1805
wron ðelingas      eft t ledum
fse t farenne,      wolde feor þanon
cuma collen-ferhð      celes nesan.
Hht þ se hearda      Hrunting beran,
sunu Ecglfes,      hht his sweord niman,
1810
leflc ren;      sgde him þs lenes þanc,
cwð he þone gð-wine      gdne tealde,
wg-crftigne,      nales wordum lg
mces ecge:      þt ws mdig secg.
And þ sð-frome      searwum gearwe
1815
wgend wron,      eode weorð Denum
ðeling t yppan,      þr se ðer ws
hle hilde-der,      Hrðgr grtte.

XXVII. THE PARTING WORDS.

Bewulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþewes:
"Nu we s-lðend      secgan wyllað
1820
"feorran cumene,      þt we fundiað
"Higelc scan.      Wron her tela
"willum bewenede;      þu s wel dohtest.
"Gif ic þonne on eorðan      wihte mg
"þnre md-lufan      mran tilian,
1825
"gumena dryhten,      þonne ic gyt dyde,
"gð-geweorca      ic be gearo sna.
"Gif ic þt gefricge      ofer flda begang,
"þt þec ymbe-sittend      egesan þwað,
"sw þec hetende      hwlum dydon,
1830
"ic þe þsenda      þegna bringe,
"hleða t helpe.      Ic on Higelce wt,
"Geta dryhten,      þeh þe he geong s,
"folces hyrde,      þt he mec fremman wile
"wordum and worcum,      þt ic þe wel herige,
1835
"and þe t gece      gr-holt bere
"mgenes fultum,      þr þe bið manna þearf;
"gif him þonne Hrðrc      t hofum Geta
"geþingeð, þednes bearn,      he mg þr fela
"frenda findan:      feor-cððe beð
1840
"slran geshte      þm þe him selfa deh."
Hrðgr maðelode      him on andsware:
"Þe þ word-cwydas      wittig drihten
"on sefan sende!      ne hrde ic snotorlcor
"on sw geongum feore      guman þingian:
1845
"þu eart mgenes strang      and on mde frd,
"ws word-cwida.      Wn ic talige,
"gif þt gegangeð,      þt þe gr nymeð,
"hild heoru-grimme      Hrðles eaferan,
"dl oððe ren      ealdor þnne,
1850
"folces hyrde,      and þu þn feorh hafast,
"þt þe S-Getas      slran nbben
"t gecesenne      cyning nigne,
"hord-weard hleða,      gif þu healdan wylt
"mga rce.      Me þn md-sefa
1855
"lcað leng sw wel,      lefa Bewulf:
"hafast þu gefred,      þt þm folcum sceal,
"Geta ledum      and Gr-Denum
"sib gemnum      and sacu restan,
"inwit-nðas,      þe hie r drugon;
1860
"wesan, þenden ic wealde      wdan rces,
"mðmas gemne,      manig ðerne
"gdum gegrtan      ofer ganotes bð;
"sceal hring-naca      ofer heðu bringan
"lc and luf-tcen.      Ic þ lede wt
1865
"ge wið fend ge wið frend      fste geworhte
"ghws untle      ealde wsan."
Þ git him eorla hle      inne gesealde,
mago Healfdenes      mðmas twelfe,
ht hine mid þm lcum      lede swse
1870
scean on gesyntum,      snde eft cuman.
Gecyste þ      cyning ðelum gd,
þeden Scildinga,      þegen betstan
and be healse genam;      hruron him teras,
blonden-feaxum:      him ws bega wn,
1875
ealdum infrdum,      ðres swðor,
þt h seoððan      gesen mston
mdige on meðle.      Ws him se man t þon lef,
þt he þone brest-wylm      forberan ne mehte,
ac him on hreðre      hyge-bendum fst
1880
fter derum men      dyrne langað
beorn wið blde.      Him Bewulf þanan,
gð-rinc gold-wlanc      grs-moldan trd,
since hrmig:      s-genga bd
gend-fren,      se þe on ancre rd.
1885
Þ ws on gange      gifu Hrðgres
oft gehted:      þt ws n cyning
ghws orleahtre,      ð þt hine yldo benam
mgenes wynnum,      se þe oft manegum scd.

XXVIII. BEWULF RETURNS TO GEATLAND.—THE QUEENS HYGD AND THRYTHO.

Cwom þ t flde      fela-mdigra
1890
hg-stealdra hep;      hring-net bron,
locene leoðo-syrcan.      Land-weard onfand
eft-sð eorla,      sw he r dyde;
n he mid hearme      of hliðes nosan
gstas grtte,      ac him tgenes rd;
1895
cwð þt wilcuman      Wedera ledum
scawan scr-hame      t scipe fron.
Þ ws on sande      s-gep naca
hladen here-wdum,      hringed-stefna
mearum and mðmum:      mst hlifade
1900
ofer Hrðgres      hord-gestrenum.
He þm bt-wearde      bunden golde
swurd gesealde,      þt he syððan ws
on meodu-bence      mðme þ weorðra,
yrfe-lfe.      Gewt him on ð-nacan,
1905
drfan dep wter,      Dena land ofgeaf.
Þ ws be mste      mere-hrgla sum,
segl sle fst.      Sund-wudu þunede,
n þr wg-flotan      wind ofer ðum
sðes getwfde;      s-genga fr,
1910
flet fmig-heals      forð ofer ðe,
bunden-stefna      ofer brim-stremas,
þt hie Geta clifu      ongitan meahton,
cðe nssas.      Cel up geþrang,
lyft-geswenced      on lande std.
1915
Hraðe ws t holme      hð-weard gearo,
se þe r lange td,      lefra manna
fs, t faroðe      feor wltode;
slde t sande      sd-fðme scip
oncer-bendum fst,      þ ls hym ða þrym
1920
wudu wynsuman      forwrecan meahte.
Ht þ up beran      ðelinga gestren,
frtwe and ft-gold;      ns him feor þanon
t gescanne      sinces bryttan:
Higelc Hrðling      þr t hm wunað,
1925
selfa mid gesðum      s-wealle neh;
bold ws betlc,      brego-rf cyning,
he on healle,      Hygd swðe geong,
ws, wel-þungen,      þeh þe wintra lyt
under burh-locan      gebiden hbbe
1930
Hreðes dhtor:      ns hi hnh sw þeh,
ne t gneð gifa      Geta ledum,
mðm-gestrena.      Mod Þryðo wg,
fremu folces cwn,      firen ondrysne:
nnig þt dorste      der genðan
1935
swsra gesða,      nefne sin-fre,
þt hire an dges      egum starede;
ac him wl-bende      weotode tealde,
hand-gewriðene:      hraðe seoððan ws
fter mund-gripe      mce geþinged,
1940
þt hit sceaðen-ml      scyran mste,
cwealm-bealu cðan.      Ne bið swylc cwnlc þew
idese t efnanne,      þeh þe hi nlcu s,
þtte freoðu-webbe      feores onsce
fter lge-torne      lefne mannan.
1945
Hru þt onhhsnode      Heminges mg;
ealo drincende      ðer sdan,
þt hi led-bealewa      ls gefremede,
inwit-nða,      syððan rest wearð
gyfen gold-hroden      geongum cempan,
1950
ðelum dire,      syððan hi Offan flet
ofer fealone fld      be fder lre
sðe geshte,      þr hi syððan wel
in gum-stle,      gde mre,
lf-gesceafta      lifigende brec,
1955
hild heh-lufan      wið hleða brego,
ealles mon-cynnes      mne gefrge
þone slestan      b sm twenum
eormen-cynnes;      forþam Offa ws
geofum and gðum      gr-cne man,
1960
wde geweorðod;      wsdme held
ðel snne,      þonon Emr wc
hleðum t helpe,      Heminges mg,
nefa Grmundes,      nða crftig.

XXIX. HIS ARRIVAL. HYGELAC'S RECEPTION.

Gewt him þ se hearda      mid his hond-scole
1965
sylf fter sande      s-wong tredan,
wde waroðas.      Woruld-candel scn,
sigel sðan fs:      h sð drugon,
elne geeodon,      t þs þe eorla hle,
bonan Ongenþewes      burgum on innan,
1970
geongne gð-cyning      gdne gefrunon
hringas dlan.      Higelce ws
sð Bewulfes      snde gecðed,
þt þr on worðig      wgendra hle,
lind-gestealla      lifigende cwom,
1975
heaðo-lces hl      t hofe gongan.
Hraðe ws germed,      sw se rca bebed,
fðe-gestum      flet innan-weard.
Gest þ wið sylfne,      se þ scce gens,
mg wið mge,      syððan man-dryhten
1980
þurh hleðor-cwyde      holdne gegrtte
meaglum wordum.      Meodu-scencum
hwearf geond þt reced      Hreðes dhtor:
lufode þ lede,      lð-wge br
hlum t handa.      Higelc ongan
1985
snne geseldan      in sele þam hen
fgre fricgean,      hyne fyrwet brc,
hwylce S-Geta      sðas wron:
"H lomp ew on lde,      lefa Biwulf,
"þ þu fringa      feorr gehogodest,
1990
"scce scean      ofer sealt wter,
"hilde t Hiorote?      Ac þu Hrðgre
"wd-cðne wen      wihte gebttest,
"mrum þedne?      Ic þs md-ceare
"sorh-wylmum seð,      sðe ne trwode
1995
"lefes mannes;      ic þe lange bd,
"þt þu þone wl-gst      wihte ne grtte,
"lte Sð-Dene      sylfe geweorðan
"gðe wið Grendel.      Gode ic þanc secge,
"þs þe ic þe gesundne      gesen mste."
2000
Biwulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþiwes:
"Þt is undyrne,      dryhten Higelc,
"mre gemting      monegum fira,
"hwylc orleg-hwl      uncer Grendles
"wearð on þam wange,      þr he worna fela
2005
"Sige-Scildingum      sorge gefremede,
"yrmðe t aldre;      ic þt eal gewrc,
"sw ne gylpan þearf      Grendeles mga
"nig ofer eorðan      uht-hlem þone,
"se þe lengest leofað      lðan cynnes,
2010
"fenne bifongen.      Ic þr furðum cwom,
"t þam hring-sele      Hrðgr grtan:
"sna me se mra      mago Healfdenes,
"syððan he md-sefan      mnne cðe,
"wið his sylfes sunu      setl gethte.
2015
"Weorod ws on wynne;      ne seah ic wdan feorh
"under heofenes hwealf      heal-sittendra
"medu-drem mran.      Hwlum mru cwn,
"friðu-sibb folca      flet eall geond-hwearf,
"bdde byre geonge;      oft hi beh-wriðan
2020
"secge sealde,      r hi t setle geng.
"Hwlum for duguðe      dhtor Hrðgres
"eorlum on ende      ealu-wge br,
"þ ic Freware      flet-sittende
"nemnan hrde,      þr hi ngled sinc
2025
"hleðum sealde:      si gehten ws,
"geong gold-hroden,      gladum suna Frdan;
"hafað þs geworden      wine Scyldinga
"rces hyrde      and þt rd talað,
"þt he mid þ wfe      wl-fhða dl,
2030
"scca gesette.      Oft n seldan hwr
"fter led-hryre      lytle hwle
"bon-gr bgeð,      þeh se brd duge!

XXX. BEWULF'S STORY OF THE SLAYINGS.

"Mg þs þonne ofþyncan      þeden Heaðobeardna
"and þegna gehwm      þra leda,
2035
"þonne he mid fmnan      on flett gð,
"dryht-bearn Dena      duguða biwenede:
"on him gladiað      gomelra lfe
"heard and hring-ml,      Heaðobeardna gestren,
"þenden hie þm wpnum      wealdan mston,
2040
"ð þt hie forlddan      t þam lind-plegan
"swse gesðas      ond hyra sylfra feorh.
"Þonne cwið t bere,      se þe beh gesyhð,
"eald sc-wga,      se þe eall geman
"gr-cwealm gumena      (him bið grim sefa),
2045
"onginneð gemor-md      geongne cempan
"þurh hreðra gehygd      higes cunnian,
"wg-bealu weccean      and þt word cwyð:
"'Meaht þu, mn wine,      mce gecnwan,
"'þone þin fder      t gefeohte br
2050
"'under here-grman      hindeman sðe,
"'dre ren,      þr hyne Dene slgon,
"'weldon wl-stwe,      syððan wiðer-gyld lg,
"'fter hleða hryre,      hwate Scyldungas?
"'Nu her þra banena      byre nt-hwylces,
2055
"'frtwum hrmig      on flet gð,
"'morðres gylpeð      and þone mððum byreð,
"'þone þe þu mid rihte      rdan sceoldest!'"
"Manað sw and myndgað      mla gehwylce
"srum wordum,      ð þt sl cymeð,
2060
"þt se fmnan þegn      fore fder ddum
"fter billes bite      bld-fg swefeð,
"ealdres scyldig;      him se ðer þonan
"losað lifigende,      con him land geare.
"Þonne bið brocene      on b healfe
2065
"ð-sweord eorla;      syððan Ingelde
"weallað wl-nðas      and him wf-lufan
"fter cear-wlmum      clran weorðað.
"Þ ic Heaðobeardna      hyldo ne telge,
"dryht-sibbe dl      Denum unfcne,
2070
"frend-scipe fstne.      Ic sceal forð sprecan
"gen ymbe Grendel,      þt þu geare cunne,
"sinces brytta,      t hwan syððan wearð
"hond-rs hleða.      Syððan heofones gim
"gld ofer grundas,      gst yrre cwom,
2075
"eatol fen-grom,      ser nesan,
"þr we gesunde      sl weardodon;
"þr ws Hondsci      hild onsge,
"feorh-bealu fgum,      he fyrmest lg,
"gyrded cempa;      him Grendel wearð,
2080
"mrum magu-þegne      t mð-bonan,
"lefes mannes      lc eall forswealg.
"N þ r t þ gen      del-hende
"bona bldig-tð      bealewa gemyndig,
"of þam gold-sele      gongan wolde,
2085
"ac he mgnes rf      mn costode,
"grpode gearo-folm.      Glf hangode
"sd and syllc      searo-bendum fst,
"si ws orþoncum      eall gegyrwed
"defles crftum      and dracan fellum:
2090
"he mec þr on innan      unsynnigne,
"dir dd-fruma,      gedn wolde,
"manigra sumne:      hyt ne mihte sw,
"syððan ic on yrre      upp-riht std.
"T lang ys t reccenne,      h ic þam led-sceaðan
2095
"yfla gehwylces      ond-len forgeald;
"þr ic, þeden mn,      þne lede
"weorðode weorcum.      He on weg losade,
"lytle hwle      lf-wynna brec;
"hwðre him si swðre      swaðe weardade
2100
"hand on Hiorte      and he hen þonan,
"mdes gemor      mere-grund gefell.
"Me þone wl-rs      wine Scildunga
"fttan golde      fela lenode,
"manegum mðmum,      syððan mergen com
2105
"and we t symble      geseten hfdon.
"Þr ws gidd and gle;      gomela Scilding
"fela fricgende      feorran rehte;
"hwlum hilde-der      hearpan wynne,
"gomen-wudu grtte;      hwlum gyd wrc
2110
"sð and srlc;      hwlum syllc spell
"rehte fter rihte      rm-heort cyning.
"Hwlum eft ongan      eldo gebunden,
"gomel gð-wga      gioguðe cwðan
"hilde-strengo;      hreðer inne well,
2115
"þonne he wintrum frd      worn gemunde.
"Sw we þr inne      andlangne dg
"nide nman,      ð þt niht becwom
"ðer t yldum.      Þ ws eft hraðe
"gearo gyrn-wrce      Grendeles mdor,
2120
"sðode sorh-full;      sunu deð fornam,
"wg-hete Wedra.      Wf unhre
"hyre bearn gewrc,      beorn cwealde
"ellenlce;      þr ws sc-here,
"frdan fyrn-witan,      feorh ðgenge;
2125
"nðer hy hine ne mston,      syððan mergen cwom,
"deð-wrigne      Denia lede
"bronde forbrnan,      ne on bl hladan
"lefne mannan:      hi þt lc tbr
"fendes fðmum      under firgen-strem.
2130
"Þt ws Hrðgre      hrewa tornost
"þra þe led-fruman      lange begete;
"þ se þeden mec      þne lfe
"healsode hreh-md,      þt ic on holma geþring
"eorl-scipe efnde,      ealdre genðde,
2135
"mrðo fremede:      he me mde geht.
"Ic þ þs wlmes,      þe is wde cð,
"grimne gryrelcne      grund-hyrde fond.
"Þr unc hwle ws      hand gemne;
"holm heolfre well      and ic hefde becearf
2140
"in þam grund-sele      Grendeles mdor
"ecnum ecgum,      unsfte þonan
"feorh ðferede;      ns ic fge þ gyt,
"ac me eorla hle      eft gesealde
"mðma menigeo,      maga Healfdenes.

XXXI. HE GIVES PRESENTS TO HYGELAC. HYGELAC REWARDS HIM. HYGELAC'S DEATH. BEWULF REIGNS.

2145
"Sw se þed-kyning      þewum lyfde;
"nealles ic þm lenum      forloren hfde,
"mgnes mde,      ac he me mðmas geaf,
"sunu Healfdenes,      on snne sylfes dm;
"þ ic þe, beorn-cyning,      bringan wylle,
2150
"stum gewan.      Gen is eall t þe
"lissa gelong:      ic lyt hafo
"hefod-mga,      nefne Hygelc þec!"
Ht þ in beran      eafor, hefod-segn,
heaðo-stepne helm,      hre byrnan,
2155
gð-sweord geatolc,      gyd fter wrc:
"Me þis hilde-sceorp      Hrðgr sealde,
"snotra fengel,      sume worde ht,
"þt ic his rest      þe eft gesgde,
"cwð þt hyt hfde      Hiorogr cyning,
2160
"led Scyldunga      lange hwle:
"n þ r suna snum      syllan wolde,
"hwatum Heorowearde,      þeh he him hold wre,
"brest-gewdu.      Brc ealles well!"
Hrde ic þt þm frtwum      fewer mearas
2165
lungre gelce      lst weardode,
ppel-fealuwe;      he him st geteh
meara and mðma.      Sw sceal mg dn,
nealles inwit-net      ðrum bregdan,
dyrnum crfte      deð rnian
2170
hond-gesteallan.      Hygelce ws,
nða heardum,      nefa swðe hold
and gehwðer ðrum      hrðra gemyndig.
Hrde ic þt he þone heals-beh      Hygde gesealde,
wrtlcne wundur-mððum,      þone þe him Wealhþe geaf,
2175
þednes dhtor,      þri wicg somod
swancor and sadol-beorht;      hyre syððan ws
fter beh-þege      brest geweorðod.
Sw bealdode      bearn Ecgþewes,
guma gðum cð,      gdum ddum,
2180
dreh fter dme,      nealles druncne slg
heorð-genetas;      ns him hreh sefa,
ac he man-cynnes      mste crfte
gin-fstan gife,      þe him god sealde,
held hilde-der.      Hen ws lange,
2185
sw hyne Geta bearn      gdne ne tealdon,
ne hyne on medo-bence      micles wyrðne
drihten wereda      gedn wolde;
swðe oft sgdon,      þt he sleac wre,
ðeling unfrom:      edwenden cwom
2190
tr-edigum menn      torna gehwylces.
Ht þ eorla hle      in gefetian,
heaðo-rf cyning,      Hrðles lfe,
golde gegyrede;      ns mid Getum þ
sinc-mððum slra      on sweordes hd;
2195
þt he on Biwulfes      bearm legde,
and him gesealde      seofan þsendo,
bold and brego-stl.      Him ws bm samod
on þam led-scipe      lond gecynde,
eard ðel-riht,      ðrum swðor
2200
sde rce,      þam þr slra ws.
Eft þt geiode      ufaran dgrum
hilde-hlmmum,      syððan Hygelc lg
and Heardrde      hilde-mceas
under bord-hreðan      t bonan wurdon,
2205
þ hyne geshtan      on sige-þede
hearde hilde-frecan,      Heaðo-Scilfingas,
nða gengdan      nefan Hererces.
Syððan Bewulfe      brde rce
on hand gehwearf:      he geheld tela
2210
fftig wintru      (ws þ frd cyning,
eald ðel-weard),      ð þt n ongan
deorcum nihtum      draca rcsian,
se þe on here hðe      hord beweotode,
stn-beorh stepne:      stg under lg,
2215
eldum uncð.      Þr on innan ging
niða nt-hwylces      nede gefng
hðnum horde      hond . d . . geþ . . hwylc
since fhne,      he þt syððan . . . . .
. . . þ . . . lð . þ . . l . g
2220
slpende be fre,      fyrena hyrde
þefes crfte,      þt sie . . . . ðioð . . . . .
. idh . folc-beorn,      þt he gebolgen ws.

XXXII. THE FIRE-DRAKE. THE HOARD.

Nealles mid geweoldum      wyrm-horda . . . crft
shte sylfes willum,      se þe him sre gesced,
2225
ac for þre-ndlan      þew nt-hwylces
hleða bearna      hete-swengeas fleh,
for ofer-þearfe      and þr inne fealh
secg syn-bysig.      Sna in þ tde
þt . . . . . þam gyste      . . . . br . g . std,
2230
hwðre earm-sceapen . . . . . . .
. . ð . . . sceapen o . . . . i r . . e se fs begeat,
sinc-ft geseah:      þr ws swylcra fela
in þam eorð-scrfe      r-gestrena,
sw hy on ger-dagum      gumena nt-hwylc
2235
eormen-lfe      ðelan cynnes
þanc-hycgende      þr gehdde,
dere mðmas.      Ealle hie deð fornam
rran mlum,      and se n þ gen
leda duguðe,      se þr lengest hwearf,
2240
weard wine-gemor      wscte þs yldan,
þt he lytel fc      long-gestrena
brcan mste.      Beorh eal gearo
wunode on wonge      wter-ðum neh,
niwe be nsse      nearo-crftum fst:
2245
þr on innan br      eorl-gestrena
hringa hyrde      hard-fyrdne dl
fttan goldes,      fe worda cwð:
"Heald þu nu, hruse,      nu hleð ne mston,
"eorla hte.      Hwt! hit r on þe
2250
"gde begeton;      gð-deð fornam,
"feorh-bealo frcne      fyra gehwylcne,
"leda mnra,      þra þe þis lf ofgeaf,
"geswon sele-drem.      Nh hw sweord wege
"oððe fetige      fted wge,
2255
"drync-ft dere:      dug ellor scc.
"Sceal se hearda helm      hyrsted golde
"ftum befeallen:      feormiend swefað,
"þ þe beado-grman      bwan sceoldon,
"ge swylce se here-pd,      si t hilde gebd
2260
"ofer borda gebrc      bite rena,
"brosnað fter beorne.      Ne mg byrnan hring
"fter wg-fruman      wde fran
"hleðum be healfe;      ns hearpan wyn,
"gomen gle-bemes,      ne gd hafoc
2265
"geond sl swingeð,      ne se swifta mearh
"burh-stede beteð.      Bealo-cwealm hafað
"fela feorh-cynna      feorr onsended!"
Sw gimor-md      giohðo mnde,
n fter eallum      unblðe hwep,
2270
dges and nihtes,      ð þt deðes wylm
hrn t heortan.      Hord-wynne fond
eald uht-sceaða      opene standan,
se þe byrnende      biorgas sceð
nacod nð-draca,      nihtes flegeð
2275
fre befangen;      hyne fold-bend
wde geswon.      He gewunian sceall
hlw under hrusan,      þr he hðen gold
warað wintrum frd;      ne byð him wihte þ sl.
Sw se þed-sceaða      þre hund wintra
2280
held on hrusan      hord-rna sum
ecen-crftig,      ð þt hyne n bealh
mon on mde:      man-dryhtne br
fted wge,      frioðo-wre bd
hlford snne.      Þ ws hord rsod,
2285
onboren bega hord,      bne getðad
fe-sceaftum men.      Fre scewode
fira fyrn-geweorc      forman sðe.
Þ se wyrm onwc,      wrht ws geniwad;
stonc þ fter stne,      stearc-heort onfand
2290
fendes ft-lst;      he t forð gestp,
dyrnan crfte,      dracan hefde neh.
Sw mg unfge      eðe gedgan
wen and wrc-sð,      se þe waldendes
hyldo gehealdeð.      Hord-weard shte
2295
georne fter grunde,      wolde guman findan,
þone þe him on sweofote      sre getede:
ht and hreh-md      hlw oft ymbe hwearf,
ealne tan-weardne;      ne þr nig mon
ws on þre wstenne.      Hwðre hilde gefeh,
2300
beado-weorces:      hwlum on beorh thwearf,
sinc-ft shte;      he þt sna onfand,
þt hfde gumena sum      goldes gefandod
heh-gestrena.      Hord-weard onbd
earfoðlce,      ð þt fen cwom;
2305
ws þ gebolgen      beorges hyrde,
wolde se lða      lge forgyldan
drinc-ft dre.      Þ ws dg sceacen
wyrme on willan,      n on wealle leng
bdan wolde,      ac mid ble fr,
2310
fre gefsed.      Ws se fruma egeslc
ledum on lande,      sw hyt lungre wearð
on hyra sinc-gifan      sre geendod.

XXXIII. BEOWULF RESOLVES TO KILL THE FIRE-DRAKE.

Þ se gst ongan      gldum spwan,
beorht hofu brnan;      bryne-lema std
2315
eldum on andan;      n þr ht cwices
lð lyft-floga      lfan wolde.
Ws þs wyrmes wg      wde gesne,
nearo-fges nð      nen and feorran,
h se gð-sceaða      Geta lede
2320
hatode and hnde:      hord eft gescet,
dryht-sele dyrnne      r dges hwle.
Hfde land-wara      lge befangen,
ble and bronde;      beorges getrwode,
wges and wealles:      him se wn geleh.
2325
Þ ws Biwulfe      brga gecðed
snde t sðe,      þt his sylfes him
bolda slest      bryne-wylmum mealt,
gif-stl Geta.      Þt þam gdan ws
hrew on hreðre,      hyge-sorga mst:
2330
wnde se wsa,      þt he wealdende,
ofer ealde riht,      cean dryhtne
bitre gebulge:      brest innan well
þestrum geþoncum,      sw him geþwe ne ws.
Hfde lg-draca      leda fsten,
2335
e-lond tan,      eorð-weard þone
gldum forgrunden.      Him þs gð-cyning,
Wedera þiden,      wrce leornode.
Hht him þ gewyrcean      wgendra hle
eall-renne,      eorla dryhten
2340
wg-bord wrtlc;      wisse he gearwe,
þt him holt-wudu      helpan ne meahte,
lind wið lge.      Sceolde ln-daga
ðeling r-gd      ende gebdan
worulde lfes      and se wyrm somod;
2345
þeh þe hord-welan      helde lange.
Oferhogode þ      hringa fengel,
þt he þone wd-flogan      weorode geshte,
sdan herge;      n he him þ scce ondrd,
ne him þs wyrmes wg      for wiht dyde,
2350
eafoð and ellen;      forþon he r fela
nearo nðende      nða gedgde,
hilde-hlemma,      syððan he Hrðgres,
sigor-edig secg,      sele flsode
and t gðe forgrp      Grendeles mgum,
2355
lðan cynnes.      N þt lsest ws
hond-gemota,      þr mon Hygelc slh,
syððan Geta cyning      gðe rsum,
fre-wine folces      Freslondum on,
Hrðles eafora      hioro-dryncum swealt,
2360
bille gebeten;      þonan Biwulf com
sylfes crfte,      sund-nytte dreh;
† hfde him on earme      ... XXX
hilde-geatwa,      þ he t holme stg.
Nealles Hetware      hrmge þorfton
2365
fðe-wges,      þe him foran ongen
linde bron:      lyt eft becwom
fram þam hild-frecan      hmes nisan.
Oferswam þ sileða bigong      sunu Ecgþewes,
earm n-haga      eft t ledum,
2370
þr him Hygd gebed      hord and rce,
begas and brego-stl:      bearne ne trwode,
þt he wið l-fylcum      ðel-stlas
healdan cðe,      þ ws Hygelc ded.
N þ r fe-sceafte      findan meahton
2375
t þam ðelinge      nige þinga,
þt he Heardrde      hlford wre,
oððe þone cyne-dm      cisan wolde;
hwðre he him on folce      frend-lrum held,
stum mid re,      ð þt he yldra wearð,
2380
Weder-Getum weld.      Hyne wrc-mcgas
ofer s shtan,      suna hteres:
hfdon hy forhealden      helm Scylfinga,
þone slestan      s-cyninga,
þra þe in Swi-rce      sinc brytnade,
2385
mrne þeden.      Him þt t mearce wearð;
he þr orfeorme      feorh-wunde hlet
sweordes swengum,      sunu Hygelces;
and him eft gewt      Ongenþiwes bearn
hmes nisan,      syððan Heardrd lg;
2390
lt þone brego-stl      Biwulf healdan,
Getum wealdan:      þt ws gd cyning.

XXXIV. RETROSPECT OF BEWULF.—STRIFE BETWEEN SWEONAS AND GEATAS.

Se þs led-hryres      len gemunde
uferan dgrum,      Edgilse wearð
fe-sceaftum fend.      Folce gestepte
2395
ofer s sde      sunu hteres
wgum and wpnum:      he gewrc syððan
cealdum cear-sðum,      cyning ealdre binet.
Sw he nða gehwane      genesen hfde,
slðra geslyhta,      sunu Ecgþiwes,
2400
ellen-weorca,      ð þone nne dg,
þe he wið þam wyrme      gewegan sceolde.
Gewt þ twelfa sum      torne gebolgen
dryhten Geta      dracan scewian;
hfde þ gefrunen,      hwanan si fhð rs,
2405
bealo-nð biorna;      him t bearme cwom
mððum-ft mre      þurh þs meldan hond,
Se ws on þam þrete      þreotteoða secg,
se þs orleges      r onstealde,
hft hyge-gimor,      sceolde hen þonon
2410
wong wsian:      he ofer willan ging
t þs þe he eorð-sele      nne wisse,
hlw under hrusan      holm-wylme nh,
ð-gewinne,      se ws innan full
wrtta and wra:      weard unhire,
2415
gearo gð-freca,      gold-mðmas held,
eald under eorðan;      ns þt ðe cep,
t gegangenne      gumena nigum.
Gest þ on nsse      nð-heard cyning,
þenden hlo bed      heorð-genetum
2420
gold-wine Geta:      him ws gemor sefa,
wfre and wl-fs,      Wyrd ungemete neh,
se þone gomelan      grtan sceolde,
scean swle hord,      sundur gedlan
lf wið lce:      n þon lange ws
2425
feorh ðelinges      flsce bewunden.
Biwulf maðelade,      bearn Ecgþewes:
"Fela ic on giogoðe      guð-rsa gens,
"orleg-hwla:      ic þt eall gemon.
"Ic ws syfan-wintre,      þ mec sinca baldor,
2430
"fre-wine folca      t mnum fder genam,
"held mec and hfde      Hrðel cyning,
"geaf me sinc and symbel,      sibbe gemunde;
"ns ic him t lfe      lðra wihte
"beorn in burgum,      þonne his bearna hwylc,
2435
"Herebeald and Hðcyn,      oððe Hygelc mn.
"Ws þam yldestan      ungedfelce
"mges ddum      morðor-bed strd,
"syððan hyne Hðcyn      of horn-bogan,
"his fre-wine      flne geswencte,
2440
"miste mercelses      and his mg ofsct,
"brðor ðerne,      bldigan gre:
"þt ws feoh-les gefeoht,      fyrenum gesyngad
"hreðre hyge-mðe;      sceolde hwðre sw þeh
"ðeling unwrecen      ealdres linnan.
2445
"Sw bið gemorlc      gomelum ceorle
"t gebdanne,      þt his byre rde
"giong on galgan,      þonne he gyd wrece,
"srigne sang,      þonne his sunu hangað
"hrefne t hrðre      and he him helpe ne mg,
2450
"eald and in-frd,      nige gefremman.
"Symble bið gemyndgad      morna gehwylce
"eaforan ellor-sð;      ðres ne gmeð
"t gebdanne      burgum on innan
"yrfe-weardes,      þonne se n hafað
2455
"þurh deðes nd      dda gefondad.
"Gesyhð sorh-cearig      on his suna bre
"wn-sele wstne,      wind-gereste,
"rete berofene;      rdend swefað
"hleð in hoðman;      nis þr hearpan swg,
2460
"gomen in geardum,      swylce þr i wron.

XXXV. MEMORIES OF PAST TIME.—THE FEUD WITH THE FIRE-DRAKE.

"Gewteð þonne on sealman,      sorh-leð gleð
"n fter num:      þhte him eall t rm,
"wongas and wc-stede.      Sw Wedra helm
"fter Herebealde      heortan sorge
2465
"weallende wg,      wihte ne meahte
"on þam feorh-bonan      fhðe gebtan:
"n þ r he þone heaðo-rinc      hatian ne meahte
"lðum ddum,      þeh him lef ne ws.
"He þ mid þre sorge,      þe him si sr belamp,
2470
"gum-drem ofgeaf,      godes leht geces;
"eaferum lfde,      sw dð edig mon,
"lond and led-byrig,      þ he of lfe gewt.
"Þ ws synn and sacu      Sweona and Geta,
"ofer wd wter      wrht gemne,
2475
"here-nð hearda,      syððan Hrðel swealt,
"oððe him Ongenþewes      eaferan wran
"frome fyrd-hwate,      frede ne woldon
"ofer heafo healdan,      ac ymb Hreosna-beorh
"eatolne inwit-scear      oft gefremedon.
2480
"Þt mg-wine      mne gewrcan,
"fhðe and fyrene,      sw hyt gefrge ws,
"þeh þe ðer hit      ealdre gebohte,
"heardan cepe:      Hðcynne wearð,
"Geta dryhtne,      gð onsge.
2485
"Þ ic on morgne gefrgn      mg ðerne
"billes ecgum      on bonan stlan,
"þr Ongenþew      Eofores nisade:
"gð-helm tgld,      gomela Scylfing
"hres heoro-blc;      hond gemunde
2490
"fhðo genge,      feorh-sweng ne ofteh.
"Ic him þ mðmas,      þe he me sealde,
"geald t gðe,      sw me gifeðe ws,
"lehtan sweorde:      he me lond forgeaf,
"eard ðel-wyn.      Ns him nig þearf,
2495
"þt he t Gifðum      oððe t Gr-Denum
"oððe in Swi-rce      scean þurfe
"wyrsan wg-frecan,      weorðe gecpan;
"symle ic him on fðan      beforan wolde,
"na on orde,      and sw t aldre sceall
2500
"scce fremman,      þenden þis sweord þolað,
"þt mec r and sð      oft gelste,
"syððan ic for dugeðum      Dghrefne wearð
"t hand-bonan,      Hga cempan:
"nalles he þ frtwe      Fres-cyninge,
2505
"brest-weorðunge      bringan mste,
"ac in campe gecrong      cumbles hyrde,
"ðeling on elne.      Ne ws ecg bona,
"ac him hilde-grp      heortan wylmas,
"bn-hs gebrc.      Nu sceall billes ecg,
2510
"hond and heard sweord      ymb hord wgan."
Bewulf maðelode,      bet-wordum sprc
nihstan sðe:      "Ic genðde fela
"gða on geogoðe;      gyt ic wylle,
"frd folces weard,      fhðe scan,
2515
"mrðum fremman,      gif mec se mn-sceaða
"of eorð-sele      t gesceð!"
Gegrtte þ      gumena gehwylcne,
hwate helm-berend      hindeman sðe,
swse gesðas:      "Nolde ic sweord beran,
2520
"wpen t wyrme,      gif ic wiste h
"wið þam aglcean      elles meahte
"gylpe wiðgrpan,      sw ic gi wið Grendle dyde;
"ac ic þr heaðu-fres      htes wne,
"rðes and-httres:      forþon ic me on hafu
2525
"bord and byrnan.      Nelle ic beorges weard
"oferflen ftes trem,      fend unhre,
"ac unc sceal weorðan t wealle,      sw unc Wyrd geteð,
"metod manna gehws.      Ic eom on mde from,
"þt ic wið þone gð-flogan      gylp ofersitte.
2530
"Gebde ge on beorge      byrnum werede,
"secgas on searwum,      hwðer sl mge
"fter wl-rse      wunde gedgan
"uncer twega.      Nis þt ewer sð,
"ne gemet mannes,      nefne mn nes,
2535
"þt he wið aglcean      eofoðo dle,
"eorl-scype efne.      Ic mid elne sceall
"gold gegangan      oððe gð nimeð,
"feorh-bealu frcne,      fren ewerne!"
rs þ b ronde      rf oretta,
2540
heard under helm,      hioro-sercean br
under stn-cleofu,      strengo getrwode
nes mannes:      ne bið swylc earges sð.
Geseah þ be wealle,      se þe worna fela,
gum-cystum gd,      gða gedgde,
2545
hilde-hlemma,      þonne hnitan fðan,
(std on stn-bogan)      strem t þonan
brecan of beorge;      ws þre burnan wlm
heaðo-frum ht:      ne meahte horde neh
unbyrnende      nige hwle
2550
dep gedgan      for dracan lge.
Lt þ of brestum,      þ he gebolgen ws,
Weder-Geta led      word t faran,
stearc-heort styrmde;      stefn in becom
heaðo-torht hlynnan      under hrne stn.
2555
Hete ws onhrred,      hord-weard oncniw
mannes reorde;      ns þr mra fyrst,
frede t friclan.      From rest cwom
oruð aglcean      t of stne,
ht hilde-swt;      hruse dynede.
2560
Biorn under beorge      bord-rand onswf
wið þam gryre-gieste,      Geta dryhten:
þ ws hring-bogan      heorte gefsed
scce t sceanne.      Sweord r gebrd
gd gð-cyning      gomele lfe,
2565
ecgum unglew,      ghwðrum ws
bealo-hycgendra      brga fram ðrum.
Stð-md gestd      wið stepne rond
winia bealdor,      þ se wyrm gebeh
snde tsomne:      he on searwum bd.
2570
Gewt þ byrnende      gebogen scrðan t,
gescfe scyndan.      Scyld wel gebearg
lfe and lce      lssan hwle
mrum þedne,      þonne his myne shte,
þr he þ fyrste      forman dgore
2575
wealdan mste,      sw him Wyrd ne gescrf
hrð t hilde.      Hond up brd
Geta dryhten,      gryre-fhne slh
incge lfe,      þt si ecg gewc
brn on bne,      bt unswðor,
2580
þonne his þid-cyning      þearfe hfde,
bysigum gebded.      Þ ws beorges weard
fter heaðu-swenge      on hreum mde,
wearp wl-fre,      wde sprungon
hilde-leman:      hrð-sigora ne gealp
2585
gold-wine Geta,      gð-bill geswc
nacod t nðe,      sw hyt n sceolde,
ren r-gd.      Ne ws þt ðe sð,
þt se mra      maga Ecgþewes
grund-wong þone      ofgyfan wolde;
2590
sceolde wyrmes willan      wc eardian
elles hwergen,      sw sceal ghwylc mon
ltan ln-dagas.      Ns þ long t þon,
þt þ aglcean      hy eft gemtton.
Hyrte hyne hord-weard,      hreðer ðme well,
2595
niwan stefne:      nearo þrowode
fre befongen      se þe r folce weld.
Nealles him on hepe      hand-gesteallan,
ðelinga bearn      ymbe gestdon
hilde-cystum,      ac hy on holt bugon,
2600
ealdre burgan.      Hiora in num well
sefa wið sorgum:      sibb fre ne mg
wiht onwendan,      þam þe wel þenceð.

XXXVI. WIGLAF HELPS BEWULF IN THE FEUD

Wglf ws hten      Weoxstnes sunu,
leflc lind-wiga,      led Scylfinga,
2605
mg lfheres:      geseah his mon-dryhten
under here-grman      ht þrowian.
Gemunde þ þ re,      þe he him r forgeaf
wc-stede weligne      Wgmundinga,
folc-rihta gehwylc,      sw his fder hte;
2610
ne mihte þ forhabban,      hond rond gefng,
geolwe linde,      gomel swyrd geteh,
þt ws mid eldum      Enmundes lf,
suna hteres,      þam t scce wearð
wracu wine-lesum      Weohstnes bana
2615
mces ecgum,      and his mgum tbr
brn-fgne helm,      hringde byrnan,
eald sweord eotonisc,      þt him Onela forgeaf,
his gdelinges      gð-gewdu,
fyrd-searo fslc:      n ymbe þ fhðe sprc,
2620
þeh þe he his brðor      bearn bredwade.
He frtwe geheld      fela missera,
bill and byrnan,      ð þt his byre mihte
eorl-scipe efnan,      sw his r-fder;
geaf him þ mid Getum      gð-gewda
2625
ghws unrm;      þ he of ealdre gewt,
frd on forð-weg.      Þ ws forma sð
geongan cempan,      þt he gðe rs
mid his fre-dryhtne      fremman sceolde;
ne gemealt him se md-sefa,      ne his mges lf
2630
gewc t wge:      þt se wyrm onfand,
syððan hie tgdre      gegn hfdon.
Wglf maðelode      word-rihta fela,
sgde gesðum,      him ws sefa gemor:
"Ic þt ml geman,      þr we medu þgun,
2635
"þonne we gehton      ssum hlforde
"in bir-sele,      þe s þs begas geaf,
"þt we him þ gð-geatwa      gyldan woldon,
"gif him þyslcu      þearf gelumpe,
"helmas and heard sweord:      þ he sic on herge geces
2640
"t þyssum sð-fate      sylfes willum,
"onmunde sic mrða      and me þs mðmas geaf,
"þ he sic gr-wgend      gde tealde,
"hwate helm-berend,      þeh þe hlford s
"þis ellen-weorc      na þhte
2645
"t gefremmanne,      folces hyrde,
"forþam he manna mst      mrða gefremede,
"dda dollcra.      Nu is se dg cumen,
"þt re man-dryhten      mgenes behfað
"gdra gð-rinca:      wutun gangan t,
2650
"helpan hild-fruman,      þenden hyt s,
"gld-egesa grim!      God wt on mec,
"þt me is micle lefre,      þt mnne lc-haman
"mid mnne gold-gyfan      gld fðmie.
"Ne þynceð me gerysne,      þt we rondas beren
2655
"eft t earde,      nemne we ror mgen
"fne gefyllan,      feorh ealgian
"Wedra þidnes.      Ic wt geare,
"þt nron eald-gewyrht,      þt he na scyle
"Geta duguðe      gnorn þrowian,
2660
"gesgan t scce:      sceal rum þt sweord and helm,
"byrne and byrdu-scrd      bm gemne."
Wd þ þurh þone wl-rc,      wg-heafolan br
fren on fultum,      fe worda cwð:
"Lefa Biwulf,      lst eall tela,
2665
"sw þu on geoguð-feore      gera gecwde,
"þt þu ne lte      be þe lifigendum
"dm gedresan:      scealt nu ddum rf,
"ðeling n-hydig,      ealle mgene
"feorh ealgian;      ic þe fullstu!"
2670
fter þm wordum      wyrm yrre cwom,
atol inwit-gst      ðre sðe,
fr-wylmum fh      finda nisan,
lðra manna;      lg-ðum forborn
bord wið ronde:      byrne ne meahte
2675
geongum gr-wigan      gece gefremman:
ac se maga geonga      under his mges scyld
elne geeode,      þ his gen ws
gldum forgrunden.      Þ gen gð-cyning
mrða gemunde,      mgen-strengo,
2680
slh hilde-bille,      þt hyt on heafolan std
nðe gended:      Ngling forbrst,
geswc t scce      sweord Biwulfes
gomol and grg-ml.      Him þt gifeðe ne ws,
þt him renna      ecge mihton
2685
helpan t hilde;      ws si hond t strong,
se þe mca gehwane      mne gefrge
swenge ofershte,      þonne he t scce br
wpen wundrum heard,      ns him wihte þ sl.
Þ ws þed-sceaða      þriddan sðe,
2690
frcne fr-draca      fhða gemyndig,
rsde on þone rfan,      þ him rm geald,
ht and heaðo-grim,      heals ealne ymbefng
biteran bnum;      he gebldegod wearð
swul-drire;      swt ðum well.

XXXVII. BEWULF WOUNDED TO DEATH.

2695
Þ ic t þearfe gefrgn      þed-cyninges
and-longne eorl      ellen cðan,
crft and cnðu,      sw him gecynde ws;
ne hdde he þs heafolan,      ac si hand gebarn
mdiges mannes,      þr he his mges healp,
2700
þt he þone nð-gst      nioðor hwne slh,
secg on searwum,      þt þt sweord gedef
fh and fted,      þt þt fr ongon
sweðrian syððan.      Þ gen sylf cyning
geweld his gewitte,      wll-seaxe gebrd,
2705
biter and beadu-scearp,      þt he on byrnan wg:
forwrt Wedra helm       wyrm on middan.
Fend gefyldan      (ferh ellen wrc),
and hi hyne þ begen      broten hfdon,
sib-ðelingas:      swylc sceolde secg wesan,
2710
þegn t þearfe.      Þt þam þedne ws
sðast sge-hwle      sylfes ddum,
worlde geweorces.      Þ si wund ongon,
þe him se eorð-draca      r geworhte,
swlan and swellan.      He þt sna onfand,
2715
þt him on brestum      bealo-nð well,
ttor on innan.      Þ se ðeling ging,
þt he b wealle,      ws-hycgende,
gest on sesse;      seah on enta geweorc,
h þ stn-bogan      stapulum fste
2720
ce eorð-reced      innan heldon.
Hyne þ mid handa      heoro-drerigne
þeden mrne      þegn ungemete till,
wine-dryhten his      wtere gelafede,
hilde-sdne      and his helm onspen.
2725
Biwulf maðelode,      he ofer benne sprc,
wunde wl-blete      (wisse he gearwe,
þt he dg-hwla      gedrogen hfde
eorðan wynne;      þ ws eall sceacen
dgor-germes,      deð ungemete neh):
2730
"Nu ic suna mnum      syllan wolde
"gð-gewdu,      þr me gifeðe sw
"nig yrfe-weard      fter wurde,
"lce gelenge.      Ic þs lede held
"fftig wintra:      ns se folc-cyning
2735
"ymbe-sittendra      nig þra,
"þe mec gð-winum      grtan dorste,
"egesan þen.      Ic on earde bd
"ml-gesceafta,      held mn tela,
"ne shte searo-nðas,      ne me swr fela
2740
"ða on unriht.      Ic þs ealles mg,
"feorh-bennum sec,      gefen habban:
"forþam me wtan ne þearf      waldend fira
"morðor-bealo mga,      þonne mn sceaceð
"lf of lce.      Nu þu lungre
2745
"geong, hord scewian      under hrne stn,
"Wglf lefa,      nu se wyrm ligeð,
"swefeð sre wund,      since berefod.
"Bi nu on foste,      þt ic r-welan,
"gold-ht ongite,      gearo scewige
2750
"swegle searo-gimmas,      þt ic þ sft mge
"fter mððum-welan      mn ltan
"lf and led-scipe,      þone ic longe held."

XXXVIII. THE JEWEL-HOARD. THE PASSING OF BEOWULF.

Þ ic snde gefrgn      sunu Wihstnes
fter word-cwydum      wundum dryhtne
2755
hran heaðo-sicum,      hring-net beran,
brogdne beadu-sercean      under beorges hrf.
Geseah þ sige-hrðig,      þ he b sesse geng,
mago-þegn mdig      mððum-sigla fela,
gold glitinian      grunde getenge,
2760
wundur on wealle      and þs wyrmes denn,
ealdes uht-flogan,      orcas stondan,
fyrn-manna fatu      feormend-lese,
hyrstum behrorene:      þr ws helm monig,
eald and mig,      earm-bega fela,
2765
searwum gesled.      Sinc eðe mg,
gold on grunde,      gumena cynnes
gehwone ofer-higian,      hde se þe wylle!
Swylce he siomian geseah      segn eall-gylden
heh ofer horde,      hond-wundra mst,
2770
gelocen leoðo-crftum:      of þam lema std,
þt he þone grund-wong      ongitan meahte,
wrte giond-wltan.      Ns þs wyrmes þr
onsn nig,      ac hyne ecg fornam.
Þ ic on hlwe      gefrgn hord refian,
2775
eald enta geweorc      nne mannan,
him on bearm hladan      bunan and discas
sylfes dme,      segn ec genom,
becna beorhtost;      bill r-gescd
(ecg ws ren)      eald-hlfordes
2780
þam þra mðma      mund-bora ws
longe hwle,      lg-egesan wg
htne for horde,      hioro-weallende,
middel-nihtum,      ð þt he morðre swealt.
r ws on foste      eft-sðes georn,
2785
frtwum gefyrðred:      hyne fyrwet brc,
hwðer collen-ferð      cwicne gemtte
in þam wong-stede      Wedra þeden,
ellen-sicne,      þr he hine r forlt.
He þ mid þm mðmum      mrne þiden,
2790
dryhten snne      dririgne fand
ealdres t ende:      he hine eft ongon
wteres weorpan,      ð þt wordes ord
brest-hord þurhbrc.      Bewulf maðelode,
gomel on giohðe      (gold scewode):
2795
"Ic þra frtwa      fren ealles þanc
"wuldur-cyninge      wordum secge,
"cum dryhtne,      þe ic her on starie,
"þs þe ic mste      mnum ledum
"r swylt-dge      swylc gestrnan.
2800
"Nu ic on mðma hord      mne bebohte
"frde feorh-lege,      fremmað ge nu
"leda þearfe;      ne mg ic her leng wesan.
"Htað heaðo-mre      hlw gewyrcean,
"beorhtne fter ble      t brimes nosan;
2805
"s scel t gemyndum      mnum ledum
"heh hlifian      on Hrones nsse,
"þt hit s-lðend      syððan htan
"Biwulfes biorh,      þ þe brentingas
"ofer flda genipu      feorran drfað."
2810
Dyde him of healse      hring gyldenne
þiden þrst-hydig,      þegne gesealde,
geongum gr-wigan,      gold-fhne helm,
beh and byrnan,      ht hyne brcan well:
"Þu eart ende-lf      sses cynnes,
2815
"Wgmundinga;      ealle Wyrd forswef,
"mne mgas      t metod-sceafte,
"eorlas on elne:      ic him fter sceal."
Þt ws þam gomelan      gingeste word
brest-gehygdum,      r he bl cure,
2820
hte heaðo-wylmas:      him of hreðre gewt
swol scean      sð-fstra dm.

XXXIX. THE COWARD-THANES.

Þ ws gegongen      guman unfrdum
earfoðlce,      þt he on eorðan geseah
þone lefestan      lfes t ende
2825
blete gebran.      Bona swylce lg,
egeslc eorð-draca,      ealdre berefod,
bealwe gebded:      beh-hordum leng
wyrm woh-bogen      wealdan ne mste,
ac him renna      ecga fornmon,
2830
hearde heaðo-scearpe      homera lfe,
þt se wd-floga      wundum stille
hres on hrusan      hord-rne neh,
nalles fter lyfte      lcende hwearf
middel-nihtum,      mðm-hta wlonc
2835
ansn wde:      ac he eorðan gefell
for þs hild-fruman      hond-geweorce.
Hru þt on lande      lyt manna þh
mgen-gendra      mne gefrge,
þeh þe he dda gehws      dyrstig wre,
2840
þt he wið ttor-sceaðan      oreðe gersde,
oððe hring-sele      hondum styrede,
gif he wccende      weard onfunde
ban on beorge.      Biwulfe wearð
dryht-mðma dl      deðe forgolden;
2845
hfde ghwðer      ende gefred
lnan lfes.      Ns þ lang t þon,
þt þ hild-latan      holt ofgfan,
tydre trew-logan      tyne tsomne,
þ ne dorston r      dareðum lcan
2850
on hyra man-dryhtnes      miclan þearfe;
ac hy scamiende      scyldas bran,
gð-gewdu,      þr se gomela lg:
wlitan on Wglf.      He gewrgad st,
fðe-cempa      fren eaxlum neh,
2855
wehte hyne wtre;      him wiht ne spew;
ne meahte he on eorðan,      þeh he ðe wel,
on þam frum-gre      feorh gehealdan,
ne þs wealdendes willan      wiht oncirran;
wolde dm godes      ddum rdan
2860
gumena gehwylcum,      sw he nu gen dð.
Þ ws t þam geongan      grim andswaru
ð-begte þm þe r      his elne forles.
Wglf maðelode,      Weohstnes sunu,
secg srig-ferð      seah on unlefe:
2865
"Þt l mg secgan,      se þe wyle sð sprecan,
"þt se mon-dryhten,      se ew þ mðmas geaf,
"ered-geatwe,      þe ge þr on standað,
"þonne he on ealu-bence      oft gesealde
"heal-sittendum      helm and byrnan,
2870
"þeden his þegnum,      swylce he þryðlcost
"hwr feor oððe neh      findan meahte,
"þt he genunga      gð-gewdu
"wrðe forwurpe.      Þ hyne wg beget,
"nealles folc-cyning      fyrd-gesteallum
2875
"gylpan þorfte;      hwðre him god ðe,
"sigora waldend,      þt he hyne sylfne gewrc
"na mid ecge,      þ him ws elnes þearf,
"Ic him lf-wraðe      lytle meahte
"tgifan t gðe      and ongan sw þeh
2880
"ofer mn gemet      mges helpan:
"symle ws þ smra,      þonne ic sweorde drep
"ferhð-genðlan,      fr unswðor
"well of gewitte.      Wergendra t lyt
"þrong ymbe þeden,      þ hyne si þrag becwom.
2885
"Nu sceal sinc-þego      and swyrd-gifu
"eall ðel-wyn      ewrum cynne,
"lufen licgean:      lond-rihtes mt
"þre mg-burge      monna ghwylc
"del hweorfan,      syððan ðelingas
2890
"feorran gefricgean      flem ewerne,
"dm-lesan dd.      Deð bið slla
"eorla gehwylcum      þonne edwt-lf!"

XL. THE SOLDIER'S DIRGE AND PROPHECY.

Hht þ þt heaðo-weorc      t hagan bidan
up ofer g-clif,      þr þt eorl-weorod
2895
morgen-longne dg      md-gimor st,
bord-hbbende,      bega on wnum
ende-dgores      and eft-cymes
lefes monnes.      Lyt swgode
niwra spella,      se þe ns gerd,
2900
ac he sðlce      sgde ofer ealle;
"Nu is wil-geofa      Wedra leda,
"dryhten Geta      deð-bedde fst,
"wunað wl-reste      wyrmes ddum;
"him on efn ligeð      ealdor-gewinna,
2905
"siex-bennum sec:      sweorde ne meahte
"on þam aglcean      nige þinga
"wunde gewyrcean.      Wglf siteð
"ofer Biwulfe,      byre Wihstnes,
"eorl ofer ðrum      unlifigendum,
2910
"healdeð hige-mðum      hefod-wearde
"lefes and lðes.      Nu ys ledum wn
"orleg-hwle,      syððan underne
"Froncum and Frysum      fyll cyninges
"wde weorðeð.      Ws si wrht scepen
2915
"heard wið Hgas,      syððan Higelc cwom
"faran flot-herge      on Fresna land,
"þr hyne Hetware      hilde gehngdon,
"elne geeodon      mid ofer-mgene,
"þt se byrn-wga      bgan sceolde,
2920
"fell on fðan:      nalles frtwe geaf
"ealdor dugoðe;      s ws syððan
"Merewioinga      milts ungyfeðe.
"Ne ic t Swe-þede      sibbe oððe trewe
"wihte ne wne;      ac ws wde cð,
2925
"þtte Ongenþi      ealdre besnyðede
"Hðcyn Hrðling      wið Hrefna-wudu,
"þ for on-mdlan      rest geshton
"Geta lede      Gð-scilfingas.
"Sna him se frda      fder htheres,
2930
"eald and eges-full      ond-slyht geaf,
"bret brim-wsan,      brd herde,
"gomela i-meowlan      golde berofene,
"Onelan mdor      and htheres,
"and þ folgode      feorh-genðlan
2935
"ð þt h ðeodon      earfoðlce
"in Hrefnes-holt      hlford-lese.
"Best þ sin-herge      sweorda lfe
"wundum wrge,      wen oft geht
"earmre teohhe      andlonge niht:
2940
"cwð he on mergenne      mces ecgum
"getan wolde,      sume on galg-trewum
"fuglum t gamene.      Frfor eft gelamp
"srig-mdum      somod r-dge,
"syððan hie Hygelces      horn and bman
2945
"gealdor ongeton.      Þ se gda com
"leda dugoðe      on lst faran.

XLI. HE TELLS OF THE SWEDES AND THE GEATAS

"Ws si swt-swaðu      Sweona and Geta,
"wl-rs wera      wde gesne,
"h þ folc mid him      fhðe twehton.
2950
"Gewt him þ se gda      mid his gdelingum,
"frd fela gemor      fsten scean,
"eorl Ongenþi      ufor oncirde;
"hfde Higelces      hilde gefrunen,
"wlonces wg-crft,      wiðres ne trwode,
2955
"þt he s-mannum      onsacan mihte,
"heðo-lðendum      hord forstandan,
"bearn and brde;      beh eft þonan
"eald under eorð-weall.      Þ ws ht boden
"Sweona ledum,      segn Higelce.
2960
"Freoðo-wong þone      forð ofereodon,
"syððan Hrðlingas      t hagan þrungon.
"Þr wearð Ongenþi      ecgum sweorda,
"blonden-fexa      on bd wrecen,
"þt se þed-cyning      þafian sceolde
2965
"Eofores nne dm:      hyne yrringa
"Wulf Wonrding      wpne gerhte,
"þt him for swenge      swt drum sprong
"forð under fexe.      Ns he forht sw þh,
"gomela Scilfing,      ac forgeald hraðe
2970
"wyrsan wrixle      wl-hlem þone,
"syððan þed-cyning      þyder oncirde:
"ne meahte se snella      sunu Wonrdes
"ealdum ceorle      ond-slyht giofan,
"ac he him on hefde      helm r gescer,
2975
"þt he blde fh      bgan sceolde,
"fell on foldan;      ns he fge þ git,
"ac he hyne gewyrpte,      þeh þe him wund hrne,
"Lt se hearda      Higelces þegn
"brdne mce,      þ his brðor lg,
2980
"eald sweord eotonisc,      entiscne helm,
"brecan ofer bord-weal:      þ gebeh cyning,
"folces hyrde,      ws in feorh dropen.
"Þ wron monige,      þe his mg wriðon,
"ricone rrdon,      þ him germed wearð,
2985
"þt hie wl-stwe      wealdan mston.
"Þenden refode      rinc ðerne,
"nam on Ongenþi      ren-byrnan,
"heard swyrd hilted      and his helm somod;
"hres hyrste      Higelce br.
2990
"He þm frtwum fng      and him fgre geht
"lena fore ledum      and gelste sw:
"geald þone gð-rs      Geta dryhten,
"Hrðles eafora,      þ he t hm becom,
"Jofore and Wulfe      mid ofer-mðmum,
2995
"sealde hiora gehwðrum      hund þsenda
"landes and locenra bega;      ne þorfte him þ len ðwtan
"mon on middan-gearde,      syððan hie þ mrða geslgon;
"and þ Jofore forgeaf      ngan dhtor,
"hm-weorðunge,      hyldo t wedde.
3000
"Þt ys si fhðo      and se fend-scipe,
"wl-nð wera,      þs þe ic wn hafo,
"þe s sceað t      Sweona lede,
"syððan hie gefricgeað      fren serne
"ealdor-lesne,      þone þe r geheld
3005
"wið hettendum      hord and rce,
"fter hleða hryre      hwate Scylfingas,
"folc-rd fremede      oððe furður gen
"eorl-scipe efnde.      Nu is fost betost,
"þt we þed-cyning      þr scewian
3010
"and þone gebringan,      þe s begas geaf,
"on d-fre.      Ne scel nes hwt
"meltan mid þam mdigan,      ac þr is mðma hord.
"gold unrme      grimme gecepod
"and nu t sðestan      sylfes feore
3015
"begas gebohte;      þ sceal brond fretan,
"led þeccean,      nalles eorl wegan
"mððum t gemyndum,      ne mgð scne
"habban on healse      hring-weorðunge,
"ac sceall gemor-md      golde berefod
3020
"oft nalles ne      el-land tredan,
"nu se here-wsa      hleahtor legde,
"gamen and gle-drem.      Forþon sceall gr wesan
"monig morgen-ceald      mundum bewunden,
"hfen on handa,      nalles hearpan swg
3025
"wgend weccean,      ac se wonna hrefn
"fs ofer fgum,      fela reordian,
"earne secgan,      h him t te spew,
"þenden he wið wulf      wl refode."
Sw se secg hwata      secgende ws
3030
lðra spella;      he ne leg fela
wyrda ne worda.      Weorod eall rs,
eodon unblðe      under Earna ns
wollen-tere      wundur scewian.
Fundon þ on sande      swul-lesne
3035
hlim-bed healdan,      þone þe him hringas geaf
rran mlum:      þ ws ende-dg
gdum gegongen,      þt se gð-cyning,
Wedra þeden,      wundor-deðe swealt.
r h gesgan      syllcran wiht,
3040
wyrm on wonge      wiðer-rhtes þr
lðne licgean:      ws se lg-draca,
grimlc gryre-gst,      gldum beswled,
se ws fftiges      ft-gemearces.
lang on legere,      lyft-wynne held
3045
nihtes hwlum,      nyðer eft gewt
dennes nisian;      ws þ deðe fst,
hfde eorð-scrafa      ende genyttod.
Him big stdan      bunan and orcas,
discas lgon      and dre swyrd,
3050
mige þurh-etone,      sw hie wið eorðan fðm
þsend wintra      þr eardodon:
þonne ws þt yrfe      ecen-crftig,
i-monna gold      galdre bewunden,
þt þam hring-sele      hrnan ne mste
3055
gumena nig,      nefne god sylfa,
sigora sð-cyning,      sealde þam þe he wolde
(he is manna gehyld)      hord openian,
efne sw hwylcum manna,      sw him gemet þhte.

XLII. WGLAF SPEAKS. THE BUILDING OF THE BALE-FIRE.

Þ ws gesne,      þt se sð ne þh
3060
þam þe unrihte      inne gehdde
wrte under wealle.      Weard r ofslh
fera sumne;      þ si fhð gewearð
gewrecen wrðlce.      Wundur hwr, þonne
eorl ellen-rf      ende gefre
3065
lf-gesceafta,      þonne leng ne mg
mon mid his mgum      medu-seld ban.
Sw ws Biwulfe,      þ he biorges weard
shte, searo-nðas:      seolfa ne cðe,
þurh hwt his worulde gedl      weorðan sceolde;
3070
sw hit ð dmes dg      dipe benemdon
þednas mre,      þ þt þr dydon,
þt se secg wre      synnum scildig,
hergum geheaðerod,      hell-bendum fst,
wommum gewitnad,      se þone wong strde.
3075
Ns he gold-hwt:      gearwor hfde
gendes st      r gescewod.
Wglf maðelode,      Wihstnes sunu:
"Oft sceall eorl monig      nes willan
"wrc dregan,      sw s geworden is.
3080
"Ne meahton we gelran      lefne þeden,
"rces hyrde      rd nigne,
"þt he ne grtte      gold-weard þone,
"lte hyne licgean,      þr he longe ws,
"wcum wunian      ð woruld-ende.
3085
"Heldon heh gesceap:      hord ys gescewod,
"grimme gegongen;      ws þt gifeðe t swð,
"þe þone þeden      þyder ontyhte.
"Ic ws þr inne      and þt eall geond-seh,
"recedes geatwa,      þ me germed ws,
3090
"nealles swslce      sð lfed
"inn under eorð-weall.      Ic on foste gefng
"micle mid mundum      mgen-byrðenne
"hord-gestrena,      hider t tbr
"cyninge mnum:      cwico ws þ gena,
3095
"ws and gewittig;      worn eall gesprc
"gomol on gehðo      and ewic grtan ht,
"bd þt ge geworhton      fter wines ddum
"in bl-stede      beorh þone hen
"micelne and mrne,      sw he manna ws
3100
"wgend weorð-fullost      wde geond eorðan,
"þenden he burh-welan      brcan mste.
"Uton nu fstan      ðre sðe
"sen and scean      searo-geþrc,
"wundur under wealle!      ic ew wsige,
3105
"þt ge genge      nen scewiað
"begas and brd gold.      Se si br gearo
"dre gefned,      þonne we t cymen,
"and þonne geferian      fren serne,
"lefne mannan,      þr he longe sceal
3110
"on þs waldendes      wre geþolian."
Ht þ gebedan      byre Wihstnes,
hle hilde-dir,      hleða monegum
bold-gendra,      þt hie bl-wudu
feorran feredon,      folc-gende
3115
gdum tgnes:      "Nu sceal gld fretan
"(weaxan wonna lg)      wgena strengel,
"þone þe oft gebd      sern-scre,
"þonne strla storm,      strengum gebded,
"scc ofer scild-weall,      sceft nytte held,
3120
"feðer-gearwum fs      flne full-eode."
Hru se snotra      sunu Wihstnes
cgde of corðre      cyninges þegnas
syfone tsomne      þ slestan,
eode eahta sum      under inwit-hrf;
3125
hilde-rinc sum      on handa br
led-leman,      se þe on orde geng.
Ns þ on hlytme,      hw þt hord strude,
syððan or-wearde      nigne dl
secgas gesgon      on sele wunian,
3130
lne licgan:      lyt nig mearn,
þt hi fostlice      t geferedon
dre mðmas;      dracan c scufun,
wyrm ofer weall-clif,      lton wg niman,
fld fðmian      frtwa hyrde.
3135
Þr ws wunden gold      on wn hladen,
ghws unrm,      ðeling boren,
hr hilde-rinc      t Hrones nsse.

XLIII. BEWULF'S FUNERAL PYRE.

Him þ gegiredan      Geta lede
d on eorðan      un-wclcne,
3140
helmum behongen,      hilde-bordum,
beorhtum byrnum,      sw he bna ws;
legdon þ t-middes      mrne þeden
hleð hifende,      hlford lefne.
Ongunnon þ on beorge      bl-fra mst
3145
wgend weccan:      wudu-rc sth
sweart ofer swioðole,      swgende lg,
wpe bewunden      (wind-blond gelg)
ð þt he þ bn-hs      gebrocen hfde,
ht on hreðre.      Higum unrte
3150
md-ceare mndon      mon-dryhtnes cwealm;
swylce gimor-gyd      † lat . con meowle
. . . . .      wunden heorde . . .
serg (?) cearig slde      geneahhe
þt hio hyre . . . . gas hearde
3155
. . . . . ede      wlfylla wonn . .
hildes egesan      hyðo
haf mid      heofon rce swealh (?)
Geworhton þ      Wedra lede
hlw on hliðe,      se ws heh and brd,
3160
wg-lðendum      wde gesne,
and betimbredon      on tyn dagum
beadu-rfes bcn:      bronda betost
wealle beworhton,      sw hyt weorðlcost
fore-snotre men      findan mihton.
3165
H on beorg dydon      bg and siglu,
eall swylce hyrsta,      swylce on horde r
nð-hydige men      genumen hfdon;
forlton eorla gestren      eorðan healdan,
gold on grete,      þr hit nu gen lifað
3170
eldum sw unnyt,      sw hit ror ws.
Þ ymbe hlw riodan      hilde-dere,
ðelinga bearn      ealra twelfa,
woldon ceare cwðan,      kyning mnan,
word-gyd wrecan      and ymb wer sprecan,
3175
eahtodan eorl-scipe      and his ellen-weorc
duguðum dmdon,      sw hit ge-dfe bið,
þt mon his wine-dryhten      wordum hrge,
ferhðum frege,      þonne he forð scile
of lc-haman      lne weorðan.
3180
Sw begnornodon      Geta lede
hlfordes hryre,      heorð-genetas,
cwdon þt he wre      woruld-cyning
mannum mildust      and mon-þwrust,
ledum lðost      and lof-geornost.

APPENDIX

THE ATTACK IN FINNSBURG.

". . . . . . . . . . . ns byrnað nfre."
Hleoðrode þ      heaðo-geong cyning:
"Ne þis ne dagað estan,      ne her draca ne flegeð,
"ne her þisse healle      hornas ne byrnað,
5
"ac fr forð berað      fugelas singað,
"gylleð grg-hama,      gð-wudu hlynneð,
"scyld scefte oncwyð.      Nu scneð þes mna
"waðol under wolcnum;      nu rsað we-dda,
"þe þisne folces nð      fremman willað.
10
"Ac onwacnigeað nu,      wgend mne,
"hebbað ewre handa,      hicgeað on ellen,
"winnað on orde,      wesað on mde!"
Þ rs monig gold-hladen þegn,      gyrde hine his swurde;
þ t dura eodon      drihtlce cempan,
15
Sigeferð and Eaha,      hyra sweord getugon,
and t ðrum durum      Ordlf and Gðlf,
and Hengest sylf;      hwearf him on lste.
Þ git Grulf      Gðere styrode,
þt hie sw frelc feorh      forman sðe
20
t þre healle durum      hyrsta ne bran,
nu hyt nða heard      nyman wolde:
ac he frgn ofer eal      undearninga,
der-md hleð,      hw þ duru helde.
"Sigeferð is mn nama (cwð he),      ic eom Secgena led,
25
"wrecca wde cð.      Fela ic wena gebd,
"heardra hilda;      þe is gyt her witod,
"swðer þu sylf t me      scean wylle."
Þ ws on wealle      wl-slihta gehlyn,
sceolde clod bord      cnum on handa
30
bn-helm berstan.      Buruh-þelu dynede,
ð þt t þre gðe      Grulf gecrang,
ealra rest      eorð-bendra,
Gðlfes sunu;      ymbe hine gdra fela.
Hwearf flacra hrw      hrfn, wandrode
35
sweart and sealo-brn;      swurd-lema std
swylce eal Finns-buruh      frenu wre.
Ne gefrgn ic nfre wurðlcor      t wera hilde
sixtig sige-beorna      sl gebran,
ne nfre swnas swtne      medo sl forgyldan,
40
þonne Hnfe guldon      his hg-stealdas.
Hig fuhton ff dagas,      sw hyra nn ne fel
driht-gesða,      ac hig þ duru heldon.
Þ gewt him wund hleð      on wg gangan,
sde þt his byrne      brocen wre,
45
here-sceorpum hrr,      and ec ws his helm þyrl.
Þ hine sna frgn      folces hyrde,
h þ wgend      hyra wunda genson
oððe hwðer þra hyssa . . . . . . .

LIST OF NAMES; NOTES; AND GLOSSARY.

ABBREVIATIONS

m.:masculine.
f.:feminine.
n.:neuter.
nom., gen.:nominative, genitive, etc.
w.:weak.
w. v.:weak verb.
st.:strong.
st. v.:strong verb.
I., II., III.:first, second, third person.
comp.:compound.
imper.:imperative.
w.:with.
instr.:instrumental.
G. and Goth.:Gothic.
O.N.:Old Norse.
O.S.:Old Saxon.
O.H.G.:Old High German.
M.H.G.:Middle High German.
The vowel = a in glad}
The diphthong = a in hair}approximately.

The names Leo, Bugge, Rieger, etc., refer to authors of emendations.

Words beginning with ge- will be found under their root-word.

Obvious abbreviations, like subj., etc., are not included in this list.

LIST OF NAMES.

Abel, Cain's brother, 108.

lf-here (gen. lf-heres, 2605), a kinsman of Wglf's, 2605.

sc-here, confidential adviser of King Hrðgr (1326), older brother of Yrmenlf (1325), killed by Grendel's mother, 1295, 1324, 2123.

Bn-stn, father of Breca, 524.

Be-wulf, son of Scyld, king of the Danes, 18, 19. After the death of his father, he succeeds to the throne of the Scyldings, 53. His son is Healfdene, 57.

Be-wulf (Biwulf, 1988, 2390; gen. Bewulfes, 857, etc., Biwulfes, 2195, 2808, etc.; dat. Bewulfe, 610, etc., Biwulfe, 2325, 2843), of the race of the Getas. His father is the Wgmunding Ecgþew (263, etc.); his mother a daughter of Hrðel, king of the Getas (374), at whose court he is brought up after his seventh year with Hrðel's sons, Herebeald, Hðcyn, and Hygelc, 2429 ff. In his youth lazy and unapt (2184 f., 2188 f.); as man he attains in the gripe of his hand the strength of thirty men, 379. Hence his victories in his combats with bare hands (711 ff., 2502 ff.), while fate denies him the victory in the battle with swords, 2683 f. His swimming-match with Breca in his youth, 506 ff. Goes with fourteen Getas to the assistance of the Danish king, Hrðgr, against Grendel, 198 ff. His combat with Grendel, and his victory, 711 ff., 819 ff. He is, in consequence, presented with rich gifts by Hrðgr, 1021 ff. His combat with Grendel's mother, 1442 ff. Having again received gifts, he leaves Hrðgr (1818-1888), and returns to Hygelc, 1964 ff.—After Hygelc's last battle and death, he flees alone across the sea, 2360 f. In this battle he crushes Dghrefn, one of the Hgas, to death, 2502 f. He rejects at the same time Hygelc's kingdom and the hand of his widow (2370 ff.), but carries on the government as guardian of the young Heardrd, son of Hygelc, 2378 ff. After Heardrd's death, the kingdom falls to Bewulf, 2208, 2390.—Afterwards, on an expedition to avenge the murdered Heardrd, he kills the Scylfing, Edgils (2397), and probably conquers his country. —His fight with the drake, 2539 ff. His death, 2818. His burial, 3135 ff.

Breca (acc. Brecan, 506, 531), son of Benstn, 524. Chief of the Brondings, 521. His swimming-match with Bewulf, 506 ff.

Brondingas (gen. Brondinga, 521), Breca, their chief, 521.

Brosinga mene, corrupted from, or according to Mllenhoff, written by mistake for, Breosinga mene (O.N., Brisinga men, cf. Haupts Zeitschr. XII. 304), collar, which the Brisingas once possessed.

Cain (gen. Caines, 107): descended from him are Grendel and his kin, 107, 1262 ff.

Dg-hrefn (dat. Dghrefne, 2502), a warrior of the Hgas, who, according to 2504-5, compared with 1203, and with 1208, seems to have been the slayer of King Hygelc, in his battle against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hgas. Is crushed to death by Bewulf in a hand-to-hand combat, 2502 ff.

Dene (gen. Dena, 242, etc., Denia, 2126, Deniga, 271, etc.; dat. Denum, 768, etc.), as subjects of Scyld and his descendants, they are also called Scyldings; and after the first king of the East Danes, Ing (Runenlied, 22), Ing-wine, 1045, 1320. They are also once called Hrðmen, 445. On account of their renowned warlike character, they bore the names Gr-Dene, 1, 1857, Hring-Dene (Armor-Danes), 116, 1280, Beorht-Dene, 427, 610. The great extent of this people is indicated by their names from the four quarters of the heavens: Est-Dene, 392, 617, etc., West-Dene, 383, 1579, Sð-Dene, 463, Norð-Dene, 784.—Their dwelling-place "in Scedelandum," 19, "on Scedenigge," 1687, "be sm twenum," 1686.

Ecg-lf (gen. Ecglfes, 499), Hnferð's father, 499.

Ecg-þew (nom. Ecgþew, 263, Ecgþe, 373; gen. Ecgþewes, 529, etc., Ecgþiwes, 2000), a far-famed hero of the Getas, of the house of the Wgmundings. Bewulf is the son of Ecgþew, by the only daughter of Hrðel, king of the Getas, 262, etc. Among the Wylfings, he has slain Heaðolf (460), and in consequence he goes over the sea to the Danes (463), whose king, Hrðgr, by means of gold, finishes the strife for him, 470.

Ecg-wela (gen. Ecg-welan, 1711). The Scyldings are called his descendants, 1711. Grein considers him the founder of the older dynasty of Danish kings, which closes with Heremd. See Heremd.

Elan, daughter of Healfdene, king of the Danes, (?) 62. According to the restored text, she is the wife of Ongenþew, the Scylfing, 62, 63.

Earna-ns, the Eagle Cape in the land of the Getas, where occurred Bewulf's fight with the drake, 3032.

Edgils (dat. Edgilse, 2393), son of hthere, and grandson of Ongenþew, the Scylfing, 2393. His older brother is

Enmund (gen. Enmundes, 2612). What is said about both in our poem (2201-2207, 2380-2397, 2612-2620) is obscure, but the following may be conjectured:—

The sons of hthere, Enmund and Edgils, have rebelled against their father (2382), and must, in consequence, depart with their followers from Swirce, 2205-6, 2380. They come into the country of the Getas to Heardrd (2380), but whether with friendly or hostile intent is not stated; but, according to 2203 f., we are to presume that they came against Heardrd with designs of conquest. At a banquet (on feorme; or feorme, MS.) Heardrd falls, probably through treachery, by the hand of one of the brothers, 2386, 2207. The murderer must have been Enmund, to whom, according to 2613, "in battle the revenge of Weohstn brings death." Weohstn takes revenge for his murdered king, and exercises upon Enmund's body the booty-right, and robs it of helm, breastplate, and sword (2616-17), which the slain man had received as gifts from his uncle, Onela, 2617-18. But Weohstn does not speak willingly of this fight, although he has slain Onela's brother's son, 2619-20.—After Heardrd's and Enmund's death, the descendant of Ongenþew, Edgils, returns to his home, 2388. He must give way before Bewulf, who has, since Heardrd's death, ascended the throne of the Getas, 2390. But Bewulf remembers it against him in after days, and the old feud breaks out anew, 2392-94. Edgils makes an invasion into the land of the Getas (2394-95), during which he falls at the hands of Bewulf, 2397. The latter must have then obtained the sovereignty over the Sweonas (3005-6, where only the version, Scylfingas, can give a satisfactory sense).

Eofor (gen. Eofores, 2487, 2965; dat. Jofore, 2994, 2998), one of the Getas, son of Wonrd and brother of Wulf (2965, 2979), kills the Swedish king, Ongenþew (2487 ff., 2978-82), for which he receives from King Hygelc, along with other gifts, his only daughter in marriage, 2994-99.

Eormen-rc (gen. Eormenrces, 1202), king of the Goths (cf. about him, W. Grimm, Deutsche Heldensage, p. 2, ff.). Hma has wrested the Brosinga mene from him, 1202.

Eomr, son of Offa and Þryðo (cf. Þryðo), 1961.

Finn (gen. Finnes, 1069, etc.; dat. Finne, 1129), son of Folcwalda (1090), king of the North Frisians, i.e. of the Eotenas, husband of Hildeburg, a daughter of Hc, 1072, 1077. He is the hero of the inserted poem on the Attack in Finnsburg, the obscure incidents of which are, perhaps, as follows: In Finn's castle, Finnsburg, situated in Jutland (1126-28), the Hcing, Hnf, a relative—perhaps a brother—of Hildeburg is spending some time as guest. Hnf, who is a liegeman of the Danish king, Healfdene, has sixty men with him (Finnsburg, 38). These are treacherously attacked one night by Finn's men, 1073. For five days they hold the doors of their lodging-place without losing one of their number (Finnsburg, 41, 42). Then, however, Hnf is slain (1071), and the Dane, Hengest, who was among Hnf's followers, assumes the command of the beleaguered band. But on the attacking side the fight has brought terrible losses to Finn's men. Their numbers are diminished (1081 f.), and Hildeburg bemoans a son and a brother among the fallen (1074 f., cf. 1116, 1119). Therefore the Frisians offer the Danes peace (1086) under the conditions mentioned (1087-1095), and it is confirmed with oaths (1097), and money is given by Finn in propitiation (1108). Now all who have survived the battle go together to Friesland, the homo proper of Finn, and here Hengest remains during the winter, prevented by ice and storms from returning home (Grein). But in spring the feud breaks out anew. Gðlf and Oslf avenge Hnf's fall, probably after they have brought help from home (1150). In the battle, the hall is filled with the corpses of the enemy. Finn himself is killed, and the queen is captured and carried away, along with the booty, to the land of the Danes, 1147-1160.

Finna land. Bewulf reaches it in his swimming-race with Breca, 580.

Fitela, the son and nephew of the Wlsing, Sigemund, and his companion in arms, 876-890. (Sigemund had begotten Fitela by his sister, Sign. Cf. more at length Leo on Bewulf, p. 38 ff., where an extract from the legend of the Walsungs is given.)

Folc-walda (gen. Folc-waldan, 1090), Finn's father, 1090.

Francan (gen. Francna, 1211; dat. Froncum, 2913). King Hygelc fell on an expedition against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hgas, 1211, 2917.

Fresan, Frisan, Frysan (gen. Fresena, 1094, Frysna, 1105, Fresna, 2916: dat. Frysum, 1208, 2913). To be distinguished, are: 1) North Frisians, whose king is Finn, 1069 ff.; 2) West Frisians, in alliance with the Franks and Hgas, in the war against whom Hygelc falls, 1208, 2916. The country of the former is called Frysland, 1127; that of the latter, Fresna land, 2916.

Fr..es wl (in Fr..es wle, 1071), mutilated proper name.

Frewaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrðgr; given in marriage to Ingeld, the son of the Heaðobeard king, Frda, in order to end a war between the Danes and the Heaðobeardnas, 2023 ff., 2065.

Frda (gen. Frdan), father of Ingeld, the husband of Freware, 2026.

Grmund (gen. Grmundes, 1963) father of Offa. His grandson is Emr, 1961-63.

Getas (gen. Geta, 205, etc.; dat. Getum, 195, etc.), a tribe in Southern Scandinavia, to which the hero of this poem belongs; also called Wedergetas, 1493, 2552; or, Wederas, 225, 423, etc.; Gðgetas, 1539; Sgetas, 1851, 1987. Their kings named in this poem are: Hrðel; Hðcyn, second son of Hrðel; Hygelc, the brother of Hðcyn; Heardrd, son of Hygelc; then Bewulf.

Gifðas (dat. Gifðum, 2495), Gepid, mentioned in connection with Danes and Swedes, 2495.

Grendel, a fen-spirit (102-3) of Cain's race, 107, 111, 1262, 1267. He breaks every night into Hrðgr's hall and carries off thirty warriors, 115 ff., 1583ff. He continues this for twelve years, till Bewulf fights with him (147, 711 ff.), and gives him a mortal wound, in that he tears out one of his arms (817), which is hung up as a trophy in the roof of Heorot, 837. Grendel's mother wishes to avenge her son, and the following night breaks into the hall and carries off schere, 1295. Bewulf seeks for and finds her home in the fen-lake (1493 ff.), fights with her (1498 ff.), and kills her (1567); and cuts off the head of Grendel, who lay there dead (1589), and brings it to Hrðgr, 1648.

Gð-lf and Oslf, Danish warriors under Hnf, whose death they avenge on Finn, 1149.

Hlga, with the surname, til, the younger brother of the Danish king, Hrðgr, 61. His son is Hrðulf, 1018, 1165, 1182.

Hma wrests the Brosinga mene from Eormenrc, 1199.

Hreð (gen. Hreðes, 1982), father of Hygd, the wife of Hygelc, 1930, 1982.

Hðcyn (dat. Hðcynne, 2483), second son of Hrðel, king of the Getas, 2435. Kills his oldest brother, Herebeald, accidentally, with an arrow, 2438 ff. After Hrðel's death, he obtains the kingdom, 2475, 2483. He falls at Ravenswood, in the battle against the Swedish king, Ongenþew, 2925. His successor is his younger brother, Hygelc, 2944 ff., 2992.

Helmingas (gen. Helminga, 621). From them comes Wealhþew, Hrðgr's wife, 621.

Heming (gen. Heminges, 1945, 1962). Offa is called Heminges mg, 1945; Emr, 1962. According to Bachlechner (Pfeiffer's Germania, I., p. 458), Heming is the son of the sister of Grmund, Offa's father.

Hengest (gen. Hengestes, 1092; dat. Hengeste, 1084): about him and his relations to Hnf and Finn, see Finn.

Here-beald (dat. Herebealde, 2464), the oldest son of Hrðel, king of the Getas (2435), accidentally killed with an arrow by his younger brother, Hðcyn, 2440.

Here-md (gen. Heremdes, 902), king of the Danes, not belonging to the Scylding dynasty, but, according to Grein, immediately preceding it; is, on account of his unprecedented cruelty, driven out, 902 ff., 1710.

Here-rc (gen. Hererces, 2207) Heardrd is called Hererces nefa, 2207. Nothing further is known of him.

Het-ware or Franks, in alliance with the Frisians and the Hgas, conquer Hygelc, king of the Getas, 2355, 2364 ff., 2917.

Healf-dene (gen. Healfdenes, 189, etc.), son of Bewulf, the Scylding (57); rules the Danes long and gloriously (57 f.); has three sons, Heorogr, Hrðgr, and Hlga (61), and a daughter, Elan, who, according to the renewed text of the passage, ws married to the Scylfing, Ongenþew, 62, 63.

Heard-rd (dat. Heardrde, 2203, 2376), son of Hygelc, king of the Getas, and Hygd. After his father's death, while still under age, he obtains the throne (2371, 2376, 2379); wherefore Bewulf, as nephew of Heardrd's father, acts as guardian to the youth till he becomes older, 2378. He is slain by hthere's sons, 2386. This murder Bewulf avenges on Edgils, 2396-97.

Heaðo-beardnas (gen. -beardna, 2033, 2038, 2068), the tribe of the Lombards. Their king, Frda, has fallen in a war with the Danes, 2029, 2051. In order to end the feud, King Hrðgr has given his daughter, Frewaru, as wife to the young Ingeld, the son of Frda, a marriage that does not result happily; for Ingeld, though he long defers it on account of his love for his wife, nevertheless takes revenge for his father, 2021-2070 (Wdsð, 45-49).

Heaðo-lf (dat. Heaðo-lfe, 460), a Wylfingish warrior. Ecgþew, Bewulf's father, kills him, 460.

Heaðo-rmas reached by B. in the swimming-race with Bewulf, 519.

Heoro-gr (nom. 61; Heregr, 467; Hiorogr, 2159), son of Healfdene, and older brother of Hrðgr, 61. His death is mentioned, 467. He has a son, Heoroweard, 2162. His coat of mail Bewulf has received from Hrðgr (2156), and presents it to Hygelc, 2158.

Heoro-weard (dat. Heorowearde, 2162), Heorogr's son, 2161-62.

Heort, 78. Heorot, 166 (gen. Heorotes, 403; dat. Heorote, 475, Heorute, 767, Hiorte, 2100). Hrðgr's throne-room and banqueting hall and assembly-room for his liegemen, built by him with unusual splendor, 69, 78. In it occurs Bewulf's fight with Grendel, 720 ff. The hall receives its name from the stag's antlers, of which the one-half crowns the eastern gable, the other half the western.

Hildeburh, daughter of Hc, relative of the Danish leader, Hnf, consort of the Frisian king, Finn. After the fall of the latter, she becomes a captive of the Danes, 1072, 1077, 1159. See also under Finn.

Hnf (gen. Hnfes, 1115), a Hcing (Wdsð, 29), the Danish King Healfdene's general, 1070 ff. For his fight with Finn, his death and burial, see under Finn.

Hond-sci, warrior of the Getas: dat. 2077.

Hc (gen. Hces, 1077), father of Hildeburh, 1077; probably also of Hnf (Wdsð, 29).

Hrðel (gen. Hrðles, 1486), son of Swerting, 1204. King of the Getas, 374. He has, besides, a daughter, who is married to Ecgþew, and has borne him Bewulf, (374), three sons, Herebeald, Hðcyn, and Hygelc, 2435. The eldest of these is accidentally killed by the second, 2440. On account of this inexpiable deed, Hrðel becomes melancholy (2443), and dies, 2475.

Hrðla (gen. Hrðlan, MS. Hrdlan, 454), the same as Hrðel (cf. Mllenhoff in Haupts Zeitschrift, 12, 260), the former owner of Bewulf's coat of mail, 454.

Hrð-men (gen. Hrð-manna, 445), the Danes are so called, 445.

Hrð-rc, son of Hrðgr, 1190, 1837.

Hrefna-wudu, 2926, or Hrefnes-holt, 2936, the thicket near which the Swedish king, Ongenþew, slew Hðcyn, king of the Getas, in battle.

Hreosna-beorh, promontory in the land of the Getas, near which Ongenþew's sons, hthere and Onela, had made repeated robbing incursions into the country after Hrðel's death. These were the immediate cause of the war in which Hrðel's son, King Hðcyn, fell, 2478 ff.

Hrð-gr (gen. Hrðgres, 235, etc.; dat. Hrðgre, 64, etc.), of the dynasty of the Scyldings; the second of the three sons of King Healfdene, 61. After the death of his elder brother, Heorogr, he assumes the government of the Danes, 465, 467 (yet it is not certain whether Heorogr was king of the Danes before Hrðgr, or whether his death occurred while his father, Healfdene, was still alive). His consort is Wealhþew (613), of the stock of the Helmings (621), who has borne him two sons, Hrðrc and Hrðmund (1190), and a daughter, Freware (2023), who has been given in marriage to the king of the Heaðobeardnas, Ingeld. His throne-room (78 ff.), which has been built at great cost (74 ff.), is visited every night by Grendel (102, 115), who, along with his mother, is slain by Bewulf (711 ff., 1493 ff). Hrðgr's rich gifts to Bewulf, in consequence, 1021, 1818; he is praised as being generous, 71 ff., 80, 1028 ff., 1868 ff.; as being brave, 1041 ff., 1771 ff.; and wise, 1699, 1725.—Other information about Hrðgr's reign for the most part only suggested: his expiation of the murder which Ecgþew, Bewulf's father, committed upon Heaðolf, 460, 470; his war with the Heaðobeardnas; his adjustment of it by giving his daughter, Freware, in marriage to their king, Ingeld; evil results of this marriage, 2021-2070.—Treachery of his brother's son, Hrðulf, intimated, 1165-1166.

Hrð-mund, Hrðgr's son, 1190.

Hrð-ulf, probably a son of Hlga, the younger brother of King Hrðgr, 1018, 1182. Wealhþew expresses the hope (1182) that, in case of the early death of Hrðgr, Hrð-ulf would prove a good guardian to Hrðgr's young son, who would succeed to the government; a hope which seems not to have been accomplished, since it appears from 1165, 1166 that Hrð-ulf has abused his trust towards Hrðgr.

Hrones-ns (dat. -nsse, 2806, 3137), a promontory on the coast of the country of the Getas, visible from afar. Here is Bewulf's grave-mound, 2806, 3137.

Hrunting (dat. Hruntinge, 1660), Hnferð's sword, is so called, 1458, 1660.

Hgas (gen. Hga, 2503), Hygelc wars against them allied with the Franks and Frisians, and falls, 2195 ff. One of their heroes is called Dghrefn, whom Bewulf slays, 2503.

[H]n-ferð, the son of Ecglf, þyle of King Hrðgr. As such, he has his place near the throne of the king, 499, 500, 1167. He lends his sword, Hrunting, to Bewulf for his battle with Grendel's mother, 1456 f. According to 588, 1168, he slew his brothers. Since his name is always alliterated with vowels, it is probable that the original form was, as Rieger (Zachers Ztschr., 3, 414) conjectures, Unferð.

Hn-lfing, name of a costly sword, which Finn presents to Hengest, 1144. See Note.

Hygd (dat. Hygde, 2173), daughter of Hreð, 1930; consort of Hygelc, king of the Getas, 1927; her son, Heardrd, 2203, etc.—Her noble, womanly character is emphasized, 1927 ff.

Hyge-lc (gen. Hige-lces, 194, etc., Hygelces, 2387; dat. Higelce, 452, Hygelce, 2170), king of the Getas, 1203, etc. His grandfather is Swerting, 1204; his father, Hrðel, 1486, 1848; his older brothers, Herebeald and Hðcyn, 2435; his sister's son, Bewulf, 374, 375. After his brother, Hðcyn, is killed by Ongenþew, he undertakes the government (2992 in connection with the preceding from 2937 on). To Eofor he gives, as reward for slaying Ongenþew, his only daughter in marriage, 2998. But much later, at the time of the return of Bewulf from his expedition to Hrðgr, we see him married to the very young Hygd, the daughter of Hreð, 1930. The latter seems, then, to have been his second wife. Their son is Heardrd, 2203, 2376, 2387.—Hygelc falls during an expedition against the Franks, Frisians, and Hgas, 1206, 1211, 2356-59, 2916-17.

Ingeld (dat. Ingelde, 2065), son of Frda, the Heaðobeard chief, who fell in a battle with the Danes, 2051 ff. in order to end the war, Ingeld is married to Frewaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrðgr, 2025-30. Yet his love for his young wife can make him forget only for a short while his desire to avenge his father. He finally carries it out, excited thereto by the repeated admonitions of an old warrior, 2042-70 (Wdsð, 45-59).

Ing-wine (gen. Ingwina, 1045, 1320), friends of Ing, the first king of the East Danes. The Danes are so called, 1045, 1320.

Mere-wioingas (gen. Mere-wioinga, 2922), as name of the Franks, 2922.

Ngling, the name of Bewulf's sword, 2681.

Offa (gen. Offan, 1950), king of the Angles (Wdsð, 35), the son of Grmund, 1963; married (1950) to Þryðo (1932), a beautiful but cruel woman, of unfeminine spirit (1932 ff.), by whom he has a son, Emr, 1961.

ht-here (gen. htheres, 2929, 2933; hteres, 2381, 2393, 2395, 2613), son of Ongenþew, king of the Swedes, 2929. His sons are Enmund (2612) and Edgils, 2393.

Onela (gen. Onelan, 2933), hthere's brother, 2617, 2933.

Ongen-þew (nom. -þew, 2487, -þi, 2952; gen. -þewes, 2476, -þiwes, 2388; dat. -þi, 2987), of the dynasty of the Scylfings; king of the Swedes, 2384. His wife is, perhaps, Elan, daughter of the Danish king, Healfdene (62), and mother of two sons, Onela and hthere, 2933. She is taken prisoner by Hðcyn, king of the Getas, on an expedition into Sweden, which he undertakes on account of her sons' plundering raids into his country, 2480 ff. She is set free by Ongenþew (2931), who kills Hðcyn, 2925, and encloses the Getas, now deprived of their leader, in the Ravenswood (2937 ff.), till they are freed by Hygelc, 2944. A battle then follows, which is unfavorable to Ongenþew's army. Ongenþew himself, attacked by the brothers, Wulf and Eofor, is slain by the latter, 2487 ff., 2962 ff.

s-lf, a warrior of Hnf's, who avenges on Finn his leader's death, 1149 f.

Scede-land, 19. Sceden-g (dat. Sceden-gge, 1687), O.N., Scn-ey, the most southern portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, belonging to the Danish kingdom, and, in the above-mentioned passages of our poem, a designation of the whole Danish kingdom.

Scf or Scef. See Note.

Scyld (gen. Scyldes, 19), a Scfing. 4. His son is Bewulf, 18, 53: his grandson, Healfdene, 57; his great-grandson, Hrðgr, who had two brothers and a sister, 59 ff.—Scyld dies, 26; his body, upon a decorated ship, is given over to the sea (32 ff.), just as he, when a child, drifted alone, upon a ship, to the land of the Danes, 43 ff. After him his descendants bear his name.

Scyldingas (Scyldungas, 2053; gen. Scyldinga, 53, etc., Scyldunga, 2102, 2160; dat. Scyldingum, 274, etc.), a name which is extended also to the Danes, who are ruled by the Scyldings, 53, etc. They are also called r-Scyldingas, 464; Sige-Scyldingas, 598, 2005; Þed-Scyldingas, 1020; Here-Scyldingas, 1109.

Scylfingas, a Swedish royal family, whose relationship seems to extend to the Getas, since Wglf, the son of Wihstn, who in another place, as a kinsman of Bewulf, is called a Wgmunding (2815), is also called led Scylfinga, 2604. The family connections are perhaps as follows:—

              Scylf.
                |
     ------------------------
     Wgmund.         .......
        |                |
------------------  ----------
Ecgþew.  Weohstn.  Ongenþew.
   |         |           |
-------- -------- ---------------
Bewulf.  Wglf.  Onela. hthere.
                             |
                 -----------------
                 Eumund. Edgils.

The Scylfings are also called Heaðo-Scilfingas, 63, Gð-Scylfingas, 2928.

Sige-mund (dat. -munde, 876, 885), the son of Wls, 878, 898. His (son and ) nephew is Fitela, 880, 882. His fight with the drake, 887 ff.

Swerting (gen. Swertinges, 1204), Hygelc's grandfather, and Hrðel's father, 1204.

Sweon (gen. Sweona, 2473, 2947, 3002), also Swe-þed, 2923. The dynasty of the Scylfings rules over them, 2382, 2925. Their realm is called Swirice, 2384, 2496.

Þryðo, consort of the Angle king, Offa, 1932, 1950. Mother of Emr, 1961, notorious on account of her cruel, unfeminine character, 1932 ff. She is mentioned as the opposite to the mild, dignified Hygd, the queen of the Getas.

Wls (gen. Wlses, 898), father of Sigemund, 878, 898.

Wg-mundingas (gen. Wgmundinga, 2608, 2815). The Wgmundings are on one side, Wihstn and his son Wglf; on the other side, Ecgþew and his son Bewulf (2608, 2815). See under Scylfingas.

Wederas (gen. Wedera, 225, 423, 498, etc.), or Weder-getas. See Getas.

Wland (gen. Wlandes, 455), the maker of Bewulf's coat of mail, 455.

Wendlas (gen. Wendla, 348): their chief is Wulfgr. See Wulfgr. The Wendlas are, according to Grundtvig and Bugge, the inhabitants of Vendill, the most northern part of Jutland, between Limfjord and the sea.

Wealh-þew (613, Wealh-þe, 665, 1163), the consort of King Hrðgr, of the stock of the Helmings, 621. Her sons are Hrðrc and Hrðmund, 1190; her daughter, Frewaru, 2023.

Weoh-stn (gen. Weox-stnes, 2603, Weoh-stnes, 2863, Wih-stnes, 2753, 2908, etc.), a Wgmunding (2608), father of Wglf, 2603. In what relationship to him lfhere, mentioned 2605, stands, is not clear.—Weohstn is the slayer of Enmund (2612), in that, as it seems, he takes revenge for his murdered king, Heardrd. See Enmund.

Wg-lf, Weohstn's son, 2603, etc., a Wgmunding, 2815, and so also a Scylfing, 2604; a kinsman of lfhere, 2605. For his relationship to Bewulf, see the genealogical table under Scylfingas.—He supports Bewulf in his fight with the drake, 2605 ff., 2662 ff. The hero gives him, before his death, his ring, his helm, and his coat of mail, 2810 ff.

Won-rd (gen. Wonrdes, 2972), father of Wulf and Eofor, 2966, 2979.

Wulf (dat. Wulfe, 2994), one of the Getas, Wonrd's son. He fights in the battle between the armies of Hygelc and Ongenþew with Ongenþew himself, and gives him a wound (2966), whereupon Ongenþew, by a stroke of his sword, disables him, 2975. Eofor avenges his brother's fall by dealing Ongenþew a mortal blow, 2978 ff.

Wulf-gr, chief of the Wendlas, 348, lives at Hrðgr's court, and is his "r and ombiht," 335.

Wylfingas (dat. Wylfingum, 461). Ecgþew has slain Heoðolf, a warrior of this tribe, 460.

Yrmen-lf, younger brother of schere, 1325.

ADDITIONAL.

Eotenas (gen. pl. Eotena, 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. Eotenum, 1146), the subjects of Finn, the North Frisians: distinguished from eoton, giant. Vid eoton. Cf. Bugge, Beit., xii. 37; Earle, Beowulf in Prose, pp. 146, 198.

Hrðling, son of Hrðel, Hygelc: nom. sg. 1924; nom. pl., the subjects of Hygelc, the Geats, 2961.

Scfing, the son (?) of Scf, or Scef, reputed father of Scyld, 4. See Note.


ABBREVIATIONS.

B.: Bugge.
Br.: S.A. Brooke, Hist. of Early Eng. Lit.
C.: Cosijn.
E.: Earle, Deeds of Beowulf in Prose.
G.: Garnett, Translation of Beowulf
Gr.: Grein.
H.: Heyne.
Ha.: Hall, Translation of Beowulf.
H.-So.: Heyne-Socin, 5th ed.
Ho.: Holder.
K.: Kemble.
Kl.: Kluge.
Mllenh.: Mllenhoff.
R.: Rieger.
S.: Sievers.
Sw.: Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Reader, 6th ed.
Ten Br.: Ten Brink.
Th.: Thorpe.
Z.: Zupitza.

PERIODICALS.

Ang.: Anglia.
Beit.: Paul und Branne's Beitrge.
Eng. Stud.: Englische Studien.
Germ.: Germania.
Haupts Zeitschr.: Haupts Zeitschrift, etc.
Mod. Lang. Notes: Modern Language Notes.
Tidskr.: Tidskrift for Philologi.
Zachers Zeitschr.: Zachers Zeitschrift, etc.

NOTES.

l. 1. hwt: for this interjectional formula opening a poem, cf. Andreas, Daniel, Juliana, Exodus, Fata Apost., Dream of the Rood, and the "Listenith lordinges!" of mediaeval lays.—E. Cf. Chaucer, Prologue, ed. Morris, l. 853:

"Sin I shal beginne the game,
What, welcome be the cut, a Goddes name!"

we ... gefrunon is a variant on the usual epic formul ic gefrgn (l. 74) and mne gefrge (l. 777). Exodus, Daniel, Phoenix, etc., open with the same formula.

l. 1. "Gr was the javelin, armed with two of which the warrior went into battle, and which he threw over the 'shield-wall.' It was barbed."—Br. 124. Cf. Maldon, l. 296; Judith, l. 224; Gnom. Verses, l. 22; etc.

l. 4. "Scild of the Sheaf, not 'Scyld the son of Scaf'; for it is too inconsistent, even in myth, to give a patronymic to a foundling. According to the original form of the story, Scef was the foundling; he had come ashore with a sheaf of corn, and from that was named. This form of the story is preserved in Ethelwerd and in William of Malmesbury. But here the foundling is Scyld, and we must suppose he was picked up with the sheaf, and hence his cognomen."—E., p. 105. Cf. the accounts of Romulus and Remus, of Moses, of Cyrus, etc.

l. 6. egsian is also used in an active sense (not in the Gloss.), = to terrify.

l. 15. S. suggests þ (which) for þt, as object of dregan; and for aldor-lese, Gr. suggested aldor-ceare.—Beit. ix. 136.

S. translates: "For God had seen the dire need which the rulerless ones before endured."

l. 18. "Beowulf (that is, Beaw of the Anglo-Saxon genealogists, not our Beowulf, who was a Geat, not a Dane), 'the son of Scyld in Scedeland.' This is our ancestral myth,—the story of the first culture-hero of the North; 'the patriarch,' as Rydberg calls him, 'of the royal families of Sweden, Denmark, Angeln, Saxland, and England.'"—Br., p. 78. Cf. A.-S. Chron. an. 855.

H.-So. omits parenthetic marks, and reads (after S., Beit. ix. 135) eaferan; cf. Fata Apost.: lof wde sprang þednes þegna.

"The name Bēowulf means literally 'Bee-wolf,' wolf or ravager of the bees, = bear. Cf. beorn, 'hero,' originally 'bear,' and bēohata, 'warrior,' in Cdmon, literally 'bee-hater' or 'persecutor,' and hence identical in meaning with bēowulf."—Sw.

Cf.

"Arcite and Palamon,
That foughten breme, as it were bores two."
—Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 841, ed. Morris.

Cf. M. Mller, Science of Lang., Sec. Series, pp. 217, 218; and Hunt's Daniel, 104.

l. 19. Cf. l. 1866, where Scedenig is used, = Scania, in Sweden(?).

l. 21. wine is pl.; cf. its apposition wil-gesðas below. H.-So. compares Hliand, 1017, for language almost identical with ll. 20, 21.

l. 22. on ylde: cf.

"In elde is bothe wisdom and usage."
—Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 1590, ed. Morris.

l. 26. Reflexive objects often pleonastically accompany verbs of motion; cf. ll. 234, 301, 1964, etc.

l. 28. faroð = shore, strand, edge. Add these to the meanings in the Gloss.

l. 31. The object of hte is probably geweald, to be supplied from wordum weld of l. 30.—H.-So.

R., Kl., and B. all hold conflicting views of this passage: Beit. xii. 80, ix. 188; Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 382, etc. Kl. suggests lndagas for lange.

l. 32. "hringed-stefna is sometimes translated 'with curved prow,' but it means, I think, that in the prow were fastened rings through which the cables were passed that tied it to the shore."—Br., p. 26. Cf. ll. 1132, 1898. Hring-horni was the mythic ship of the Edda. See Toller-Bosworth for three different views; and cf. wunden-stefna (l. 220), hring-naca (l. 1863).

ll. 34-52. Cf. the burial of Haki on a funeral-pyre ship, Inglinga Saga; the burial of Balder, Sinfitli, Arthur, etc.

l. 35. "And this [their joy in the sea] is all the plainer from the number of names given to the ship-names which speak their pride and affection. It is the theling's vessel, the Floater, the Wave-swimmer, the Ring-sterned, the Keel, the Well-bound wood, the Sea-wood, the Sea-ganger, the Sea-broad ship, the Wide-bosomed, the Prow-curved, the Wood of the curved neck, the Foam-throated floater that flew like a bird."—Br., p. 168.

l. 49. "We know from Scandinavian graves ... that the illustrious dead were buried ... in ships, with their bows to sea-ward; that they were however not sent to sea, but were either burnt in that position, or mounded over with earth."—E. See Du Chaillu, The Viking Age, xix.

l. 51. (1) sele-rdende (K., S., C.); (2) sle-rdenne (H.); (3) sele-rdende (H.-So.). Cf. l. 1347; and see Ha.

l. 51. E. compares with this canto Tennyson's "Passing of Arthur" and the legendary burial-journey of St. James of Campostella, an. 800.

l. 53. The poem proper begins with this, "There was once upon a time," the first 52 lines being a prelude. Eleven of the "fitts," or cantos, begin with the monosyllable þ, four with the verb gewtan, nine with the formula Hrðgr (Bewulf, Unferð) maðelode, twenty-four with monosyllables in general (him, sw, s, hwt, þ, hht, ws, mg, cwm, strt).

l. 58. gamel. "The ... characteristics of the poetry are the use of archaic forms and words, such as mec for m, the possessive sn, gamol, dgor, swt for eald, dg, bld, etc., after they had become obsolete in the prose language, and the use of special compounds and phrases, such as hildendre (war-adder) for 'arrow,' gold-gifa (gold-giver) for 'king,' ... goldwine gumena (goldfriend of men, distributor of gold to men) for 'king,'" etc.—Sw. Other poetic words are ides, ielde (men), etc.

l. 60. H.-So. reads rswa (referring to Heorogr alone), and places a point (with the Ms.) after Heorogr instead of after rswa. Cf. l. 469; see B., Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 193.

l. 62. Elan here (OHG. Elana, Ellena, Elena, Elina, Alyan) is thought by B. (Tidskr. viii. 43) to be a remnant of the masc. name Onela, and he reads: [On-]elan ewn, Heaðoscilfingas(=es) healsgebedda.

l. 68. For h, omitted here, cf. l. 300. Pronouns are occasionally thus omitted in subord. clauses.—Sw.

l. 70. þone, here = þonne, than, and micel = mre? The passage, by a slight change, might be made to read, medo-rn micle      m gewyrcean,—þone = by much larger than,—in which þone (þonne) would come in naturally.

l. 73. folc-scare. Add folk-share to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf. gð-scearu.

l. 74. ic wide gefrgn: an epic formula very frequent in poetry, = men said. Cf. Judith, ll. 7, 246; Phoenix, l. 1; and the parallel (noun) formula, mne gefrge, ll. 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ll. 78-83. "The hall was a rectangular, high-roofed, wooden building, its long sides facing north and south. The two gables, at either end, had stag-horns on their points, curving forwards, and these, as well as the ridge of the roof, were probably covered with shining metal, and glittered bravely in the sun."—Br., p. 32.

l. 84. Son-in-law and father-in-law; B., a so-called dvanda compound. Cf. l. 1164, where a similar compound means uncle and nephew; and Wdsð's suhtorfdran, used of the same persons.

l. 88. "The word drem conveys the buzz and hum of social happiness, and more particularly the sound of music and singing."—E. Cf. l. 3021; and Judith, l. 350; Wanderer, l. 79, etc.

ll. 90-99. There is a suspicious similarity between this passage and the lines attributed by Bede to Cdmon:

N w sculan herian heofonrices Weard, etc.
—Sw., p. 47.

ll. 90-98 are probably the interpolation of a Christian scribe.

ll. 92-97. "The first of these Christian elements [in Bewulf] is the sense of a fairer, softer world than that in which the Northern warriors lived.... Another Christian passage (ll. 107, 1262) derives all the demons, eotens, elves, and dreadful sea-beasts from the race of Cain. The folly of sacrificing to the heathen gods is spoken of (l. 175).... The other point is the belief in immortality (ll. 1202, 1761)."—Br. 71.

l. 100. Cf. l. 2211, where the third dragon of the poem is introduced in the same words. Beowulf is the forerunner of that other national dragon-slayer, St. George.

l. 100. onginnan in Bewulf is treated like verbs of motion and modal auxiliaries, and takes the object inf. without t; cf. ll. 872, 1606, 1984, 244. Cf. gan (= did) in Mid. Eng.: gan espye (Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 254, ed. Morris).

l. 101. B. and H.-So. read, fend on healle; cf. l. 142.—Beit. xii.

ll. 101-151. "Grimm connects [Grendel] with the Anglo-Saxon grindel (a bolt or bar).... It carries with it the notion of the bolts and bars of hell, and hence a fiend. ... Ettmller was the first ... to connect the name with grindan, to grind, to crush to pieces, to utterly destroy. Grendel is then the tearer, the destroyer."—Br., p. 83.

l. 102. gst = stranger (Ha.); cf. ll. 1139, 1442, 2313, etc.

l. 103. See Ha., p. 4.

l. 106. "The perfect and pluperfect are often expressed, as in Modern English, by hfð and hfde with the past participle."—Sw. Cf. ll. 433, 408, 940, 205 (p. p. inflected in the last two cases), etc.

l. 106. S. destroys period here, reads in Caines, etc., and puts þone ... drihten in parenthesis.

l. 108. þs þe = because, especially after verbs of thanking (cf. ll. 228, 627, 1780, 2798); according as (l. 1351).

l. 108. The def. article is omitted with Drihten (Lord) and Deofol (devil; cf. l. 2089), as it is, generally, sparingly employed in poetry; cf. t s (l. 318), ofer s (l. 2381), on lande (l. 2311), t rste (l. 1238), on wicge (l. 286), etc., etc.

l. 119. weras (S., H.-So.); wera (K., Th.).—Beit. ix. 137.

l. 120. unflo = uncanny (R.).

l. 131. E. translates, majestic rage; adopting Gr.'s view that swyð is = Icel. sviði, a burn or burning. Cf. l. 737.

l. 142. B. supposes heal-þegnes to be corrupted from helþegnes; cf. l. 101.—Beit. xii. 80. See Gðlc, l. 1042.

l. 144. See Ha., p. 6, for S.'s rearrangement.

l. 146. S. destroys period after slest, puts ws ... micel in parenthesis, and inserts a colon after td.

l. 149. B. reads srcwidum for syððan.

l. 154. B. takes sibbe for accus. obj. of wolde, and places a comma after Deniga.—Beit. xii. 82.

l. 159. R. suggests ac se for atol.

l. 168. H.-So. plausibly conjectures this parenthesis to be a late insertion, as, at ll. 180-181, the Danes also are said to be heathen. Another commentator considers the throne under a "spell of enchantment," and therefore it could not be touched.

l. 169. ne ... wisse: nor had he desire to do so (W.). See Ha., p. 7, for other suggestions.

l. 169. myne wisse occurs in Wanderer, l. 27.

l. 174. The gerundial inf. with t expresses purpose, defines a noun or adjective, or, with the verb be, expresses duty or necessity passively; cf. ll. 257, 473, 1004, 1420, 1806, etc. Cf. t + inf. at ll. 316, 2557.

ll. 175-188. E. regards this passage as dating the time and place of the poem relatively to the times of heathenism. Cf. the opening lines, In days of yore, etc., as if the story, even then, were very old.

l. 177. gst-bona is regarded by Ettmller and G. Stephens (Thunor, p. 54) as an epithet of Thor (= giant-killer), a kenning for Thunor or Thor, meaning both man and monster.—E.

l. 189. Cf. l. 1993, where similar language is used. H.-So. takes both md-ceare and ml-ceare as accus., others as instr.

ll. 190, 1994. seð: for this use of seðan cf. Bede, Eccles. Hist., ed. Miller, p. 128, where p. p. soden is thus used.

l. 194. fram hm = in his home (S., H.-So.); but fram hm may be for fram him (from them, i.e. his people, or from Hrothgar's). Cf. Ha., p. 8.

l. 197. Cf. ll. 791, 807, for this fixed phrase.

l. 200. See Andreas, Elene, and Juliana for swan-rd (= sea). "The swan is said to breed wild now no further away than the North of Sweden." —E. Cf. ganotes bð, l. 1862.

l. 203. Concessive clauses with þeh, þeh þe, þeh ... eal, vary with subj. and ind., according as fact or contingency is dominant in the mind; cf. ll. 526, 1168, 2032, etc. (subj.), 1103, 1614 (ind.). Cf. gif, nefne.

l. 204. hl, an OE. word found in Wlker's Glossaries in various forms, = augury, omen, divination, etc. Cf. hlsere, augur; hl, omen; hlsung, augurium, hlsian, etc. Cf. Tac., Germania, 10.

l. 207. C. adds "= impetrare" to the other meanings of findan given in the Gloss.

l. 217. Cf. l. 1910; and Andreas, l. 993.—E. E. compares Byron's

"And fast and falcon-like the vessel flew,"
Corsair, i. 17.

and Scott's

"Merrily, merrily bounds the bark."
Lord of the Isles, iv. 7.

l. 218. Cf.

"The fomy stedes on the golden brydel
Gnawinge."
—Chaucer, Knightes Tale, l. 1648, ed. Morris.

l. 219. Does n-td mean hour (Th.), or corresponding hour = nd-td (H.-So.), or in due time (E.), or after a time, when þres, etc., would be adv. gen.? See C., Beit. viii. 568.

l. 224. eoletes may = (1) voyage; (2) toil, labor; (3) hurried journey; but sea or fjord appears preferable.

ll. 229-257. "The scenery ... is laid on the coast of the North Sea and the Kattegat, the first act of the poem among the Danes in Seeland, the second among the Geats in South Sweden."—Br., p. 15.

l. 239. "A shoal of simple terms express in Bewulf the earliest sea-thoughts of the English.... The simplest term is S.... To this they added Wter, Flod, Stream, Lagu, Mere, Holm, Grund, Heathu, Sund, Brim, Garsecg, Eagor, Geofon, Fifel, Hron-rad, Swan-rad, Segl-rad, Ganotes-bð."—Br., p. 163-166.

l. 239. "The infinitive is often used in poetry after a verb of motion where we should use the present participle."—Sw. Cf. ll. 711, 721, 1163 1803, 268, etc. Cf. German spazieren fahren reiten, etc., and similar constructions in French, etc.

l. 240, W. reads hringed-stefnan for helmas bron. B. inserts (?) after holmas and begins a new line at the middle of the verse. S. omits B.'s "on the wall."

l. 245. Double and triple negatives strengthen each other and do not produce an affirmative in A.-S. or M. E. The neg. is often prefixed to several emphatic words in the sentence, and readily contracts with vowels, and h or w; cf. ll. 863, 182, 2125, 1509, 575, 583, 3016, etc.

l. 249. seld-guma = man-at-arms in another's house (Wood); = low-ranking fellow (Ha.); stubenhocker, stay-at-home (Gr.), Scott's "carpet knight," Marmion, i. 5.

l. 250. nfne (nefne, nemne) usually takes the subj., = unless; cf. ll. 1057, 3055, 1553. For ind., = except, see l. 1354. Cf. btan, gif, þeh.

l. 250. For a remarkable account of armor and weapons in Bewulf, see S. A. Brooke, Hist. of Early Eng. Lit. For general "Old Teutonic Life in Bewulf," see J. A. Harrison, Overland Monthly.

l. 252. r as a conj. generally has subj., as here; cf. ll. 264, 677, 2819, 732. For ind., cf. l. 2020.

l. 253. les = loose, roving. Ettmller corrected to lese.

l. 256. This proverb (fest, etc.) occurs in Exod. (Hunt), l. 293.

l. 258. An "elder" may be a very young man; hence yldesta, = eminent, may be used of Beowulf. Cf. Laws of lfred, C. 17: N þt lc eald s, ac þt he eald s on wsdme.

l. 273. Verbs of hearing and seeing are often followed by acc. with inf.; cf. ll. 229, 1024, 729, 1517, etc. Cf. German construction with sehen, horen, etc., French construction with voir, entendre, etc., and the classical constructions.

l. 275. dd-hata = instigator. Kl. reads dd-hwata.

l. 280. ed-wendan, n. (B.; cf. 1775), = edwenden, limited by bisigu. So ten Br. = Tidskr. viii. 291.

l. 287. "Each is denoted ... also by the strengthened forms 'ghwðer ('gðer), ghwðer, etc. This prefixed ', e corresponds to the Goth, aiw, OHG. eo, io, and is umlauted from , by the i of the gi which originally followed."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 190.

l. 292. "All through the middle ages suits of armour are called 'weeds.'"—E.

l. 303. "An English warrior went into battle with a boar-crested helmet, and a round linden shield, with a byrnie of ringmail ... with two javelins or a single ashen spear some eight or ten feet long, with a long two-edged sword naked or held in an ornamental scabbard.... In his belt was a short, heavy, one-edged sword, or rather a long knife, called the seax ... used for close quarters."—Br., p. 121.

l. 303. For other references to the boar-crest, cf. ll. 1112, 1287, 1454; Grimm, Myth. 195; Tacitus, Germania, 45. "It was the symbol of their [the Baltic stii's] goddess, and they had great faith in it as a preservative from hard knocks."—E. See the print in the illus. ed. of Green's Short History, Harper & Bros.

l. 303. "See Kemble, Saxons in England, chapter on heathendom, and Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, chapter on Freyr, for the connection these and other writers establish between the Boar-sign and the golden boar which Freyr rode, and his worship."—Br., p. 128. Cf. Elene, l. 50.

l. 304. Gering proposes hler-bergan = cheek-protectors; cf. Beit. xii. 26. "A bronze disk found at land in Sweden represents two warriors in helmets with boars as their crests, and cheek-guards under; these are the hler-bergan."—E. Cf. hauberk, with its diminutive habergeon, < A.-S. heals, neck + beorgan, to cover or protect; and harbor, < A.-S. here, army + beorgan, id.—Zachers Zeitschr. xii. 123. Cf. cinberge, Hunt's Exod. l. 175.

l. 305. For ferh wearde and gðmde grummon, B. and ten Br. read ferh-wearde (l. 305) and gðmdgum men (l. 306), = the boar-images ... guarded the lives of the warlike men.

l. 311. lema: cf. Chaucer, Nonne Preestes Tale, l. 110, ed. Morris:

"To dremen in here dremes
Of armes, and of fyr with rede lemes."

l. 318. On the double gender of s, cf. Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 147; and note the omitted article at ll. 2381, 318, 544, with the peculiar tmesis of between at ll. 859, 1298, 1686, 1957. So Cdmon, l. 163 (Thorpe), Exod. l. 562 (Hunt), etc.

l. 320. Cf. l. 924; and Andreas, l. 987, where almost the same words occur. "Here we have manifestly before our eye one of those ancient causeways, which are among the oldest visible institutions of civilization." —E.

l. 322. S. inserts comma after scr, and makes hring-ren (= ring-mail) parallel with gð-byrne.

l. 325. Cf. l. 397. "The deposit of weapons outside before entering a house was the rule at all periods.... In provincial Swedish almost everywhere a church porch is called vkenhus,... i.e. weapon-house, because the worshippers deposited their arms there before they entered the house."—E., after G. Stephens.

l. 333. Cf. Dryden's "mingled metal damask'd o'er with gold."—E.

l. 336. "l-, el-, kindred with Goth. aljis, other, e.g. in lþodig, elþodig, foreign."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 47.

l. 336. Cf. l. 673 for the functions of an ombiht-þegn.

l. 343. Cf. l. 1714 for the same bed-genetas,—"the predecessor title to that of the Knights of the Table Round."—E. Cf. Andreas (K.), l. 2177.

l. 344. The future is sometimes expressed by willan + inf., generally with some idea of volition involved; cf. ll. 351, 427, etc. Cf. the use of willan as principal vb. (with omitted inf.) at ll. 318, 1372, 543, 1056; and sculan, ll. 1784, 2817.

l. 353. here, and at l. 501, probably means arrival. E. translates the former by visit, the latter by adventure.

l. 357. unhr = hairless, bald (Gr., etc.).

l. 358. eode is only one of four or five preterits of gn (gongan, gangan, gengan), viz. geng (ging: ll. 926, 2410, etc.), gang (l. 1296, etc.), gengde (ll. 1402, 1413). Sievers, p. 217, apparently remarks that eode is "probably used only in prose." (?!). Cf. geng, Gen. ll. 626, 834; Exod. (Hunt) l. 102.

l. 367. The MS. and H.-So. read with Gr. and B. gldman Hrðgr, abandoning Thorkelin's gldnian. There is a glass. hilaris gldman.Beit. xii. 84; same as gld.

l. 369. dugan is a "preterit-present" verb, with new wk. preterit, like sculan, durran, magan, etc. For various inflections, see ll. 573, 590, 1822, 526. Cf. do in "that will do"; doughty, etc.

l. 372. Cf. l. 535 for a similar use; and l. 1220. Bede, Eccles. Hist., ed. Miller, uses the same expression several times. "Here, and in all other places where cniht occurs in this poem, it seems to carry that technical sense which it bore in the military hierarchy [of a noble youth placed out and learning the elements of the art of war in the service of a qualified warrior, to whom he is, in a military sense, a servant], before it bloomed out in the full sense of knight."—E.

l. 373. E. remarks of the hyphened eald-fder, "hyphens are risky toys to play with in fixing texts of pre-hyphenial antiquity"; eald-fder could only = grandfather. eald here can only mean honored, and the hyphen is unnecessary. Cf. "old fellow," "my old man," etc.; and Ger. alt-vater.

l. 378. Th. and B. propose Getum, as presents from the Danish to the Geatish king.—Beit. xii.

l. 380. hbbe. The subj. is used in indirect narration and question, wish and command, purpose, result, and hypothetical comparison with swelce = as if.

ll. 386, 387. Ten Br. emends to read: "Hurry, bid the kinsman-throng go into the hall together."

l. 387. sibbe-gedriht, for Beowulf's friends, occurs also at l. 730. It is subject-acc. to sen. Cf. ll. 347, 365, and Hunt's Exod. l. 214.

l. 404. "Here, as in the later Icelandic halls, Beowulf saw Hrothgar enthroned on a high seat at the east end of the hall. The seat is sacred. It has a supernatural quality. Grendel, the fiend, cannot approach it."—Br., p. 34. Cf. l. 168.

l. 405. "At Benty Grange, in Derbyshire, an Anglo-Saxon barrow, opened in 1848, contained a coat of mail. 'The iron chain work consists of a large number of links of two kinds attached to each other by small rings half an inch in diameter; one kind flat and lozenge-shaped ... the others all of one kind, but of different lengths.'"—Br., p. 126.

l. 407. Wes ... hl: this ancient Teutonic greeting afterwards grew into wassail. Cf. Skeat's Luke, i. 28; Andreas (K.), 1827; Layamon, l. 14309, etc.

l. 414. "The distinction between wesan and weorðan [in passive relations] is not very clearly defined, but wesan appears to indicate a state, weorðan generally an action."—Sw. Cf. Mod. German werden and sein in similar relations.

l. 414. Gr. translates hdor by receptaculum; cf. Gering, Zachers Zeitschr. xii. 124. Toller-Bosw. ignores Gr.'s suggestion.

ll. 420, 421. B. reads: þr ic (on) ffelgeban (= ocean) ðde eotena cyn. Ten Br. reads: þr ic ffelgeban ðde, eotena hm. Ha. suggests ffelgeband = monster-band, without further changes.

l. 420. R. reads þra = of them, for þr.—Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 399; Beit. xii. 367.

l. 420. "niht has a gen., nihtes, used for the most part only adverbially, and almost certainly to be regarded as masculine."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 158.

l. 425. Cf. also ll. 435, 635, 2345, for other examples of Beowulf's determination to fight single-handed.

l. 441. þe hine = whom, as at l. 1292, etc. The indeclinable þe is often thus combined with personal pronouns, = relative, and is sometimes separated from them by a considerable interval.—Sw.

l. 443. The MS. has Geotena. B. and Fahlbeck, says H.-So., do not consider the Getas, but the Jutes, as the inhabitants of Swedish West-Gothland. Alfred translates Juti by Getas, but Jutland by Gotland. In the laws they are called Guti.—Beit. xii. 1, etc.

l. 444. B., Gr., and Ha. make unforhte an adv. = fearlessly, modifying etan. Kl. reads anforhte = timid.

l. 446. Cf. l. 2910. Th. translates: thou wilt not need my head to hide (i.e. bury). Simrock supposes a dead-watch or lyke-wake to be meant. Wood, thou wilt not have to bury so much as my head! H.-So. supposes hefod-weard, a guard of honor, such as sovereigns or presumptive rulers had, to be meant by hafalan hdan; hence, you need not give me any guard, etc. Cf. Schmid, Gesetze der A., 370-372.

l. 447. S. places a colon after nimeð.

l. 451. H.-So., Ha., and B. (Beit. xii. 87) agree essentially in translating feorme, food. R. translates consumption of my corpse. Maintenance, support, seems preferable to either.

l. 452. Rnning (after Grimm) personifies Hild.—Beovulfs Kvadet, l. 59. Hildr is the name of one of the Scandinavian Walkyries, or battle-maidens, who transport the spirits of the slain to Walhalla. Cf. Kent's Elene, l. 18, etc.

l. 455. "The war-smiths, especially as forgers of the sword, were garmented with legend, and made into divine personages. Of these Weland is the type, husband of a swan maiden, and afterwards almost a god."— Br., p. 120. Cf. A. J. C. Hare's account of "Wayland Smith's sword with which Henry II. was knighted," and which hung in Westminster Abbey to a late date.—Walks in London, ii. 228.

l. 455. This is the lces mannes wyrd of Boethius (Sw., p. 44) and the wyrd bið swðost of Gnomic Verses, 5. There are about a dozen references to it in Bewulf.

l. 455. E. compares the fatalism of this concluding hemistich with the Christian tone of l. 685 seq.

ll. 457, 458. B. reads wre-ryhtum ( = from the obligations of clientage).

l. 480. Cf. l. 1231, where the same sense, "flown with wine," occurs.

l. 488. "The duguð, the mature and ripe warriors, the aristocracy of the nation, are the support of the throne."—E. The M. E. form of the word, douth, occurs often. Associated with geogoð, ll. 160 and 622.

l. 489. Kl. omits comma after meoto and reads (with B.) sige-hrð-secgum, = disclose thy thought to the victor-heroes. Others, as Krner, convert meoto into an imperative and divide on sl = think upon happiness. But cf. onband beadu-rne, l. 501. B. supposes onsl meoto =speak courteous words. Tidskr. viii. 292; Haupts Zeitschr. xi. 411; Eng. Stud. ii. 251.

l. 489. Cf. the invitation at l. 1783.

l. 494. Cf. Grimm's Andreas, l. 1097, for deal, =proud, elated, exulting; Phoenix (Bright), l. 266.

l. 499. MS. has Hunferð, but the alliteration requires nferð, as at ll. 499, 1166, 1489; and cf. ll. 1542, 2095, 2930. See List of Names.

l. 501. = arrival (?); cf. l. 353.

l. 504. þon m = the more (?), may be added to the references under þon.

l. 506. E. compares the taunt of Eliab to David, I Sam. xvii. 28.

l. 509. dol-gilp = idle boasting. The second definition in the Gloss. is wrong.

l. 513. "Eagor-stream might possibly be translated the stream of Eagor, the awful terror-striking stormy sea in which the terrible [Scandinavian] giant dwelt, and through which he acted."—Br., p. 164. He remarks, "The English term eagre still survives in provincial dialect for the tide-wave or bore on rivers. Dryden uses it in his Threnod. Angust. 'But like an eagre rode in triumph o'er the tide.' Yet we must be cautious," etc. Cf. Fox's Boethius, ll. 20, 236; Thorpe's Cdmon, 69, etc.

l. 524. Krger and B. read Bnstnes.—Beit. ix. 573.

l. 525. R. reads wyrsan (= wyrses: cf. Mod. Gr. guten Muthes) geþinges; but H.-So. shows that the MS. wyrsan ... þingea = wyrsena þinga, can stand; cf. gen. pl. banan, Christ, l. 66, etc.

l. 534. Insert, under eard-lufa (in Gloss.), earfoð, st. n., trouble, difficulty, struggle; acc. pl. earfeðo, 534.

l. 545 seq. "Five nights Beowulf and Breca kept together, not swimming, but sailing in open boats (to swim the seas is to sail the seas), then storm drove them asunder ... Breca is afterwards chief of the Brondings, a tribe mentioned in Wdsth. The story seems legendary, not mythical."—Br., pp. 60, 61.

ll. 574-578. B. suggests sw þr for hwðere, = so there it befell me. But the word at l. 574 seems = however, and at l. 578 = yet; cf. l. 891; see S.; Beit. ix. 138; Tidskr. viii. 48; Zacher, iii. 387, etc.

l. 586. Gr. and Grundt. read fgum sweordum (no ic þs fela gylpe!), supplying fela and blending the broken half-lines into one. Ho. and Kl. supply geflites.

l. 599. E. translates nd-bde by blackmail; adding "nd bd, toll; nd bdere, tolltaker."—Land Charters, Gloss, v.

l. 601. MS. has ond = and in three places only (601, 1149, 2041); elsewhere it uses the symbol 7 = and.

l. 612. seq. Cf. the drinking ceremony at l. 1025. "The royal lady offers the cup to Beowulf, not in his turn where he sate among the rest, but after it has gone the round; her approach to Beowulf is an act apart."—E.

l. 620. "The [loving] cup which went the round of the company and was tasted by all," like the Oriel and other college anniversary cups.—E.

l. 622. Cf. ll. 160, 1191, for the respective places of young and old.

l. 623. Cf. the circlet of gold worn by Wealhþew at l. 1164.

l. 631. gyddode. Cf. Chaucer, Prol. l. 237 (ed. Morris):

"Of yeddynges he bar utterly the prys."

Cf. giddy.

l. 648. Kl. suggests a period after geþinged, especially as B. (Tidskr. viii. 57) has shown that oþþe is sometimes = ond. Th. supplies ne.

l. 650. oþþe here and at ll. 2476, 3007, probably = and.

l. 651. Cf. 704, where sceadu-genga (the night-ganger of Leechdoms, ii. 344) is applied to the demon.—E.

l. 659. Cf. l. 2431 for same formula, "to have and to hold" of the Marriage Service.—E.

l. 681. B. considers þeh ... eal a precursor of Mod. Eng. although.

l. 682. gdra = advantages in battle (Gr.), battle-skill (Ha.), skill in war (H.-So.). Might not nt be changed to nah = ne + h (cf. l. 2253), thus justifying the translation ability (?) —he has not the ability to, etc.

l. 695. Kl. reads hiera.—Beit. ix. 189. B. omits he as occurring in the previous hemistich.—Beit. xii. 89.

l. 698. "Here Destiny is a web of cloth."—E., who compares the Greek Clotho, "spinster of fate." Women are also called "weavers of peace," as l. 1943. Cf. Kent's Elene, l. 88; Wdsð, l. 6, etc.

l. 711. B. translates þ by when and connects with the preceding sentences, thus rejecting the ordinary canto-division at l. 711. He objects to the use of com as principal vb. at ll. 703, 711, and 721. (Beit, xii.)

l. 711. "Perhaps the Gnomic verse which tells of Thyrs, the giant, is written with Grendel in the writer's mind,—þyrs sceal on fenne gewunian na inuan lande, the giant shall dwell in the fen, alone in the land (Sweet's Read., p. 187)."—Br. p. 36.

l. 717. Dietrich, in Haupt. xi. 419, quotes from lfric, Hom. ii. 498: h beworhte þ bigelsas mid gyldenum lfrum, he covered the arches with gold-leaf,—a Roman custom derived from Carthage. Cf. Mod. Eng. oriel = aureolum, a gilded room.—E. (quoting Skeat). Cf. ll. 2257, 1097, 2247, 2103, 2702, 2283, 333, 1751, for various uses of gold-sheets.

l. 720. B. and ten Br. suggest hell-thane (Grendel) for heal-þegnas, and make hle refer to Beowulf. Cf. l. 142.

l. 723. Z. reads [ge]hrn.

l. 727. For this use of standan, cf. ll. 2314, 2770; and Vergil, Ecl. ii. 26:

"Cum placidum ventis staret mare."

l. 757. gedrg. Tumult is one of the meanings of this word. Here, appar. = occupation, lair.

l. 759. R. reads mdega for gda, "because the attribute cannot be separated from the word modified unless the two alliterate."

l. 762. Cf. Andreas, l. 1537, for a similar use of t = off.—E.

l. 769. The foreign words in Bewulf (as ceaster-here) are not numerous; others are (aside from proper names like Cain, Abel, etc.) defol (diabolus), candel (l. 1573), ancor (l. 303), scrfan (for- ge-), segn (l. 47), gigant (l. 113), ml- (l. 1363), strt (l. 320), ombeht (l. 287), gim (l. 2073), etc.

l. 770. MS. reads cerwen, a word conceived by B. and others to be part of a fem. compd.: -scerwen like -wenden in ed-wenden, -rden, etc. (cf. meodu-scerpen in Andreas, l. 1528); emended to -scerwen, a great scare under the figure of a mishap at a drinking-bout; one might compare bescerwan, to deprive, from bescyrian (Grein, i. 93), hence ealu-seerwen would = a sudden taking away, deprivation, of the beer.—H.-So., p. 93. See B., Tidskr. viii. 292.

l. 771. Ten Br. reads rðe, rnhearde, = raging, exceeding bold.

l. 792. Instrumental adverbial phrases like nige þinga, nnige þinga (not at all), hru þinga (especially) are not infrequent. See Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 178; March, A.-S. Gram., p. 182.

l. 811. myrðe. E. translates in wanton mood. Toller-Bosw. does not recognize sorrow as one of the meanings of this word.

ll. 850, 851. S. reads dep for deg and erases semicolon after wel, = the death-stained deep welled with sword-gore; cf. l. 1424. B. reads deð-fges dep, etc., = the deep welled with the doomed one's gore.—Beit. xii. 89.

l. 857. The meaning of blaneum is partly explained by fealwe mearas below, l. 866. Cf. Layamon's "and leop on his blancke" = steed, l. 23900; Kent's Elene, l. 1185.

l. 859. Krner, Eng. Stud. i. 482, regards the oft-recurring be sm twenum as a mere formula = on earth; cf. ll. 1298, 1686. twene is part of the separable prep. between; see be-. Cf. Baskerville's Andreas, l. 558.

l. 865. Cf. Voyage of hthere and Wulfstn for an account of funeral horse-racing, Sweet's Read., p. 22.

l. 868. See Ha., p. 31, for a variant translation.

l. 871 seq. R. considers this a technical description of improvised alliterative verse, suggested by and wrought out on the spur of the moment.

l. 872. R. and B. propose secg[an], = rehearse, for secg, which suits the verbs in the next two lines.

ll. 878-98. "It pleases me to think that it is in English literature we possess the first sketch of that mighty saga [the Volsunga Saga = Wlsinges gewin] which has for so many centuries engaged all the arts, and at last in the hands of Wagner the art of music."—Br., p. 63. Cf. Nibelung. Lied, l. 739.

l. 894. Intransitive verbs, as gn, weorðan, sometimes take habban, "to indicate independent action."—Sw. Cf. hafað ... geworden, l. 2027.

l. 895. "brcan (enjoy) always has the genitive."—Sw.; cf. l. 895; acc., gen., instr., dat., according to March, A.-S. Gram., p. 151.

l. 898. Scherer proposes hte, = from heat, instr. of ht, heat; cf. l. 2606.

l. 901. h þs ron þh = he throve in honor (B.). Ten Br. inserts comma after þh, making siððan introduce a depend. clause.—Beit. viii. 568. Cf. weorð-myndum þh, l. 8; ll. 1155, 1243.—H.-So.

l. 902. Heremdes is considered by Heinzel to be a mere epithet = the valiant; which would refer the whole passage to Sigmund (Sigfrid), the eotenas, l. 903, being the Nibelungen. This, says H.-So., gets rid of the contradiction between the good "Heremd" here and the bad one, l. 1710 seq.—B. however holds fast to Heremd.—Beit. xii. 41. on fenda geweald, l. 904,—into the hands of devils, says B.; cf. ll. 809, 1721, 2267; Christ, l. 1416; Andreas, l. 1621; for hine fyren onwd, cf. Gen. l. 2579; Hunt's Dan. 17: he wlenco anwd.

l. 902 seq. "Heremd's shame is contrasted with the glory of Sigemund, and with the prudence, patience, generosity, and gentleness of Beowulf as a chieftain."—Br., p. 66.

l. 906. MS. has lemede. Toller-Bosw. corrects to lemedon.

l. 917. Cf. Hunt's Exod., l. 170, for similar language.

l. 925. hs, G. hansa, company, "the word from which the mercantile association of the 'Hanseatic' towns took their designation."—E.

l. 927. on staþole = on the floor (B., Rask, ten Br.).—Beit. xii. 90.

l. 927. May not stepne here = bright, from its being immediately followed by golde fhne? Cf. Chaucer's "his eyen stepe," Prol. l. 201 (ed. Morris); Cockayne's Ste. Marherete, pp. 9, 108; St. Kath., l. 1647.

l. 931. grynna may be for gyrnna (= sorrows), gen. plu. of gyrn, as suggested by one commentator.

l. 937. B. (Beit. xii. 90) makes gehwylcne object of wd-scofen (hfde). Gr. makes we nom. absolute.

l. 940. scuccum: cf. G. scheuche, scheusal; Prov. Eng. old-shock; perhaps the pop. interjection O shucks! (!)

l. 959. H. explains we as a "plur. of majesty," which Bewulf throws off at l. 964.

l. 963. fend þone frtgan (B. Beit. xii. 90).

l. 976. synnum. "Most abstract words in the poetry have a very wide range of meanings, diverging widely from the prose usage, synn, for instance, means simply injury, mischief, hatred, and the prose meaning sin is only a secondary one; hata in poetry is not only hater, but persecutor, enemy, just as is both hatred and violence, strength; heard is sharp as well as hard."—Sw.

l. 986. S. places ws at end of l. 985 and reads stðra ngla, omitting gehwylc and the commas after that and after scewedon. Beit. ix. 138; stdra (H.-So.); hand-sporu (H.-So.) at l. 987.

l. 986. Miller (Anglia, xii. 3) corrects to ghwylene, in apposition to fingras.

l. 987. hand-sporu. See Anglia, vii. 176, for a discussion of the intrusion of u into the nom. of n-stems.

l. 988. Cf. ll. 2121, 2414, for similar use of unheru = ungeheuer.

l. 992. B. suggests hetimbred for hten, and gefrtwon for -od; Kl., hroden (Beit. ix. 189).

l. 995, 996. Gold-embroidered tapestries seem to be meant by web = aurifrisium.

l. 997. After þra þe = of those that, the depend, vb. often takes sg. for pl.; cf. ll. 844, 1462, 2384, 2736.—Sw.; Dietrich.

l. 998. "Metathesis of l takes place in seld for setl, bold for botl," etc.—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 96. Cf. Eng. proper names, Bootle, Battlefield, etc.—Skeat, Principles, i. 250.

l. 1000. heorras: cf. Chaucer, Prol. (ed. Morris) l. 550:

"Ther was no dore that he nolde heve of harre."

ll. 1005-1007. See Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 391, and Beit. xii. 368, for R.'s and B.'s views of this difficult passage.

l. 1009. Cf. l. 1612 for sl and ml, surviving still in E. Anglia in "mind your seals and meals," = times and occasions, i.e. have your wits about you.—E.

ll. 1012, 1013. Cf. ll. 753, 754 for two similar comparatives used in conjunction.

l. 1014. Cf. l. 327 for similar language.

ll. 1015, 1016. H.-So. puts these two lines in parentheses (fylle ... þra). Cf. B., Beit. xii. 91.

l. 1024. One of the many famous swords spoken of in the poem. See Hrunting, ll. 1458, 1660; Hnlfing, l. 1144, etc. Cf. Excalibur, Roland's sword, the Nibelung Balmung, etc.

l. 1034. scr-heard. For an ingenious explanation of this disputed word see Professor Pearce's article in Mod. Lang. Notes, Nov. 1, 1892, and ensuing discussion.

l. 1039. eoderas is of doubtful meaning. H. and Toller-Bosw. regard the word here = enclosure, palings of the court. Cf. Cdmon, ll. 2439, 2481. The passage throws interesting light on horses and their trappings

l. 1043. Grundt. emends wg to wicg, = charger; and E. quotes Tacitus, Germania, 7.

l. 1044. "Power over each and both"; cf. "all and some," "one and all."

For Ingwin, see List of Names.

l. 1065. Gr. contends that fore here = de, concerning, about (Ebert's Jahrb., 1862, p. 269).

l. 1069. H.-So. supplies fram after eaferum, to govern it, = concerning (?). Cf. Fight at Finnsburg, Appendix.

l. 1070. For the numerous names of the Danes, "bright-" "spear-" "east-" "west-" "ring-" Danes, see these words.

l. 1073. Eotenas = Finn's people, the Frisians; cf. ll. 1089, 1142, 1146, etc., and Beit. xii. 37. Why they are so called is not known.

l. 1084. R. proposes wiht Hengeste wið gefeohtan (Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 394). Kl., wið H. wiht gefeohtan.

ll. 1085 and 1099. we-lf occurs in Wulfstan, Hom. 133, ed. Napier.—E. Cf. daroða lf, Brunanb., l. 54; des lfe, Phoenix, 272 (Bright), etc.

l. 1098. elne unflitme = so dass der eid (der inhalt des eides) nicht streitig war.—B., Beit. iii. 30. But cf. 1130, where Hengist and Finn are again brought into juxtaposition and the expression ealles (?) unhlitme occurs.

l. 1106. The pres. part. + be, as myndgiend wre here, is comparatively rare in original A.-S. literature, but occurs abundantly in translations from the Latin. The periphrasis is generally meaningless. Cf. l. 3029.

l. 1108. Krner suggests ecge, = sword, in reference to a supposed old German custom of placing ornaments, etc., on the point of a sword or spear (Eng. Stud. i. 495). Singer, ince-gold = bright gold; B., andige = Goth, andaugjo, evidently. Cf. incge lfe, l. 2578. Possibly: and inge (= young men) gold hfon of horde. For inge, cf. Hunt's Exod. l. 190.

ll. 1115-1120. R. proposes (ht þ ...) bnfatu brnan ond on bl dn, earme on eaxe = to place the arms in the ashes, reading gðrc = battle-reek, for -rinc (Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 395). B., Sarrazin (Beit. xi. 530), Lichtenfeld (Haupts Zeitschr. xvi. 330), C., etc., propose various emendations. See H.-So., p. 97, and Beit. viii. 568. For gðrinc sth, cf. Old Norse, stiga bl, "ascend the bale-fire."

l. 1116. sweoloðe. "On Dartmoor the burning of the furze up the hillsides to let new grass grow, is called zwayling."—E. Cf. sultry, G. schwl, etc.

l. 1119. Cf. wudu-rc sth, l. 3145; and Exod. (Hunt), l. 450: wlmist sth.

l. 1122. tspranc = burst forth, arose (omitted from the Gloss.), < t + springan.

l. 1130. R. and Gr. read elne unflitme, = loyally and without contest, as at l. 1098. Cf. Ha., p. 39; H.-So., p. 97.

l. 1137. scacen = gone; cf. ll. 1125, 2307, 2728.

l. 1142. "The sons of the Eotenas" (B., Beit. xii. 31, who conjectures a gap after 1142).

l. 1144. B. separates thus: Hn Lfing, = Hn placed the sword Lfing, etc.—Beit. xii. 32; cf. R., Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 396. Heinzel and Homburg make other conjectures (Herrig's Archiv, 72, 374, etc.).

l. 1143. B., H.-So., and Mller read: worod rdenne, þonne him Hn Lfing, = military brotherhood, when Hn laid upon his breast (the sword) Lfing. There is a sword Laufi, Lvi in the Norse sagas; but swords, armor, etc., are often called the leaving (lf) of files, hammers, etc., especially a precious heirloom; cf. ll. 454, 1033, 2830, 2037, 2629, 796, etc., etc.

l. 1152. roden = reddened (B., Tidskr. viii. 295).

l. 1160. For ll. 1069-1160, containing the Finn episode, cf. Mller, Alteng. Volksepos, 69, 86, 94; Heinzel, Anz. f. dtsch. Altert., 10, 226; B., Beit. xii. 29-37. Cf. Wdsð, l. 33, etc.

ll. 1160, 1161. leð (lied = song, lay) and gyd here appear synonyms.

ll. 1162-1165. "Behind the wars and tribal wanderings, behind the contentions of the great, we watch in this poem the steady, continuous life of home, the passions and thoughts of men, the way they talked and moved and sang and drank and lived and loved among one another and for one another."—Br., p. 18.

l. 1163. Cf. wonderwork. So wonder-death, wonder-bidding, wonder-treasure, -smith, -sight, etc. at ll. 1748, 3038, 2174, 1682, 996, etc. Cf. the German use of the same intensive, = wondrous, in wunder-schn, etc.

l. 1165. þ gyt points to some future event when "each" was not "true to other," undeveloped in this poem, suhtor-gefderan = Hrðgr and Hrðulf, l. 1018. Cf. ðum-swerian, l. 84.

l. 1167 almost repeats l. 500, t ftum, etc., where nferð is first introduced.

l. 1191. E. sees in this passage separate seats for youth and middle-aged men, as in English college halls, chapels, convocations, and churches still.

l. 1192. ymbutan, round about, is sometimes thus separated: ymb hie tan; cf. Voyage of hthere, etc. (Sw.), p. 18, l. 34, etc.; Bewulf, ll. 859, 1686, etc.

l. 1194. bewgned, a ἃπαξ λεγόμενον, tr. offered by Th. Probably a p. p. wgen, made into a vb. by -ian, like own, drown, etc. Cf. hafenian ( < hafen, < hebban), etc.

l. 1196. E. takes the expression to mean "mantle and its rings or broaches." "Rail" long survived in Mid. Eng. (Piers Plow., etc.).

l. 1196. This necklace was afterwards given by Beowulf to Hygd, ll. 2173, 2174.

ll. 1199-1215. From the obscure hints in the passage, a part of the poem may be approximately dated,—if Hygelc is the Chochi-laicus of Gregory of Tours, Hist. Francorum, iii. 3,—about A.D. 512-20.

l. 1200. The Breosinga men (Icel. Brisinga men) is the necklace of the goddess Freya; cf. Elder Edda, Hamarshemt. Hma stole the necklace from the Gothic King Eormenrc; cf. Traveller's Song, ll. 8, 18, 88, 111. The comparison of the two necklaces leads the poet to anticipate Hygelc's history,—a suggestion of the poem's mosaic construction.

l. 1200. For Brsinga mene, cf. B., Beit. xii. 72. C. suggests fleh, = fled, for fealh, placing semicolon after byrig, and making h subject of fleh and geces.

l. 1202. B. conjectures geces cne rd to mean he became a pious man and at death went to heaven. Heime (Hma) in the Thidrekssaga goes into a cloister = to choose the better part (?). Cf. H.-So., p. 98. But cf. Hrðgr's language to Beowulf, ll. 1760, 1761.

l. 1211. S. proposes feoh, = property, for feorh, which would be a parallel for brest-gewdu ... beh below.

l. 1213. E. remarks that in the Laws of Cnut, i. 26, the devil is called se wdfreca werewulf, the ravening werwolf.

l. 1215. C. proposes heals-bge onfng. Beit. viii. 570. For hre- Kl. suggests hr-.

l. 1227. The son referred to is, according to Ettmller, the one that reigns after Hrðgr.

l. 1229. Kl. suggests s, = be, for is.

l. 1232. S. gives wine-elated as the meaning of druncne.—Beit. ix. 139; Kl. ibid. 189, 194. But cf. Judith, ll. 67, 107.

l. 1235. Cf. l. 119 for similarity of language.

l. 1235. Kl. proposes gea-sceaft; but cf. l. 1267.

l. 1246. Ring armor was common in the Middle Ages. E. points out the numerous forms of byrne in cognate languages,—Gothic, Icelandic, OHG., Slavonic, O. Irish, Romance, etc. Du Chaillu, The Viking Age, i. 126. Cf. Murray's Dict. s. v.

l. 1248. nwg-gearwe = ready for single combat (C.); but cf. Ha. p. 43; Beit. ix. 210, 282.

l. 1252. Some consider this fitt the beginning of Part (or Lay) II. of the original epic, if not a separate work in itself.

l. 1254. K., W., and Ho. read farode = wasted; Kolbing reads furode; but cf. wsten warode, l. 1266. MS. has warode.

ll. 1255-1258. This passage is a good illustration of the constant parallelism of word and phrase characteristic of A.-S. poetry, and is quoted by Sw. The changes are rung on ende and swylt, on gesne and wdcð, etc.

l. 1259. "That this story of Grendel's mother was originally a separate lay from the first seems to be suggested by the fact that the monsters are described over again, and many new details added, such as would be inserted by a new singer who wished to enhance and adorn the original tale."—Br., p. 41.

l. 1259. Cf. l. 107, which also points to the ancestry of murderers and monsters and their descent from "Cain."

l. 1261. The MS. has se þe, m.; changed by some to seo þe. At ll. 1393, 1395, 1498, Grendel's mother is referred to as m.; at ll. 1293, 1505, 1541-1546, etc., as f., the uncertain pronoun designating a creature female in certain aspects, but masculine in demonic strength and savageness.—H.-So.; Sw. p. 202. Cf. the masc. epithets at ll. 1380, 2137, etc.

l. 1270. glca = Grendel, though possibly referring to Beowulf, as at l. 1513.—Sw.

l. 1273. "It is not certain whether anwalda stands for onwealda, or whether it should be read nwealda, = only ruler.—Sw.

l. 1279. The MS. has sunu þeod wrecan, which R. changes to sunu þed-wrecan, þed- = monstrous; but why not regard þed as opposition to sunu, = her son, the prince? See Sweet's Reader, and Krner's discussion, Eng. Stud. i. 500.

l. 1281. Ten Br. suggests (for sna) sra = return of sorrows.

l. 1286. "geþuren (twice so written in MSS.) stands for geþren, forged, and is an isolated p. p."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., 209. But see Toller-Bosw. for examples; Sw., Gloss.; March, p. 100, etc.

ll. 1292. þe hine = whom; cf. ll. 441, 1437, 1292; Hliand, l. 1308.

l. 1298. be sm tweonum; cf. l. 1192; Hunt's Exod. l. 442; and Mod. Eng. "to us-ward, etc.—Earle's Philol., p. 449. Cf. note, l. 1192.

l. 1301. C. proposes ðer him rn = another apartment was assigned him.

l. 1303. B. conjectures under hrf genam; but Ha., p. 45, shows this to be unnecessary, under also meaning in, as in (or under) these circumstances.

l. 1319. E. and Sw. suggest ngde or ngde, accosted, < ngan = Mid. Ger. nhwian, pr. p. nhwiandans, approach. For hngan, press down, vanquish, see ll. 1275, 1440, etc.

l. 1321. C. suggests ned-lðum for ned-laðu, after crushing hostility; but cf. frend-laðu, l. 1193.

l. 1334. K. and ten Br. conjecture gefgnod = rejoicing in her fill, a parallel to se wlanc, l. 1333.

l. 1340. B. translates: "and she has executed a deed of blood-vengeance of far-reaching consequence."—Beit. xii. 93.

l. 1345. B. reads ge for ew (Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 205).

ll. 1346-1377. "This is a fine piece of folk-lore in the oldest extant form.... The authorities for the story are the rustics (ll. 1346, 1356)." —E.

l. 1347. Cf. sele-rdende at l. 51.

l. 1351. "The ge [of gewitan] may be merely a scribal error,—a repetition (dittography) of the preceding ge of gewislcost."—Sw.

l. 1352. ides, like firas, men, etc., is a poetic word supposed by Grimm to have been applied, like Gr. νύμφη, to superhuman or semi-divine women.

ll. 1360-1495 seq. E. compares this Dantesque tarn and scenery with the poetical accounts of neid, vii. 563; Lucretius, vi. 739, etc.

l. 1360. firgenstrem occurs also in the Phoenix (Bright, p. 168) l. 100; Andreas, ll. 779, 3144 (K.); Gnomic Verses, l. 47, etc.

l. 1363. The genitive is often thus used to denote measure = by or in miles; cf. l. 3043; and contrast with partitive gen. at l. 207.

l. 1364. The MS. reads hrinde = hrnende (?), which Gr. adopts; K. and Th. read hrinde-bearwas; hringde, encircling (Sarrazin, Beit. xi. 163); hrmge = frosty (Sw.); with frost-whiting covered (Ha.). See Morris, Blickling Hom., Preface, vi., vii.

l. 1364. Cf. Ruin, hrmige edoras behrofene, rimy, roofless halls.

l. 1366. nðwundor may = nið- (as in nið-sele, q. v.) wundor, wonder of the deep.

l. 1368. The personal pronoun is sometimes omitted in subordinate and even independent clauses; cf. wite here; and Hunt's Exod., l. 319.

l. 1370. hornum. Such "datives of manner or respect" are not infrequent with adj.

l. 1371. "seleð is not dependent on r, for in that case it would be in the subjunctive, but r is simply an adverb, correlative with the conjunction r in the next line: 'he will (sooner) give up his life, before he will,' etc."—Sw.

l. 1372. Cf. ll. 318 and 543 for willan with similar omitted inf.

l. 1373. heafola is found only in poetry.—Sw. It occurs thirteen or fourteen times in this poem. Cf. the poetic gamol, swt (l. 2694), etc., for eald, bld.

l. 1391. uton: hortatory subj. of wtan, go, = let us go; cf. French allons, Lat. eamus, Ital. andiamo, etc. + inf. Cf. ll. 2649, 3102.

l. 1400. H. is dat. of person indirectly affected, = advantage.

l. 1402. geatolc probably = in his equipments, as B. suggests (Beit. xii. 83), comparing searolc.

ll. 1402, 1413 reproduce the wk. form of the pret. of gn (Goth, gaggida). Cf. Andreas, l. 1096, etc.

l. 1405. S. (Beit. ix. 140) supplies [þr he] gegnum fr; B. (ibid. xii. 14) suggests hwr he.

l. 1411. B., Gr., and E. take n-paðas = paths wide enough for only one, like Norwegian einstig; cf. stge nearwe, just above. Trail is the meaning. Cf. enge npaðas, uncð geld, Exod. (Hunt), l. 58.

l. 1421. Cf. oncð, l. 831. The whole passage (ll. 1411-1442) is replete with suggestions of walrus-hunting, seal-fishing, harpooning of sea-animals (l. 1438), etc.

l. 1425. E. quotes from the 8th cent. Corpus Gloss., "Falanx foeða."

l. 1428. For other mention of nicors, cf. ll. 422, 575, 846. E. remarks, "it survives in the phrase 'Old Nick' ... a word of high authority ... Icel. nykr, water-goblin, Dan. nk, nisse, Swed. ncken, G. nix, nixe, etc." See Skeat, Nick.

l. 1440. Sw. reads gehnged, prostrated, and regards nða as gen. pl. "used instrumentally," = by force.

l. 1441. -bora = bearer, stirrer; occurs in other compds., as mund-, rd-, wg-bora.

l. 1447. him = for him, a remoter dative of reference.—Sw.

l. 1455. Gr. reads brondne, = flaming.

l. 1457. len is the inf. of lh; cf. onlh (< onlen) at l. 1468. lhan was formerly given as the inf.; cf. lne = lhne.

l. 1458. Cf. the similar dat. of possession as used in Latin.

l. 1458. H.-So. compares the Icelandic saga account of Grettir's battle with the giant in the cave. hft-mce may be = Icel. heptisax (Anglia, iii. 83), "hip-knife."

l. 1459. "The sense seems to be 'pre-eminent among the old treasures.' ... But possibly foran is here a prep. with the gen.: 'one before the old treasures.'".—Sw. For other examples of foran, cf. ll. 985, 2365.

l. 1460. ter-terum = poison-drops (C., Beit. viii. 571; S., ibid. xi. 359).

l. 1467. þt, comp. relative, = that which; "we testify that we do know."

l. 1480. forð-gewitenum is in appos. to me, = mihi defuncto.—M. Callaway, Am. Journ. of Philol., October, 1889.

l. 1482. nime. Conditional clauses of doubt or future contingency take gif or bton with subj.; cf. ll. 452, 594; of fact or certainty, the ind.; cf. ll. 442, 447, 527, 662, etc. For bton, cf. ll. 967, 1561.

l. 1487. "findan sometimes has a preterit funde in W. S. after the manner of the weak preterits."—Cook's Sievers' Cram., p, 210.

l. 1490. Kl. reads wl-sweord, = battle-sword.

l. 1507. "This cave under the sea seems to be another of those natural phenomena of which the writer had personal knowledge (ll. 2135, 2277), and which was introduced by him into the mythical tale to give it a local color. There are many places of this kind. Their entrance is under the lowest level of the tide."—Br., p. 45.

l. 1514. B. (Beit. xii. 362) explains niðsele, hrfsele as roof-covered hall in the deep; cf. Grettir Saga (Anglia, iii. 83).

l. 1538. Sw., R., and ten Br. suggest feaxe for eaxle, = seized by the hair.

l. 1543. and-len (R.); cf. l. 2095. The MS. has hand-len.

l. 1546. Sw. and S. read seax.—Beit. ix. 140.

l. 1557. H.-So. omits comma and places semicolon after ðelce; Sw. and S. place comma after gescd.

l. 1584. ðer swylc = another fifteen (Sw.); = fully as many (Ha.).

ll. 1592-1613 seq. Cf. Anglia, iii; 84 (Grettir Saga).

l. 1595. blondenfeax = grizzly-haired (Bright, Reader, p. 258); cf. Brunanb., l. 45 (Bright).

l. 1599. gewearð, impers. vb., = agree, decide = many agreed upon this, that, etc. (Ha., p. 55; cf. ll. 2025-2027, 1997; B., Beit. xii. 97).

l. 1605. C. supposes wiston = wscton = wished.—Beit. viii. 571.

l. 1607. broden ml is now regarded as a comp. noun, = inlaid or damascened sword.—W., Ho.

l. 1611. wl-rpas = water-ropes = bands of frost (l. 1610) (?). Possibly the Prov. Eng. weele, whirlpool. Cf. wl, gurges, Wright, Voc., Gnom. Verses, l. 39.—E.

l. 1611. wgrpas (Sw.) = wave-bands (Ha.).

l. 1622. B. suggests eatna = eotena, eardas, haunts of the giants (Northumbr. ea for eo).

l. 1635. cyning-holde (B., Beit. xii. 369); cf. l. 290.

l. 1650. H., Gr., and Ettmller understand idese to refer to the queen.

l. 1651. Cf. Anglia, iii. 74, Beit. xi. 167, for coincidences with the Grettir Saga (13th cent.).

l. 1657. Restore MS. reading wigge in place of wge.

l. 1664. B. proposes eotenise ... ste for ecen ... oftost, omitting brackets (Zackers Zeitschr. iv. 206). G. translates mighty ... often.

l. 1675. ondrdan. "In late texts the final n of the preposition on is frequently lost when it occurs in a compound word or stereotyped phrase, and the prefix then appears as a: abtan, amang, aweg, aright, adr'dan."—Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 98.

ll. 1680-1682. Giants and their work are also referred to at ll. 113, 455, 1563, 1691, etc.

l. 1680. Cf. ceastra ... orðanc enta geweorc, Gnomic Verses, l. 2; Sweet's Reader, p. 186.

ll. 1687-1697. "In this description of the writing on the sword, we see the process of transition from heathen magic to the notions of Christian times .... The history of the flood and of the giants ... were substitutes for names of heathen gods, and magic spells for victory."—E. Cf. Mohammedan usage.

ll. 1703, 1704. þt þ eorl nre geboren betera (B., Tidskr. 8, 52).

l. 1715. na hwearf = he died solitary and alone (B., Beit. xii. 38); = lonely (Ha.); = alone (G.).

l. 1723. led-bealo longsum = eternal hell-torment (B., Beit. xii. 38, who compares Ps. Cott. 57, lf longsum).

l. 1729. E. translates on lufan, towards possession; Ha., to possessions.

l. 1730. mdgeþonc, like lig, s, segn, niht, etc., is of double gender (m., n. in the case of mdgeþ.).

l. 1741. The doctrine of nemesis following close on ὓβρις, or overweening pride, is here very clearly enunciated. The only protector against the things that "assault and hurt" the soul is the "Bishop and Shepherd of our souls" (l. 1743).

l. 1745 appears dimly to fore-shadow the office of the evil archer Loki, who in the Scandinavian mythology shoots Balder with a mistletoe twig. The language closely resembles that of Psalm 64.

l. 1748. Kl. regards wom = w(u)m; cf. wh-bogen, l. 2828. See Gloss., p. 295, under wam. Contrast the construction of bebeorgan a few lines below (l. 1759), where the dat. and acc. are associated.

l. 1748. See Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 167, for declension of wh, wrong = gen. ws or wges, dat. w(u)m, etc.; pl. gen. wra, dat. w(u)m, etc.; and cf. declension of heh, hreh, rh, etc.

l. 1748. wergan gstes; cf. Blickl. Hom. vii.; Andreas, l. 1171. "Auld Wearie is used in Scotland, or was used a few years ago, ... to mean the devil."—E. Bede's Eccles. Hist. contains (naturally) many examples of the expression = devil.

l. 1750. on gyld = in reward (B. Beit. xii. 95); Ha. translates boastfully; G., for boasting; Gr., to incite to boastfulness. Cf. Christ, l. 818.

l. 1767. E. thinks this an allusion to the widespread superstition of the evil eye (mal occhio, mauvais il). Cf. Vergil, Ecl. iii. 103. He remarks that Pius IX., Gambetta, and President Carnot were charged by their enemies with possessing this weapon.

l. 1784. wigge geweorðad (MS. wigge weorðad) is C.'s conjecture; cf. Elene, l. 150. So G., honored in war.

l. 1785. The future generally implied in the present of ben is plainly seen in this line; cf. ll. 1826, 661, 1830, 1763, etc.

l. 1794. Some impers. vbs. take acc. (as here, Geat) of the person affected; others (as þyncan) take the dat. of the person, as at ll. 688, 1749, etc. Cf. verbs of dreaming, being ashamed, desiring, etc.—March, A.-S. Gram., p. 145.

l. 1802. E. remarks that the blaca hrefn here is a bird of good omen, as opposed to se wonna hrefn of l. 3025. The raven, wolf, and eagle are the regular epic accompaniments of battle and carnage. Cf. ll. 3025-3028; Maldon, 106; Judith, 205-210, etc.

l. 1803. S. emends to read: "then came the light, going bright after darkness: the warriors," etc. Cf. Ho., p. 41, l. 23. G. puts period before "the warriors." For onettan, cf. Sw.'s Gloss, and Bright's Read., Gloss.

ll. 1808-1810. Mllenh. and Grundt. refer se hearda to Beowulf, correct sunu (MS.) to suna Ecglfes (i.e. Unferth); [he] (Beo.) thanked him (Un.) for the loan. Cf. ll. 344, 581, 1915.

ll. 1823-1840. "Beowulf departing pledges his services to Hroðgar, to be what afterwards in the mature language of chivalry was called his 'true knight'"—E.

l. 1832. Kl. corrects to dryhtne, in appos. with Higelce.

l. 1835 gr-holt more properly means spear-shaft; cf. sc-holt.

l. 1855. sl = better (Grundt.; B., Beit. xii. 96), instead of MS. wel.

ll. 1855-1866. "An ideal picture of international amity according to the experience and doctrine of the eighth century."—E.

l. 1858. S. and Kl. correct to gemne, agreeing with sib.—Beit. ix. 140, 190.

l. 1862. "The gannet is a great diver, plunging down into the sea from a considerable height, such as forty feet."—E.

l. 1863. Kl. suggests heafu, = seas.

l. 1865. B. proposes geþhte, = with firm thought, for geworhte; cf. l. 611.

l. 1876. gesen = see again (Kl., Beit. ix. 190). S. and B. insert n to modify gesen and explain Hrðgr's tears. Ha. and G. follow Heyne's text. Cf. l. 567.

l. 1881. Is beorn here = bearn (be-arn?) of l. 67? or more likely = born, barn, = burned?—S., Th.

l. 1887. orleahtre is a ἃπαξ λεγόμενον. E. compares Tennyson's "blameless" king. Cf. also ll. 2015, 2145; and the gd cyning of l. 11.

l. 1896. scaðan = warriors (cf. l. 1804) has been proposed by C.; but cf. l. 253.

l. 1897. The boat had been left, at ll. 294-302, in the keeping of Hrðgr's men; at l. 1901 the bt-weard is specially honored by Beowulf with a sword and becomes a "sworded squire."—E. This circumstance appears to weld the poem together. Cf. also the speed of the journey home with ymb n-td þres dgores of l. 219, and the similarity of language in both passages (fmig-heals, clifu, nssas, slde, brim, etc.).—The nautical terms in Beowulf would form an interesting study.

l. 1904. R. proposes, gewt him on naca, = the vessel set out, on alliterating as at l. 2524 (Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 402). B. reads on nacan, but inserts irrelevant matter (Beit. xii. 97).

l. 1913. Cf. the same use of cel, = ship, in the A.-S. Chron., ed. Earle-Plummer; Gnomic Verses, etc.

l. 1914. S. inserts þt h before on lande.

l. 1916. B. makes lefra manna depend on wltode, = looked for the dear men ready at the coast (Beit. xii. 97).

l. 1924. Gr., W., and Ho. propose wunade, = remained; but cf. l. 1929. S. conceives ll. 1924, 1925 as "direct speech" (Beit. ix. 141).

l. 1927 seq. "The women of Beowulf are of the fine northern type; trusted and loved by their husbands and by the nobles and people; generous, gentle, and holding their place with dignity."—Br., p. 67. Thrytho is the exception, l. 1932 seq.

l. 1933. C. suggests frcnu, = dangerous, bold, for Thrytho could not be called "excellent." G. writes "Modthrytho" as her name. The womanly Hygd seems purposely here contrasted with the terrible Thrytho, just as, at l. 902 seq., Sigemund and Heremd are contrasted. For Thrytho, etc., cf. Gr., Jahrb. fr rom. u. eng. Lit. iv. 279; Mllenhoff, Haupts Zeitschr. xiv. 216; Matthew Paris; Suchier, Beit. iv. 500-521; R. Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 402; B., ibid. iv. 206; Krner, Eng. Stud. i. 489-492; H.-So., p. 106.

l. 1932-1963. K. first pointed out the connection between the historical Offa, King of Mercia, and his wife Cwendrida, and the Offa and Þryðo (Gr.'s Drida of the Vita Off Secundi) of the present passage. The tale is told of her, not of Hygd.

l. 1936. Suchier proposes andges, = eye to eye; Leo proposes ndges, = the whole day; G., by day. No change is necessary if an be taken to govqern hire, = on her, and dges be explained (like nihtes, etc.) as a genitive of time, = by day.

l. 1943. R. and Suchier propose onsce, = seek, require; but cf. 2955.

l. 1966. Cf. the heofoncandel of Exod. l. 115 (Hunt). Shak.'s 'night's candles.'

l. 1969. Cf. l. 2487 seq. for the actual slayer of Ongenþew, i.e. Eofor, to whom Hygelc gave his only daughter as a reward, l. 2998.

l. 1981. meodu-scencum = with mead-pourers or mead-cups (G., Ha.); draught or cup of mead (Toller-Bosw.).

l. 1982. K., Th., W., H. supply [heal-]reced; Holler [he-].

l. 1984. B. defends the MS., reading h n (for hðn), which he regards as = Heinir, the inhabitants of the Jutish "heaths" (). Cf. H.-So., p. 107; Beit. xii. 9.

l. 1985. snne. "In poetry there is a reflexive possessive of the third person, sn (declined like mn). It is used not only as a true reflexive, but also as a non-reflexive (= Lat. ejus)"—Sw.; Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 185. Cf. ll. 1508, 1961, 2284, 2790.

l. 1994. Cf. l. 190 for a similar use of seð; cf. to "glow" with emotion, "boil" with indignation, "burn" with anger, etc. weallan is often so used; cf. ll. 2332, 2066, etc.

l. 2010. B. proposes fcne, = in treachery, for fenne. Cf. Juliana, l. 350; Beit. xii. 97.

l. 2022. Food of specific sorts is rarely, if at all, mentioned in the poem. Drink, on the other hand, occurs in its primitive varieties,—ale (as here: ealu-wg), mead, beer, wine, lð (cider? Goth. leiþus, Prov. Ger. leit- in leit-haus, ale-house), etc.

l. 2025. Kl. proposes is for ws.

l. 2027. Cf. l. 1599 for a similar use of weorðan, = agree, be pleased with (Ha.); appear (Sw., Reader, 6th ed.).

ll. 2030, 2031. Ten Br. proposes: oft seldan ( = gave) wre fter led-hryre: lytle hwle bongr bgeð, þeh se brd duge = oft has a treaty been given after the fall of a prince: but little while the murder-spear resteth, however excellent the bride be. Cf. Kl., Beit. ix. 190; B., Beit. xii. 369; R., Zachers Zeitschr. in. 404; Ha., p. 69; G., p. 62.

l. 2036. Cf. Kl, Beit. ix. 191; R., Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 404.

l. 2042. For beh B. reads b, = both, i.e. Freaware and the Dane.

l. 2063. Thorkelin and Conybeare propose wgende, = fighting, for lifigende.

l. 2068. W.'s edition begins section xxx. (not marked in the MS.) with this line. Section xxxix. (xxxviii. in copies A and B, xxxix. in Thorkelin) is not so designated in the MS., though þ (at l. 2822) is written with capitals and xl. begins at l. 2893.

l. 2095. Cf. l. 1542, and note.

l. 2115 seq. B. restores thus:

                  Þr on innan ging
niðða nthwylc,      nede t gefng
hðnum horde;      hond tgenam
seleful since fh;      n h þt syððan geaf,
þeh þe h slpende      besyrede hyrde
þefes crfte:       þt se þiden onfand,
b-folc beorna,       þt h gebolgen ws.
Beit. xii. 99; Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 210.

l. 2128. tbr here = bear away, not given in the Gloss.

l. 2129. B. proposes frunga, = suddenly, for Gr.'s reading in the text.—Beit. xii. 98.

l. 2132. MS. has þine life, which Leo translates by thy leave (= ON. leyfi); B., by thy life.—Beit. xii. 369.

l. 2150. B. renders gen, etc., by "now I serve thee alone again as my gracious king" (Beit. xii. 99).

l. 2151. The forms hafu [hafo], hafast, hafað, are poetic archaisms.—Sw.

l. 2153. Kl. proposes ealdor, = prince, for eafor. W. proposes the compd. eafor-hefodsegn, = helm; cf. l. 1245.

l. 2157. The wk. form of the adj. is frequent in the vocative, especially when postponed: "Beowulf lefa," l. 1759. So, often, in poetry in nom.: wudu selesta, etc.

l. 2158. rest is possibly the verbal subs. from rsan, to arise, = arising, origin. R. suggested rist, arising, origin. Cf. Bede, Eccles. Hist., ed. Miller, where the word is spelt as above, but = (as usual) resurrection. See Sweet, Reader, p. 211; E.-Plummer's Chronicle, p. 302, etc. The MS. has est. See Ha., p. 73; S., Beit. x. 222; and cf. l. 2166.

l. 2188. Gr., W., H. supply [wn]don, = weened, instead of Th.'s [oft sg]don.

l. 2188. The "slack" Beowulf, like the sluggish Brutus, ultimately reveals his true character, and is presented with a historic sword of honor. It is "laid on his breast" (l. 2195) as Hun laid Lfing on Hengest's breast, l. 1145.

l. 2188. "The boy was at first slothful, and the Geats thought him an unwarlike prince, and long despised him. Then, like many a lazy third son in the folk tales, a change came, he suddenly showed wonderful daring and was passionate for adventure."—Br., p. 22.

l. 2196. "Seven of thousands, manor and lordship" (Ha.). Kl., Beit. ix. 191, thinks with Ettm. that þsendo means a hide of land (see Schmid, Ges. der Angl, 610), Bede's familia = 1/2 sq. meter; seofan being used (like hund, l. 2995) only for the alliteration.

l. 2196. "A vast Honour of 7000 hides, a mansion, and a judgment-seat" [throne].—E.

l. 2210. MS. has the more correct wintra.

l. 2211. Cf. similar language about the dragon at l. 100. Beowulf's "jubilee" is fitly solemnized by his third and last dragon-fight.

l. 2213. B. proposes s þe on hearge hðen hord beweotode; cf. Ha., p. 75.

l. 2215. "The dragon lies round the treasures in a cave, as Fafnir, like a Python, lay coiled over his hoard. So constant was this habit among the dragons that gold is called Worms' bed, Fafnir's couch, Worms' bed-fire. Even in India, the cobras ... are guardians of treasure."—Br., p. 50.

l. 2216. nede. E. translates deftly; Ha., with ardor. H.-So. reads nede, = with desire, greedily, instr. of ned.

l. 2223. E. begins his "Part Third" at this point as he begins "Part Second" at l. 1252, each dragon-fight forming part of a trilogy.

ll. 2224, 2225. B. proposes: nealles mid gewealdum wyrmes weard gst sylfes willum.Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 211; Beit. xii. 100.

l. 2225. For þew read þegn.—K. and Z.

l. 2225. þew, st. m., slave, serf (not in H.-So.).

l. 2227. For ofer-þearfe read rnes þearfa.—Z.

ll. 2229-2231. B. proposes:

secg synbysig      sna onwltode,
þeh þm gyste      gryrebrga std,
hwðre earmsceapen      innganges þearfa
. . . . . . . . . .
fesceapen,      þ hyne se fr begeat.
Beit. xii. 101. Cf. Ha., p. 69.

l. 2232. W. suggests seah or ser for geseah, and Gr. suggests searolc.

l. 2233. Z. surmises eorð-hse (for -scrfe).

l. 2241. B. proposes ln-gestrena, = transitory, etc.; Th., R. propose leng (= longer) gestrena; S. accepts the text but translates "the long accumulating treasure."

l. 2246. B. proposed (1) hard-fyndne, = hard to find; (2) hord-wynne dl,—a deal of treasure-joy (cf. l. 2271).—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 211; Beit. xii. 102.

l. 2247. fecword = banning words (?) MS. has fec.

l. 2254. Others read feor-[mie], = furbish, for fetige: I own not one who may, etc.

l. 2261. The Danes themselves were sometimes called the "Ring-Danes," = clad in ringed (or a ring of) armor, or possessing rings. Cf. ll. 116, 1280.

l. 2264. Note the early reference to hawking. Minstrelsy (hearpan wyn), saga-telling, racing, swimming, harpooning of sea-animals, feasting, and the bestowal of jewels, swords, and rings, are the other amusements most frequent in Bewulf.

l. 2264. Cf. Maldon, ll. 8, 9, for a reference to hawking.

l. 2276. Z. suggests swðe ondrdað; Ho. puts gescean for Gr.'s gewunian.

l. 2277. Z. and K. read: hord on hrsan. "Three hundred winters," at l. 2279, is probably conventional for "a long time," like hund missera, l. 1499; hund þsenda, l. 2995; þritig (of Beowulf's strength), l. 379; þritig (of the men slain by Grendel), l. 123; seofan þsendo, l. 2196, etc.

l. 2285. B. objects to hord as repeated in ll. 2284, 2285; but cf. Ha., p. 77. C. prefers sum to hord. onboren = inminutus; cf. B., Beit. xii. 102.

l. 2285. onberan is found also at line 991, = carry off, with on- = E. un—(un-bind, -loose, -tie, etc.), G. ent-. The negro still pronounces on-do, etc.

l. 2299. Cf. H.-So., p. 112, for a defense of the text as it stands. B. proposes "nor was there any man in that desert who rejoiced in conflict," etc. So ten Br.

l. 2326. B. and ten Br,. propose hm, = home, for him.—Beit. xii. 103.

l. 2335. E. translates elond utan by the sea-board front, the water-washed land on the (its) outside. See B., Beit. xii. 1, 5.

l. 2346. Cf. l. 425, where Beowulf resolves to fight the dragon single-handed. E. compares Guy of Warwick, ll. 49, 376.

l. 2355. Ten Br. proposes laðan cynne as apposition to mgum.

l. 2360. Cf. Beowulf's other swimming-feat with Breca, ll. 506 seq.

l. 2362. Gr. inserts na, = lone-going, before xxx.: approved by B.; and Krger, Beit. ix. 575. Cf. l. 379.

l. 2362. "Beowulf has the strength of thirty men in the original tale. Here, then, the new inventor makes him carry off thirty coats of mail."—Br., p. 48.

l. 2364. Hetware = Chattuarii, a nation allied against Hygelc in his Frisian expedition; cf. ll. 1208 seq., 2917, etc.

l. 2368. B. proposes quiet sea as trans, of sileða bigong, and compares Goth. anasilan, to be still; Swed. dial, sil, still water between waterfalls.—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 214.

l. 2380. hyne—Heardrd; so him, l. 2358.

l. 2384. E. calls attention to Swi-rce as identical with the modern Sverige = Sweden; cf. l. 2496.

l. 2386. Gr. reads on feorme, = at the banquet; cf. Mller, Alteng. Volksepos, 111, who reads (f)or feorme. The MS. has or.

l. 2391. Cf. l. 11.

l. 2394. B., Gr., and Mllenh. understand ll. 2393-2397 to mean that Edgils, hthere's son, driven from Sweden, returns later, supported by Beowulf, takes the life of his uncle Onela, and probably becomes himself O.'s successor and king of Sweden. For another view see H.-So., p. 115. MS. has freond (l. 2394), which Leo, etc., change to fend. G. translates friend.—Beit. xii. 13; Anzeiger f. d. Altert. iii. 177.

l. 2395. Edgils is hthere's son; cf. l. 2381; Onela is hthere's brother; cf. ll. 2933, 2617.

l. 2402. "Twelfsome"; cf. "fifteensome" at l. 207, etc. As Bewulf is essentially the Epic of Philanthropy, of the true love of man, as distinguished from the ordinary love-epic, the number twelve in this passage may be reminiscent of another Friend of Man and another Twelve. In each case all but one desert the hero.

l. 2437. R. proposes stred, = ordered, decreed, for strd.—Zachers Zeitschr. iii. 409.

l. 2439. B. corrects to fre-wine = noble friend, asking, "How can Herebeald be called Hðcyn's fre-wine [MS.], lord?"

l. 2442. feohles gefeoht, "a homicide which cannot be atoned for by money—in this case an unintentional fratricide."—Sw.

l. 2445. See Ha., pp. 82, 83, for a discussion of ll. 2445-2463. Cf. G., p. 75.

l. 2447. MS. reads wrece, justified by B. (Tidskr. viii. 56). W. conceives wrece as optative or hortative, and places a colon before þonne.

l. 2449. For helpan read helpe.—K., Th., S. (Zeitschr. f. D. Phil. xxi. 3, 357).

ll. 2454-2455. (1) Mllenh. (Haupts Zeitschr. xiv. 232) proposes:

                þonne se n hafað
þurh dda nd     deðes gefandod.

(2) B. proposes:

þurh dda nð      deðes gefondad.
Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 215.

l. 2458. Cf. scetend, pl., ll. 704, 1155, like rdend. Cf. Judith, l. 305, etc.

l. 2474. Th. considers the "wide water" here as the Mlar lake, the boundary between Swedes and Goths.

l. 2477. On oþþe = and, cf. B., Tidskr. viii. 57. See Ha., p. 83.

l. 2489. B. proposes hre-blc for Gr.'s heoro-.—Tikskr. viii. 297.

l. 2494. S. suggests ðel-wynne.

l. 2502. E. translates for dugeðum, of my prowess; so Ettmller.

ll. 2520-2522. Gr. and S. translate, "if I knew how else I might combat the monster's boastfulness."—Ha., p. 85.

l. 2524. and-httres is H.'s invention. Gr. reads oreðes and ttres, blast and venom. Cf. oruð, l. 2558, and l. 2840 (where ttor- also occurs).

l. 2526. E. quotes flen ftes trym from Maldon, l. 247.

l. 2546. Gr., H.-So., and Ho. read standan stn-bogan (for std on stn-bogan) depending on geseah.

l. 2550. Grundt. and B. propose der, brave one, i.e. Beowulf, for dep.

L. 2565. MS. has ungleaw (K., Th.), unglaw (Grundt.). B. proposes unslw, = sharp.—Beit. xii. 104. So H.-So., Ha., p. 86.

ll. 2570, 2571. (1) May not gescfe (MS. to gscipe) = German schief, "crooked," "bent," "aslant," and hence be a parallel to gebogen, bent, coiled? cf. l. 2568, þ se wyrm gebeh snde tsomne, and l. 2828. Coiled serpents spring more powerfully for the coiling. (2) Or perhaps destroy comma after t and read gescpe, = his fate; cf. l. 26: him þ Scyld gewt t gescp-hwle. G. appar. adopts this reading, p. 78.

l. 2589. grund-wong = the field, not the earth (so B.); H.-So., cave, as at l. 2771. So Ha., p. 87.

l. 2595. S. proposes colon after stefne.—Beit. ix. 141.

l. 2604. Mllenh. explains led Scylfinga in Anzeiger f. d. Altert. iii. 176-178.

l. 2607. re = possessions, holding (Kl., Beit. ix. 192; Ha., p. 88).

l. 2609. folcrihta. Add "folk-right" to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf. ðel-, land-riht, word-riht.

l. 2614. H.-So. reads with Gr. wrccan winelesum Weohstn bana, = whom, a friendless exile, W. had slain.

ll. 2635-61. E. quotes Tacitus, Germania, xiv.: "turpe comitatui virtutem principis non adaequare." Beowulf had been deserted by his comitatus.

l. 2643. B. proposes ser.—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 216.

l. 2649. wutun; l. 3102, uton = pres. subj. pl. 1st person of wtan, to go, used like Mod. Eng. let us + inf., Lat. eamus, Ital. andiamo, Fr. allons; M. E. (Layamon) uten. Cf. Psa. ii. 3, etc. March, A.-S. Gram., pp. 104, 196.

l. 2650. B. suggests ht for hyt,.—Beit. xii. 105.

l. 2656. fne = fh-ne; cf. fra = fh-ra, l. 578; so henne (MS.) = heh-ne, etc., l. 984. See Cook's Sievers' Gram.

ll. 2660, 2661. Why not read beadu-scrd, as at l. 453, = battle-shirt? B. and R. suppose two half-verses omitted between byrdu-scrd and bm gemne. B. reads bwdu, = handsome, etc. Gr. suggests unc n, = to us two now, for rum; and K. and Grundt. read ben gemne for bm, etc. This makes sense. Cf. Ha., p. 89.

l. 2666. Cf. the dat. absolute without preposition.

l. 2681. Ngling; cf. Hrunting, Lfing, and other famous wundor-smiða geweorc of the poem.

l. 2687. B. changes þonne into þone (rel. pro.) = which.—Beit. xii. 105.

l. 2688. B. supports the MS. reading, wundum.

l. 2688. Cf. l. 2278 for similar language.

l. 2698. B. (Beit. xii. 105) renders: "he did not heed the head of the dragon (which Beowulf with his sword had struck without effect), but he struck the dragon somewhat further down." Cf. Saxo, vi. p. 272.

l. 2698. Cf. the language used at ll. 446 and 1373, where hafelan also occurs; and hdan.

l. 2700. hwne; cf. Lowl. Sc. wheen, a number; Chaucer's woon, number.

l. 2702. S. proposes þ (for þt) þt fr, etc., = when the fire began, etc.

l. 2704. "The (hup)-seax has often been found in Saxon graves on the hip of the skeleton."—E.

l. 2707. Kl. proposes: feorh ealne wrc, = drove out all the life; cf. Gen. l. 1385.—Beit. ix. 192. S. suggests gefylde,—he felled the foe, etc.—Ibid. Parentheses seem unnecessary.

l. 2727. dg-hwl = time allotted, lifetime.

l. 2745, 2745. Ho. removes geong from the beginning of l. 2745 and places it at the end of l. 2744.

l. 2750. R. proposes sigle searogimmas, as at l. 1158.

l. 2767. (1) B. proposes doubtfully oferhgean or oferhgan, = Goth, ufarhauhjan, p. p. ufarhauhids (Gr. τυφωθείς) = exceed in value.—Tidskr. viii. 60. (2) Kl. proposes oferhdian, = to make arrogant, infatuate; cf. oferhd.—Beit. ix. 192.

l. 2770. gelocen leoðocrftum = (1) spell-bound (Th., Arnold, E.); (2) wrought with hand-craft (G.); (3) meshed, linked together (H., Ho.); cf. Elene, ll. 1251, 522.

l. 2778. B. considers bill ... ealdhlfordes as Beowulf's short sword, with which he killed the dragon, l. 2704 (Tidskr. viii. 299). R. proposes ealdhlforde. Mllenh. understands ealdhlford to mean the former possessor of the hoard. W. agrees to this, but conceives rgescd as a compd. = re calceatus, sheathed in brass. Ha. translates rgescd as vb. and adv.

l. 2791. Cf. l. 224, eoletes t ende; landes t ende, Exod. (Hunt).

l. 2792. MS. reads wteres weorpan, which R. would change to wtere sweorfan.

l. 2806. "Men saw from its height the whales tumbling in the waves, and called it Whale's Ness (Hrones-ns)."—Br. p. 28. Cf. l. 3137.

l. 2815. Wglf was the next of kin, the last of the race, and hence the recipient of Beowulf's kingly insignia. There is a possible play on the word lf (Wg-lf, ende-lf).

l. 2818. gingeste word; cf. novissima verba, and Ger. jngst, lately.

l. 2837. E. translates on lande, in the world, comparing on lfe, on worulde.

l. 2840. gersde = pret. of gersan (omitted from the Gloss.), same as rsan; cf. l. 2691.

l. 2859. B. proposes deð rdan, = determine death.—Beit. xii. 106.

l. 2861. Change geongum to geongan as a scribal error (?), but cf. Lichtenheld, Haupts Zeitschr. xvi. 353-355.

l. 2871. S. and W. propose wr.—Beit. ix. 142.

l. 2873. S. punctuates: wrðe forwurpe, þ, etc.

l. 2874. H.-So. begins a new sentence with nealles, ending the preceding one with beget.

l. 2879. tgifan = to render, to afford; omitted in Gloss.

ll. 2885-2892. "This passage ... equals the passage in Tacitus which describes the tie of chief to companion and companion to chief among the Germans, and which recounts the shame that fell on those who survived their lord."—Br., p. 56.

l. 2886. cyn thus has the meaning of gens or clan, just as in many Oriental towns all are of one blood. E. compares Tacitus, Germania, 7; and cf. "kith and kin."

l. 2892. Death is preferable to dishonor. Cf. Kemble, Saxons, i. 235.

l. 2901. The ἄγγελος begins his ἀγγελία here.

l. 2910. S. proposes higemðe, sad of soul; cf. ll. 2853 and 2864 (Beit. ix. 142). B. considers higemðum a dat. or instr. pl. of an abstract in -u (Beit. xii. 106). H. makes it a dat. pl. = for the dead. For heafod-wearde, etc., cf. note on l. 446.

l. 2920-2921. B. explains "he could not this time, as usual, give jewels to his followers."—Beit. xii. 106.

l. 2922. The Merovingian or Frankish race.

l. 2940 seq. B. conjectures:

cwð he on mergenne      mces ecgum
gtan wolde,      sumon galgtreowu
hewan on holte      ond he han on þ
fuglum t gamene.
Beit. xii. 107, 372.

Cf. S., Beit. ix. 143. gtan = cause blood to be shed.

l. 2950. B. proposes gomela for gda; "a surprising epithet for a Geat to apply to the 'terrible' Ongentheow."—Ha. p. 99. But "good" does not necessarily mean "morally excellent," as a "good" hater, a "good" fighter.

l. 2959. See H.-So. for an explanatory quotation from Paulus Diaconus, etc. B., K., and Th. read segn Higelces, = H.'s banner uplifted began to pursue the Swede-men.—Beit. xii. 108. S. suggests sce, = pursuit.

l. 2977. gewyrpton: this vb. is also used reflexively in Exod. (Hunt), l. 130: wyrpton hie wrige.

l. 2989. br is Grundt.'s reading, after the MS. "The surviving victor is the heir of the slaughtered foe."—H.-So. Cf. Hildebrands Lied, ll. 61, 62.

l. 2995. "A hundred of thousands in land and rings" (Ha., p. 100). Cf. ll. 2196, 3051. Cf. B., Beit. xii. 20, who quotes Saxo's bis senas gentes and remarks: "Hrolf Kraki, who rewards his follower, for the slaying of the foreign king, with jewels, rich lands, and his only daughter's hand, answers to the Jutish king Hygelc, who rewards his liegeman, for the slaying of Ongenthew, with jewels, enormous estates, and his only daughter's hand."

l. 3006. H.-So. suggests Scilfingas for Scyldingas, because, at l. 2397, Beowulf kills the Scylfing Edgils and probably acquires his lands. Thus ll. 3002, 3005, 3006, would indicate that, after Beowulf's death, the Swedes desired to shake off his hated yoke. Mllenh., however, regards l. 3006 as a thoughtless repetition of l. 2053.—Haupts Zeitschr. xiv. 239.

l. 3008. Cf. the same proverb at l. 256; and Exod. (Hunt.) l. 293.

l. 3022. E. quotes:

"Thai token an harp gle and game
And maked a lai and yaf it name."
Weber, l. 358.

and from Percy, "The word glee, which peculiarly denoted their art (the minstrels'), continues still in our own language ... it is to this day used in a musical sense, and applied to a peculiar piece of composition."

l. 3025. "This is a finer use than usual of the common poetic attendants of a battle, the wolf, the eagle, and the raven. The three are here like three Valkyrie, talking of all that they have done."—Br., p. 57.

l. 3033. Cf. Hunt's Dan. l. 731, for similar language.

l. 3039. B. supplies a supposed gap here:

[banan ec fundon      bennum secne
(n) r h þm      gesgan syllcran wiht]
wyrm on wonge...
Beit. xii. 372.

Cf. Ha., p. 102. W. and Ho. insert [þr] before gesgan.

l. 3042. Cf. l. 2561, where gryre-giest occurs as an epithet of the dragon. B. proposes gry[re-fh].

l. 3044. lyft-wynne, in the pride of the air, E.; to rejoice in the air, Ha.

l. 3057. (1) He (God) is men's hope; (2) he is the heroes' hope; (3) gehyld = the secret place of enchanters; cf. hlsmanna gehyld, Gr.'s reading, after A.-S. hlsere, haruspex, augur.

l. 3060. B. suggests gehðde, = plundered (i.e. by the thief), for gehdde.

ll. 3063-3066. (1) B. suggests wundur [deðe] hwr þonne eorl ellenrof ende gefre = let a brave man then somewhere meet his end by wondrous venture, etc.—Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 241; cf. l. 3038. (2) S. supposes an indirect question introduced by hwr and dependent upon wundur, = a mystery is it when it happens that the hero is to die, if he is no longer to linger among his people.—Beit. ix. 143. (3) Mllenh. suggests: is it to be wondered at that a man should die when he can no longer live?Zachers Zeitschr. xiv. 241. (4) Possibly thus:

                    Wundrað hwt þonne,
eorl ellen-rf,      ende gefre
lf-gesceafta,      þonne leng ne mg (etc.),

in which hwt would = þurh hwt at l. 3069, and eorl would be subject of the conjectural vb. wundrað: "the valiant earl wondereth then through what he shall attain his life's end, when he no longer may live. ... So Bewulf knew not (wondered how) through what his end should come," etc. W. and Ho. join þonne to the next line. Or, for hwr read wre: Wundur wre þonne (= gif), etc., = "would it be any wonder if a brave man," etc., which is virtually Mllenhoff's.

l. 3053. galdre bewunden, spell-bound, throws light on l. 2770, gelocen leoðo-crftum. The "accursed" gold of legend is often dragon-guarded and placed under a spell. Even human ashes (as Shakespeare's) are thus banned. ll. 3047-3058 recall the so-called "Treasury of Atreus."

l. 3073. herh, hearh, temple, is conjectured by E. to survive in Harrow. Temple, barrow, etc., have thus been raised to proper names. Cf. Biwulfes biorh of l. 2808.

l. 3074. H.-So. has strude, = ravage, and compares l. 3127. MS. has strade. S. suggests stride, = tread.

l. 3074. H.-So. omits strdan, = tread, stride over, from the Gloss., referring ll. 3174 and 3074 to strdan, q. v.

l. 3075. S. proposes: ns h goldhwtes gearwor hfde, etc., = Beowulf had not before seen the greedy possessor's favor.—Beit. ix. 143. B. reads, goldhwte gearwor hfde, etc., making goldhwte modify st, = golden favor; but see Beit. xii. 373, for B.'s later view.

l. 3086-3087. B. translates, "that which (i.e. the treasure) drew the king thither was granted indeed, but it overwhelmed us."—Beit. xii. 109.

l. 3097. B. and S. propose fter wine dedum, = in memory of the dead friend.—Beit. ix. 144.

l. 3106. The brd gold here possibly includes the i-monna gold of l. 3053 and the wunden gold of l. 3135. E. translates brd by bullion.

l. 3114. B. supposes folc-gende to be dat. sg. to gdum, referring to Beowulf.

l. 3116. C. considers weaxan, = Lat. vescor, to devour, as a parallel to fretan, and discards parentheses.—Beit. viii. 573.

l. 3120. fs = furnished with; a meaning which must be added to those in the Gloss.

ll. 3124-3125. S. proposes:

ede eahta sum      under inwit-hrf
hilderinca:      sum on handa br, etc.
Beit. ix. 144.

l. 3136. H.-So. corrects (after B.) to ðelingc, the MS. having e.

l. 3145. "It was their [the Icelanders'] belief that the higher the smoke rose in the air the more glorious would the burnt man be in heaven."— Ynglinga Saga, 10 (quoted by E.). Cf. the funeral pyre of Herakles.

l. 3146-3147. B. conjectures:

               ... swgende lc
wpe bewunden      windblonda lg

(lc from lcan, see Gloss.).—Beit. xii. 110. Why not windblonda lc?

l. 3147. Mllenhoff rejected wind-blond gelg because a great fire raises rather than "lays" the wind; hence B., as above, = "swoughing sported the flame wound with the howling of wind-currents."

l. 3151 seq. B. restores conjecturally:

swylce gimor-gyd      sio ge-meowle
[fter Bewulfe]      bunden-heorde
[song] sorg-cearig,      sde geneahhe,
þt hi hyre [hearm-]dagas      hearde on [dr]de,
wlfylla worn,      [w]gendes egesan,
h[n]ðo ond hftnd,      hef on rce wealg.
Beit. xii. 100.

Here ge-meowle = old woman or widow; bunden-heorde = with bound locks; hef = lamentation; cf. l. 3143. on rce wealg is less preferable than the MS. reading, heofon rce swealg = heaven swallowed the smoke.—H.-So. B. thinks Beowulf's widow (gemeowle) was probably Hygd; cf. ll. 2370, 3017-3021.

l. 3162. H.-So. reads (with MS.) bronda be lfe, for betost, and omits colon after bcn. So B., Zachers Zeitschr. iv. 224.

l. 3171. E. quotes Gibbon's accounts of the burial of Attila when the "chosen squadrons of the Hun, wheeling round in measured evolutions, chanted a funeral song to the memory of a hero."

ll. 3173-3174. B. proposes:

woldon gn cwðan      [ond] kyning
wordgyd wrecan      ond ymb wel sprecan.
Beit. xii. 112.

l. 3183. Z., K., Th. read manna for mannum.

l. 3184. "It is the English ideal of a hero as it was conceived by an Englishman some twelve hundred years ago."—Br., p. 18.

NOTES TO THE FIGHT AT FINNSBURG.

The original MS. of this fragment has vanished, but a copy had been made and printed by Hickes in his Thesaurus Linguarum Septentrionalium, i. 192. The original was written on a single sheet attached to a codex of homilies in the Lambeth Library. Mller, Alteng. Epos, p. 65, places the fragment in the Finn episode, between ll. 1146 and 1147. Bugge (Beit. xii. 20) makes it illustrate the conflict in which Hnf fell, i.e. as described in Bewulf as antecedent to the events there given. Heinzel (Anzeiger f. d. Altert.), however, calls attention to the fact that Hengest in the fragment is called cyning, whereas in Bewulf, l. 1086, he is called þegn. See H.-So., p. 125.

"The Fight at Finnsburg and the lays from which our Bewulf was composed were, as it seems to me, sung among the English who dwelt in the north of Denmark and the south of Sweden, and whose tribal name was the Jutes or Goths."—Br., p. 101.

l. 1. R. supposes [hor]nas, and conjectures such an introductory conversation as follows: "Is it dawning in the east, or is a fiery dragon flying about, or are the turrets of some castle burning?" questions which the king negatives in the same order. Then comes the positive declaration, "rather they are warriors marching whose armor gleams in the moonlight." —Alt- und Angels. Lesebuch, 1861. Heinzel and B. conjecture, [beorhtor hor]nas byrnað nfre. So. G.—Beit. xii. 22; Anzeiger f. d. Altert. x. 229.

l. 5. B. conjectures fugelas to mean arrows, and supplies:

ac hr forð berað      [fyrdsearu rincas,
flacre flnbogan],      fugelas singað.

He compares Saxo, p. 95, cristatis galeis hastisque sonantibus instant, as explanatory of l. 6.—Beit. xii. 22. But see Brooke, Early Eng. Literature, who supposes fugelas = raven and eagle, while grg-hama is = wulf (the "grey-coated one"), the ordinary accompaniers of battle.

l. 11. hicgeað, etc.: cf. Maldon, l. 5; Exod. l. 218.

l. 15. Cf. B. (Beit. xii. 25), etc., and Saxo, p. 101, for l. 13.

ll. 18-21. H.-So. remarks: "If, according to Mller and Bugge, Grulf is one of the attackers, one of Finn's men, this does not harmonize with his character as Gðlf's son (l. 33), who (l. 16, and Bewulf, l. 1149) is a Dane, therefore one of Finn's antagonists." B. (Beit. xii. 25) conjectures:

þ gyt Gðdene      Grulf styrode,
þt h sw frelc feorh      forman sðe
t þre healle durum      hyrsta ne bre,
n he nða heard      nyman wolde;

in which Gðdene is the same as Sigeferð, l. 24; h (l. 22) refers to Grulf; and he (l. 21) to hyrsta.

l. 27. swðer = either (bad or good, life or death).—H.-So.

l. 29. clod: meaning doubtful; cf. Maldon, l. 283. G. renders "curved board"; Sw. suggests "round"? "hollow"?

l. 30. B. suggests br-helm, = boar-helm. Cf. Saxo, p. 96.—Beit. xii. 26.

l. 34. B. conjectures: (1) hwearf flacra hrw hrfen, wandrode; (2) hwearf flacra hrw hrfen fram ðrum = flew from one corpse to another.—Beit. xii. 27.

l. 43. B. supposes wund hleð to be a Dane, folces hyrde to be Hnf, in opposition to Holtzmann (Germania, viii. 494), who supposes the wounded man to be a Frisian, and folces hyrde to be their king, Finn.—Beit. xii. 28.

l. 45. B. adopts Th.'s reading heresceorp unhrr = equipments useless.—Beit. xii. 28.

l. 47. "Though wounded, they had retained their strength and activity in battle."—B., Beit. xii. 28.

ADDENDA.

ll. 105 and 218. MS. and Ho. read won-sli and fmi-heals.

ll. 143, 183, 186, etc. Read þm for þm.

l. 299. MS. reads gd-fremmendra. So H.-So.

l. 338. Ho. marks wrc- and its group long.

l. 530. Hwt should here probably be printed as an interj., hwt! Cf. ll. 1, 943, 2249.

l. 2263. Koeppel suggests nis for ns.

The editors are much indebted to E. Koeppel (in Eng. Stud. xiii. 3) for numerous corrections in text and glossary.

l. 3070. H.-So. begins a new line with sw.

GLOSSARY

A

ac, conj. denoting contrariety: hence 1) but (like N.H.G. sondern), 109, 135, 339, etc.—2) but (N.H.G. aber), nevertheless, 602, 697, etc.—3) in direct questions: nonne, numquid, 1991.

aglca, ahlca, glca, -cea, w. m. (cf. Goth, aglo, trouble, O.N. agi, terror, + lc, gift, sport: = misery, vexation, = bringer of trouble; hence): 1) evil spirit, demon, a demon-like being; of Grendel, 159, 433, 593, etc.; of the drake, 2535, 2906, etc.—2) great hero, mighty warrior; of Sigemund, 894; of Bewulf: gen. sg. aglcan(?), 1513; of Bewulf and the drake: nom. pl. þ aglcean, 2593.

aglc-wf, st. n., demon, devil, in the form of a woman; of Grendel's mother, 1260.

aldor. See ealdor.

al-wealda. See eal-w.

am-biht (from and-b., Goth, and-baht-s), st. m., servant, man-servant: nom. sg. ombeht, of the coast-guard, 287; ombiht, of Wulfgr, 336.

ambiht-þegn (from ambiht n. officium and þegn, which see), servant, man-servant: dat. sg. ombiht-þegne, of Bewulf's servant, 674.

an, prep, with the dat., on, in, with respect to, 678; with, among, at, upon (position after the governed word), 1936; with the acc., 1248. Elsewhere on, which see.

ancor, st. m., anchor: dat. sg. ancre, 303, 1884.

ancor-bend, m. (?) f. (?), anchor-cable: dat. pl. oncer-bendum, 1919.

and, conj. (ond is usual form; for example, 601, 1149, 2041), and 33, 39, 40, etc. (See Appendix.)

anda, w. m., excitement, vexation, horror: dat. wrðum on andan, 709, 2315.

and-git, st. n., insight, understanding: nom. sg., 1060. See gitan.

and-htor, st. m. n., heat coming against one: gen. sg. rðes and-httres, 2524.

and-lang, -long, adj., very long. hence 1) at whole length, raised up high: acc. andlongne eorl, 2696 (cf. Bugge upon this point, Zachers Ztschr., 4, 217).—2) continual, entire; andlangne dg, 2116, the whole day; andlonge niht, 2939.

and-len, st. n., reward, payment in full: acc. sg., 1542, 2095 (hand-, hond-lean, MS.).

and-risno, st. f. (see rsan, surgere, decere), that which is to be observed, that which is proper, etiquette: dat. pl. for andrysnum, according to etiquette, 1797.

and-saca, w. m., adversary: godes andsaca (Grendel), 787, 1683.

and-slyht, st. m., blow in return: acc. sg., 2930, 2973 (MS. both times hond-slyht).

and-swaru, st. f., act of accosting: 1) to persons coming up, an address, 2861.—2) in reply to something said, an answer, 354, 1494, 1841.

and-weard, adj., present, existing: acc. sg. n. swn ofer helme and-weard (the image of the boar, which stands on his helm), 1288.

and-wlita, w. m., countenance: acc. sg. -an, 690.

an-sund, adj., entirely unharmed: nom. sg. m., 1001.

an-sn, f., the state of being seen: hence 1) the exterior, the form, 251: ansn wde, showed his form, i.e. appeared, 2835.—2) aspect, appearance, 929; on-sn, 2773.

an-walda, w. m., He who rules over all, God, 1273. See Note.

atol, adj. (also eatol, 2075, etc.), hostile, frightful, cruel: of Grendel, 159, 165, 593, 2075, etc.; of Grendel's mother's hands (dat. pl. atolan), 1503; of the undulation of the waves, 849; of battle, 597, 2479.—cf. O.N. atall, fortis, strenuus.

atelc, adj., terrible, dreadful: atelc egesa, 785.

, adv. (Goth, iv, acc. from aiv-s aevum), ever, always, 455, 882, 931, 1479: syððan, ever afterwards, ever, ever after, 283, 2921.—ever, 780.—Comp. n.

d st. m. funeral pile: acc. sg. d, 3139; dat. sg. de, 1111, 1115.

d-faru, st. f., way to the funeral pile, dat. sg. on d-fre, 3011.

dl, st. f. sickness, 1737, 1764, 1849.

ð, st. m., oath in general, 2740; oath of allegiance, 472 (?); oath of reconciliation of two warring peoples, 1098, 1108.

ð-sweord, st. n., the solemn taking of an oath, the swearing of an oath: nom. pl., 2065. See sweord.

ðum-swerian, m. pl., son-in-law and father-in-law: dat. pl., 84.

gan, verb, pret. and pres., to have, to possess, w. acc.: III. prs. sg. h, 1728; inf. gan, 1089; prt. hte, 487, 522, 533; with object, geweald, to be supplied, 31. Form contracted with the negative: prs. sg. I. nh hw sweord wege (I have no one to wield the sword), 2253.

gen, adj., own, peculiar, 2677.

gend (prs. part. of gan), possessor, owner, lord: gen. sg. gendes, of God, 3076.—Compounds: bld-, bold-, folc-, mgen-gend.

gend-fre, w. m., owner, lord: gen. sg. gend-fren, 1884.

hsian, ge-hsian, w. v.: 1) to examine, to find out by inquiring: pret. part. ge-hsod, 433.—2) to experience, to endure: pret. hsode, 1207; pl. hsodon, 423.

ht, st. n. (contracted from -wiht, which see), something, anything: ht cwices, 2315.

n, num. The meaning of this word betrays its apparent demonstrative character: 1) this, that, 2411, of the hall in the earth mentioned before; similarly, 100 (of Grendel; already mentioned), cf. also 2775.—2) one, a particular one among many, a single one, in numerical sense: ymb ne niht (the next night), 135; þurh nes crft, 700; þra num, 1038; n fter num, one for the other (Hrðel for Herebeald), 2462: similarly, n fter eallum, 2269; nes hwt, some single thing, a part, 3011; se n leda duguðe, the one of the heroes of the people, 2238; nes willan, for the sake of a single one, 3078, etc.—Hence, again, 3) alone, distinguished, 1459, 1886.—4) a, in the sense of an indefinite article: n ... fend, 100; gen. sg. nre bne (or to No.2[?]), 428; n ... draca, 2211—5) gen. pl. nra, in connection with a pronoun, single; nra gehwylces, every single one, 733; nra gehwylcum, 785. Similarly, the dat. pl. in this sense: nemne feum num, except a few single ones, 1082.—6) solus, alone: in the strong form, 1378, 2965; in the weak form, 145, 425, 431, 889, etc.; with the gen., na Geta duguðe, alone of the warriors of the Getas, 2658.—7) solitarius, alone, lonely, see n.—Comp. nn.

n-feald, adj., simple, plain, without reserve: acc. sg. nfealdne geþht, simple opinion, 256.

n-genga, -gengea, w. m., he who goes alone, of Grendel, 165, 449.

n-haga, w. m., he who stands alone, solitarius, 2369.

n-hydig, adj. (like the O.N. ein-rd-r, of one resolve, i.e. of firm resolve), of one opinion, i.e. firm, brave, decided, 2668.

nga, adj. (only in the weak form), single, only: acc. sg. ngan dhtor, 375, 2998; ngan eaferan, 1548; dat. sg. ngan brðer, 1263.

n-pð, st. m., lonely way, path: acc. pl. npaðas, 1411.

n-rd, adj. (cf. under n-hydig), of firm resolution, resolved, 1530, 1576.

n-td, st. f., one time, i.e. the same time, ymb n-td ðres dgores, about the same time the second day (they sailed twenty-four hours), 219.—n stands as in n-mod, O.H.G. ein-muoti, harmonious, of the same disposition.

nunga, adv., throughout, entirely, wholly, 635.

r, st. m., ambassador, messenger, 336, 2784.

r, st. f., 1) honor, dignity: rum healdan, to hold in honor, 296; similarly, 1100, 1183.—2) favor, grace, support: acc. sg. re, 1273, 2607; dat. sg. re, 2379; gen. pl. hwt ... rna, 1188.—Comp. worold-r; also written r.

r-fst, adj., honorable, upright, 1169; of Hnferð (with reference to 588. See fst.

rian, w. v., (to be gracious), to spare: III. sg. prs. w. dat. nnegum rað; of Grendel, 599.

r-stf, st. m.,(elementum honoris), grace, favor: dat. pl. mid rstafum, 317.—Help, support: dat. pl. for r-stafum, to the assistance, 382, 458. See stf.

ter-ter, m., poisonous drop: dat. pl. ren ter-terum fh (steel which is dipped in poison or in poisonous sap of plants), 1460.

ttor, st. n., poison, here of the poison of the dragon's bite: nom., 2716.

ttor-sceaða, w. m., poisonous enemy, of the poisonous dragon: gen. sg. -sceaðan, 2840.

w, adv. (certainly not the dative, but a reduplicated form of , which see), ever: w t aldre, fr ever and ever, 956.

dre, adv., hastily, directly, immediately, 77, 354, 3107. [dre.]

ðele, adj., noble: nom. sg., of Bewulf, 198, 1313; of Bewulf's father, 263, where it can be understood as well in a moral as in a genealogical sense; the latter prevails decidedly in the gen. sg. ðelan cynnes, 2235.

ðeling, st. m., nobleman, man of noble descent, especially the appellation of a man of royal birth; so of the kings of the Danes, 3; of Scyld, 33; of Hrðgr, 130; of Sigemund, 889; of Bewulf, 1226, 1245, 1597, 1816, 2189, 2343, 2375, 2425, 2716, 3136; perhaps also of Dghrefn, 2507;—then, in a broader sense, also denoting other noble-born men: schere, 1295; Hrðgr's courtiers, 118, 983; Heremd's courtiers, 907; Hengest's warriors, 1113; Bewulf's retinue, 1805, 1921, 3172; noble-born in general, 2889. —Comp. sib-ðeling.

ðelu, st. n., only in the pl., noble descent, nobility, in the sense of noble lineage: acc. pl. ðelu, 392; dat. pl. cyning ðelum gd, the king, of noble birth, 1871; ðelum dire, worthy on account of noble lineage, 1950; ðelum (hleþum, MS.), 332.—Comp. fder-ðelu.

fnan, w. v. w. acc., to perform, to carry out, to accomplish: inf. ellen-weorc fnan, to do a heroic deed, 1465; pret. unriht fnde, perpetrated wrong, 1255.

ge-fnan, 1) to carry out, to do, to accomplish: pret. pl. þt gefndon sw, so carried that out, 538; pret. part. ð ws gefned, the oath was sworn, 1108.—2) get ready, prepare: pret. part. gefned, 3107. See efnan.

fter (comparative of af, Ags. of, which see; hence it expresses the idea of forth, away, from, back), a) adv., thereupon, afterwards, 12, 341, 1390, 2155.—ic him fter sceal, I shall go after them, 2817; in word fter cwð, 315, the sense seems to be, spoke back, having turned; b) prep. w. dat., 1) (temporal) after, 119, 128, 187, 825, 1939, etc.; fter beorne, after the (death of) the hero, 2261, so 2262; fter mððum-welan, after (obtaining) the treasure, 2751.—2) (causal) as proceeding from something, denoting result and purpose, hence, in consequence of, conformably to: fter rihte, in accordance with right, 1050, 2111; fter faroðe, with the current, 580; so 1321, 1721, 1944, 2180, etc., fter heaðo-swte, in consequence of the blood of battle, 1607; fter wlnðe, in consequence of mortal enmity, 85; in accordance with, on account of, after, about: fter ðelum (hleþum, MS.)frgn, asked about the descent, 332; ne frin þu fter slum, ask not after my welfare, 1323; fter sincgyfan greteð, weeps for the giver of treasure, 1343; him fter derum men dyrne langað, longs in secret for the dear man, 1880; n fter num, one for the other, 2462, etc.—3) (local), along: fter gumcynnum, throughout the races of men, among men, 945; shte bed fter brum, sought a bed among the rooms of the castle (the castle was fortified, the hall was not), 140; fter recede wlt, looked along the hall, 1573; stone fter stne, smelt along the rocks, 2289; fter lyfte, along the air through the air, 2833; similarly, 996, 1068, 1317, etc.

f-þunca, w. m., anger, chagrin, vexatious affair: nom., 502.

glcea. See aglcea.

led (Old Sax. eld, O.N. edl-r), st. m., fire, 3016. [led.]

led-lema, w. m., (fire-light), torch: acc. sg. leman, 3126. See lema.

l-fylce (from l-, Goth. ali-s, ἄλλος, and fylce, O.N. fylki, collective form from folc), st. n., other folk, hostile army: dat. pl. wið lfylcum, 2372.

l-mihtig (for eal-m.), adj., almighty: nom. sg. m., of the weak form, se l-mihtiga, 92.

l-wiht, st. m., being of another species, monster: gen. pl. l-wihta eard, of the dwelling-place of Grendel's kindred, 1501.

ppel-fealu, adj., dappled sorrel, or apple-yellow: nom. pl. ppel-fealuwe mearas, apple-yellow steeds, 2166.

rn, st. n., house, in the compounds heal-, hord-, medo-, þryð-, win-rn.

sc, st. m., ash (does not occur in Bewulf in this sense), lance, spear, because the shaft consists of ash wood: dat. pl. (qu instr.) scum and ecgum, with spears and swords, 1773.

sc-holt, st. n., ash wood, ashen shaft: nom. pl. sc-holt ufan grg, the ashen shafts gray above (spears with iron points), 330.

sc-wga, w. m., spear-fighter, warrior armed with the spear: nom. sg., 2043.

t, prep. w. dat., with the fundamental meaning of nearness to something, hence 1) local, a) with, near, at, on, in (rest): t hðe, in harbor, 32; t symle, at the meal, 81, t de, on the funeral-pile, 1111, 1115; t þe num, with thee alone, 1378; t wge, in the fight, 1338; t hilde, 1660, 2682; t te, in eating, 3027, etc. b) to, towards, at, on (motion to): deðes wylm hrn t heortan, seized upon the heart, 2271; gehton t hrgtrafum, vowed at (or to) the temples of the gods, 175. c) with verbs of taking away, away from (as starting from near an object): geþeah þt ful t Wealhþen, took the cup from W., 630; fela ic gebd grynna t Grendle, from Grendel, 931; t mnum fder genam, took me from my father to himself, 2430.—2) temporal, at, in, at the time of: t frumsceafte, in the beginning, 45; t ende, at an end, 224; fand snne dryhten ealdres t ende, at the end of life, dying, 2791; similarly, 2823; t feohgyftum, in giving gifts, 1090; t sðestan, finally, 3014.

t-grpe, adj., laying hold of, prehendens, 1270.

t-rihte, adv., almost, 1658.

dre, dre, st. f., aqueduct, canal (not in Bew.), vein (not in Bew.), stream, violent pouring forth: dat. pl. swt drum sprong, the blood sprang in streams, 2967; bld drum dranc, drank the blood in streams(?), 743.

ðm, st. m., breath, gasp, snort: instr. sg. hreðer ðme well, the breast (of the drake) heaved with snorting, 2594.

fen, st. m., evening, 1236.

fen-gram, adj., hostile at evening, night-enemy: nom. sg. m. fen-grom, of Grendel, 2075.

fen-leht, st. n., evening-light: nom. sg., 413.

fen-rst, st. f., evening-rest: acc. sg. -rste, 647, 1253.

fen-sprc, st. f., evening-talk: acc. sg. gemunde ...fen-sprce, thought about what he had spoken in the evening, 760.

fre, adv., ever, at any time, 70, 280, 504, 693, etc.: in negative sentences, fre ne, never, 2601.—Comp. nfre.

g-hw (O.H.G. o-ga-hwr), pron., every, each: dat. sg. ghwm, 1385. The gen. sg. in adverbial sense, in all, throughout, thoroughly: ghws untle, thoroughly blameless, 1866; ghws unrm, entirely innumerable quantity, i.e. an enormous multitude, 2625, 3136.

g-hwðer (O.H.G. o-ga-hwdar): 1) each (of two): nom. sg. hfde ghwðer ende gefred, each of the two (Bewulf and the drake) had reached the end, 2845; dat. sg. ghwðrum ws brga fram ðrum, to each of the two (Bewulf and the drake) was fear of the other, 2565; gen. sg. ghwðres ... worda and worca, 287.—2) each (of several): dat. sg. heora ghwðrum, 1637.

g-hwr, adv., everywhere, 1060.

g-hwilc (O.H.G. o-gi-hwlih), pron., unusquisque, every (one): 1) used as an adj.: acc. sg. m. dl ghwylcne, 622.—2) as substantive, a) with the partitive genitive: nom. sg. g-hwylc, 9, 2888; dat. sg. ghwylcum, 1051. b) without gen.: nom. sg. ghwylc, 985, 988; (ws) ghwylc ðrum trwe, each one (of two) true to the other, 1166.

g-weard, st. f., watch on the sea shore: acc. sg. g-wearde, 241.

ht (abstract form from gan, denoting the state of possessing), st. f.: 1) possession, power: acc. sg. on fldes ht, 42; on wteres ht, into the power of the water, 516; on ht gehwearf Denigea fren, passed over into the possession of a Danish master, 1680.—2) property, possessions, goods: acc. pl. hte, 2249.—Comp. mðm-, gold-ht.

ht (O.H.G. hta), st. f., pursuit: nom. þ ws ht boden Sweona ledum, segn Higelce, then was pursuit offered to the people of the Sweonas, (their) banner to Hygelc (i.e. the banner of the Swedes, taken during their flight, fell into the hands of Hygelc), 2958.

ge-htan, w. v., to prize, to speak in praise of: pret. part. gehted, 1866. [gehtan.]

ge-htla, w. m., or ge-htle, w. f., a speaking of with praise, high esteem: gen. sg. hy ... wyrðe þinceað eorla gehtlan, seem worthy of the high esteem of the noble-born, 369. [gehtla.]

n (oblique form of n), num., one: acc. sg. m. þone nne þone..., the one whom..., 1054; oftor micle þonne on nne sð, much oftener than one time, 1580; forð onsendon nne, sent him forth alone, 46.

ne, adv., once: oft nalles ne, 3020.

nig, pron., one, any one, 474, 503, 510, 534, etc.: instr. sg. nolde ... 0nige þinga, would in no way, not at all, 792; lyt nig mearn, little did any one sorrow (i.e. no one), 3130.—With the article: ns se folccyning ... nig, no people's king, 2735.—Comp. nnig.

n-lc, adj., alone, excellent, distinguished: nlc ansn, distinguished appearance, 251; þeh þe hi nlcu s, though she be beautiful, 1942.

r (comparative form, from ): 1) adv., sooner, before, beforehand, 15, 656, 695, 758, etc., for a long time, 2596; eft sw r, again as formerly, 643; r ne siððan, neither sooner nor later, 719; r and sð, sooner and later (all times), 2501; n þ r (not so much the sooner), yet not, 755, 1503, 2082, 2161, 2467.—2) conjunct., before, ere: a) with the ind.: r hi t setle geng, 2020. b) w. subjunc.: r ge fyr fran, before you travel farther, 252; r he on hwurfe 164, so 677, 2819; r þon dg cwme, ere the day break, 732; r correlative to r adv.: r he feorh seleð, aldor an fre, r he wille ..., he will sooner (rather) leave his life upon the shore, before (than) he will ..., 1372.—3) prepos. with dat., before r deðe, before death, 1389; r dges hwle, before daybreak, 2321; r swylt-dge, before the day of death, 2799.

ror, comp. adv., sooner, before-hand, 810; formerly, 2655.

rra, comp. adj., earlier; instr. pl., rran mlum, in former times, 908, 2238, 3036.

rest, superl.: 1) adv., first of all, foremost, 6, 617, 1698, etc.—2) as subst. n., relation to, the beginning: acc. þt ic his rest þe eft gesgde (to tell thee in what relation it stood at first to the coat of mail that has been presented), 2158. See Note.

r-dg, st. m. (before-day), morning-twilight, gray of morning: dat. sg. mid rdge, 126; samod rdge, 1312, 2943.

rende, st. n., errand, trust: acc. sg., 270, 345.

r-fder, st. m., late father, deceased father: nom sg. sw his rfder, 2623.

r-gestren, st. n., old treasure, possessions dating from old times: acc sg., 1758; gen. sg. swylcra fela rgestrena, much of such old treasure, 2233. See gestren.

r-geweorc, st. n., work dating from old times: nom. sg. enta r-geweorc, the old work of the giants (of the golden sword-hilt from Grendel's water-hall), 1680. See geweorc.

r-gd, adj., good since old times, long invested with dignity or advantages: ðeling rgd, 130; (eorl) rgd, 1330; ren rgd (excellent sword), 990, 2587.

r-wela, w. m., old possessions, riches dating from old times: acc. sg. rwelan, 2748. See wela.

s, st. n., carcass, carrion: dat. (instr.) sg. se, of schere's corpse, 1333.

t, st. m., food, meat: dat, sg., h him t te spew, how he fared well at meat, 3027.

ttren (see ttor), adj., poisonous: ws þt bld t þs ht, ttren ellorgst, se r inne swealt, so hot was the blood, (and) poisonous the demon (Grendel's mother) who died therein, 1618

B

bana, bona, w. m., murderer, 158, 588, 1103, etc.: acc. sg. bonan Ongenþewes, of Hygelc, although in reality his men slew Ongenþew (2965 ff.), 1969. Figuratively of inanimate objects: ne ws ecg bona, 2507; wearð wracu Weohstnes bana, 2614.—Comp.: ecg-, feorh-, gst-, hand-, mð-bana.

bon-gr, st. m. murdering spear, 2032.

ge-bannan, st. v. w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the person, to command, to bid: inf., 74.

bd, st. f., pledge, only in comp.: nd-bd.

bn, st. n., bone: dat. sg. on bne (on the bony skin of the drake), 2579; dat. pl. heals ealne ymbefng biteran bnum (here of the teeth of the drake), 2693.

bn-cfa, w. m., "cubile ossium" (Grimm) of the body: dat. sg. -cfan, 1446.

bn-fg, adj., variegated with bones, either with ornaments made of bone-work, or adorned with bone, perhaps deer-antlers; of Hrðgr's hall, 781. The last meaning seems the more probable.

bn-ft, st. n., bone-vessel, i.e. the body: acc. pl. bn-fatu, 1117.

bn-hring, st. m., the bone-structure, joint, bone-joint: acc. pl. hire wið halse ... bnhringas brc (broke her neck-joint), 1568.

bn-hs, st. n., bone-house, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bnhs gebrc, 2509; similarly, 3148.

bn-loca, w. m., the enclosure of the bones, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bt bnlocan, bit the body, 743; nom. pl. burston bnlocan, the body burst (of Grendel, because his arm was torn out), 819.

bt, st. m., boat, craft, ship, 211.—Comp. s-bt.

bt-weard, st. m., boat-watcher, he who keeps watch over the craft. dat. sg. -wearde, 1901.

, st. n., bath: acc. sg. ofer ganotes bð, over the diver's bath (i.e. the sea), 1862.

brnan, w. v., to cause to burn, to burn: inf. ht ... bnfatu brnan, bade that the bodies be burned, 1117; ongan ... beorht hofu brnan, began to consume the splendid country-seats (the dragon), 2314.

for-brnan, w. v., consume with fire: inf. hy hine ne mston ... brondefor-brnan, they (the Danes) could not burn him (the dead schere) upon the funeral-pile, 2127.

bdan (Goth, baidjan, O.N. beðia), to incite, to encourage: pret. bdde byre geonge, encouraged the youths (at the banquet), 2019.

ge-bdan, w. v., to press hard: pret. part. bysigum gebded, distressed by trouble, difficulty, danger (of battle), 2581; to drive, to send forth: strla storm strengum gebded, the storm of arrows sent with strength, 3118; overcome: draca ... bealwe gebded, the dragon ... overcome by the ills of battle, 2827.

bl (O.N. bl), st. n., fire, flames: (wyrm) mid ble fr, passed (through the air) with fire, 2309; hfde landwara lge befangan, ble and bronde, with fire and burning, 2323.—Especially, the fire of the funeral-pile, the funeral-pile, 1110, 1117, 2127; r he bl cure, ere he sought the burning (i.e. died), 2819; htað ... hlw gewyrcean ... fter ble, after I am burned, let a burial mound be thrown up (Bewulf's words), 2804.

bl-fr, st. n., bale-fire, fire of the funeral-pile: gen. pl. blfra mst, 3144.

bl-stede, st. m., place for the funeral-pile: dat. sg. in bl=stede, 3098.

bl-wudu, st. m., wood for the funeral-pile, 3113.

br, st. f., bier, 3106.

ge-bran, w. v., to conduct one's self, behave: inf. w. adv., ne gefrgen ic þ mgðe ... sl gebran, I did not hear that a troop bore itself better, maintained a nobler deportment, 1013; he on eorðan geseah þone lefestan lfes t ende blete gebran, saw the best-beloved upon the earth, at the end of his life, struggling miserably (i.e. in a helpless situation), 2825.

ge-btan (denominative from bte, the bit), w. v., to place the bit in the mouth of an animal, to bridle: pret. part. þ ws Hrðgre hors gebted, 1400.

be, prep. w. dat. (with the fundamental meaning near, "but not of one direction, as t, but more general"): 1) local, near by, near, at, on (rest): be dlfe uppe lgon, lay above, upon the deposit of the waves (upon the strand, of the slain nixies), 566; hfde be honda, held by the hand (Bewulf held Grendel), 815; be sm tweonum, in the circuit of both the seas, 859, 1686; be mste, on the mast, 1906; by fre, by the fire, 2220; be nsse, at the promontory, 2244; st be þm gebrðrum twm, sat by the two brothers, 1192; ws se gryre lssa efne sw micle sw bið mgða crft be wpnedmen, the terror was just so much less, as is the strength of woman to the warrior (i.e. is valued by), 1285, etc.—2) also local, but of motion from the subject in the direction of the object, on, upon, by: gefng be eaxle, seized by the shoulder, 1538; ldon lefne þeden be mste, laid the dear lord near the mast, 36; be healse genam, took him by the neck, fell upon his neck, 1873; wpen hafenade be hiltum, grasped the weapon by the hilt, 1757, etc.—3) with this is connected the causal force, on account of, for, according to: ic þis gid be þe wrc, I spake this solemn speech for thee, for thy sake, 1724; þ þe lr be þon, learn according to this, from this, 1723; be fder lre, according to her father's direction, 1951.—4) temporal, while, during: be þe lifigendum, while thou livest, during thy life, 2666. See b.

bed, st. n., bed, couch: acc. sg. bed, 140, 677; gen. sg. beddes, 1792; dat. pl. beddum, 1241.—Comp: deað-, hlin-, lger-, morðor-, wl-bed.

ge-bedde, w. f., bed-fellow: dat. sg. wolde scan ewn t gebeddan, wished to seek the queen as bed-fellow, to go to bed with her, 666.—Comp. heals-gebedde.

begen, fem. b, both: nom. m., 536, 770, 2708; acc. fem. on b healfa, on two sides (i.e. Grendel and his mother), 1306; dat. m. bm, 2197; and in connection with the possessive instead of the personal pronoun, rum bm, 2661; gen. n. bega, 1874, 2896; bega gehwðres, each one of the two, 1044; bega folces, of both peoples, 1125.

ge-belgan, st. v. (properly, to cause to swell, to swell), to irritate: w. dat. (pret. subj.) þt he cean dryhtne bitre gebulge, that he had bitterly angered the eternal Lord, 2332; pret. part. gebolgen, 1540; (gebolge, MS.), 2222; pl. gebolgne, 1432; more according to the original meaning in torne gebolgen, 2402.

-belgan, to anger: pret. sg. w. acc. ð þt hyne n bealh mon on mde, till a man angered him in his heart, 2281; pret. part. bolgen, 724.

ben, st. f., wound: acc. sg. benne, 2725.—Comp.: feorh-, seax-ben.

benc, st. f., bench: nom. sg. benc, 492; dat. sg. bence, 327, 1014, 1189, 1244.—Comp.: ealu-, medu-benc.

benc-swg, st. m., (bench-rejoicing), rejoicing which resounds from the benches, 1162.

benc-þel, st. n., bench-board, the wainscotted space where the benches stand: nom. pl. benc-þelu, 486; acc. pl. bencþelu beredon, cleared the bench-boards (i.e. by taking away the benches, so as to prepare couches), 1240.

bend, st. m. f., bond, fetter: acc. sg. forstes bend, frost's bond, 1610; dat. pl. bendum, 978.—Comp.: fr-, hell-, hyge-, ren-, oncer-, searo-, wl-bend.

ben-geat, st. n., (wound-gate), wound-opening: nom. pl. ben-geato, 1122.

bera (O.N. beri), w. m., bearer: in comp. hleor-bera.

beran, st. v. w. acc., to carry; III. sg. pres. byreð, 296, 448; þone mððum byreð, carries the treasure (upon his person), 2056; pres. subj. bere, 437; pl. beren, 2654; inf. beran, 48, 231, 291, etc.; hht þ se hearda Hrunting beran, to bring Hrunting, 1808; up beran, 1921; in beran, 2153; pret. br, 495, 712, 847, etc.; mandryhtne br fted wge, brought the lord the costly vessel, 2282; pl. bron, 213, 1636, etc.; bran, 2851; pret. part. boren, 1193, 1648, 3136.—The following expressions are poetic paraphrases of the forms go, come: þt we rondas beren eft t earde, 2654; gewtað forð beran wpen and gewdu, 291; ic gefrgn sunu Wihstnes hringnet beran, 2755; wgheafolan br, 2662; helmas bron, 240 (conjecture); scyldas bran, 2851: they lay stress upon the connection of the man with his weapons.

t-beran, to carry to: inf. t beadulce (battle) tberan, 1562; pret. þ hine on morgentd on Heaðormas holm up tbr, the sea bore him up to the Heaðormas, 519; hi Bewulfe medoful tbr brought Bewulf the mead-cup, 625; mgenbyrðenne ... hider t tbr cyninge mnum, bore the great burden hither to my king, 3093; pl. h hyne tbron t brimes faroðe, 28.

for-beran, to hold, to suppress: inf. þt he þone brestwylm forberan ne mehte, that he could not suppress the emotions of his breast, 1878.

ge-beran, to bring forth, to bear: pret. part. þt l mg secgan se þe sð and riht fremeð on folce ... þt þes eorl wre geboren betera (that may every just man of the people say, that this nobleman is better born), 1704.

ð-beran, to bring hither: pret. þ mec s ðbr on Finna land, 579.

on-beran (O.H.G. in bran, intpran, but in the sense of carere), auferre, to carry off, to take away: inf. ren rgd þt þs ahlcan bldge beadufolme onberan wolde, excellent sword which would sweep off the bloody hand of the demon, 991; pret. part. (ws) onboren bega hord, the treasure of the rings had been carried off, 2285.—Compounds with the pres. part.: helm-, swl-berend.

berian (denominative from br, naked), w. v., to make bare, to clear: pret. pl. bencþelu beredon, cleared the bench-place (by removing the benches), 1240.

berstan, st. v., to break, to burst: pret. pl. burston bnlocan, 819; bengeato burston, 1122.—to crack, to make the noise of breaking: fingras burston, the fingers cracked (from Bewulf's gripe), 761.

for-berstan, break, to fly asunder: pret. Ngling forbrst, Ngling (Bewulf's sword) broke in two, 2681.

betera, adj. (comp.), better: nom. sg. m. betera, 469, 1704.

bet-lc, adj., excellent, splendid: nom. sg. n., of Hrðgr's hall, 781; of Hygelc's residence, 1926.

betst, betost (superl.), best, the best: nom. sg. m. betst beadurinca, 1110; neut. nu is fost betost, þt we ..., now is haste the best, that we..., 3008; voc. m. secg betsta, 948; neut. acc. beaduscrda betst, 453; acc. sg. m. þegn betstan, 1872.

bcn, st. n., (beacon), token, mark, sign: acc. sg. betimbredon beadu-rfes bcn (of Bewulf's grave-mound), 3162. See beacen.

bg. See beg.

bn, st. f., entreaty: gen. sg. bne, 428, 2285.

bna, w. m., suppliant, supplex: nom. sg. sw þu bna eart (as thou entreatest), 352; sw he bna ws (as he had asked), 3141; nom. pl. hy bnan synt, 364.

ge-betan: 1) to make good, to remove: pret. ac þu Hrðgre wdcðne wen wihte gebttest, hast thou in any way relieved Hrðgr of the evil known afar, 1992; pret. part. acc. sg. swylce oncððe ealle gebtte, removed all trouble, 831. —2) to avenge: inf. wihte ne meahte on þam feorhbonan fhðe gebtan, could in no way avenge the death upon the slayer, 2466.

beadu, st. f., battle, strife, combat: dat. sg. (as instr.) beadwe, in combat, 1540; gen. pl. bd beadwa ge-þinges, waited for the combats (with Grendel) that were in store for him, 710.

beadu-folm, st. f., battle-hand: acc. sg. -folme, of Grendel's hand, 991.

beado-grma, w. m., (battle-mask), helmet: acc. pl. -grman, 2258.

beado-hrgl, st. n., (battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail, 552.

beadu-lc, st. n., (exercise in arms, tilting), combat, battle: dat. sg. t beadu-lce, 1562.

beado-lema, w. m., (battle-light), sword: nom. sg., 1524.

beado-mce, st. m., battle-sword: nom. pl. beado-mcas, 1455.

beado-rinc, st. m., battle-hero, warrior: gen. pl. betst beadorinca, 1110.

beadu-rf, adj., strong in battle: gen. sg. -rfes, of Bewulf, 3162.

beadu-rn, st. f., mystery of battle: acc. sg. onband beadu-rne, solved the mystery of the combat, i.e. gave battle, commenced the fight, 501.

beadu-scearp, adj., battle-sharp, sharp for the battle, 2705.

beadu-scrd, st. n., (battle-dress), corselet, shirt of mail: gen. pl. beaduscrda betst, 453.

beadu-serce, w. f., (battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail: acc. sg. brogdne beadu-sercean (because it consists of interlaced metal rings), 2756.

beado-weorc, st. n., (battle-work), battle: gen. sg. gefeh beado-weorces, rejoiced at the battle, 2300.

beald, adj., bold, brave: in comp. cyning-beald.

bealdian, w. v., to show one's self brave: pret. bealdode gdum ddum (through brave deeds), 2178.

bealdor, st. m., lord, prince: nom. sg. sinca baldor, 2429; winia bealdor, 2568.

bealu, st. n., evil, ruin, destruction: instr. sg. bealwe, 2827; gen. pl. bealuwa, 281; bealewa, 2083; bealwa, 910.—Comp.: cwealm-, ealdor-, hreðer-, led-, morðor-, niht-, sweord-, wg-bealu.

bealu, adj., deadly, dangerous, bad: instr. sg. hyne sr hafað befongen balwon bendum, pain has entwined him in deadly bands, 978.

bealo-cwealm, st. m., violent death, death by the sword(?), 2266.

bealo-hycgende, pres. part., thinking of death, meditating destruction: gen. pl. ghwðrum bealo-hycgendra, 2566.

bealo-hydig, adj., thinking of death, meditating destruction: of Grendel, 724.

bealo-nð, st. m., (zeal for destruction), deadly enmity: nom. sg., 2405; destructive struggle: acc. sg. bebeorh þe þone bealonð, beware of destructive striving, 1759; death-bringing rage: nom. sg. him on brestum bealo-nð well, in his breast raged deadly fury (of the dragon's poison), 2715.

bearhtm (see beorht): 1) st. m., splendor, brightness, clearness: nom. sg. egena bearhtm, 1767.—2) sound, tone: acc. sg. bearhtm ongeton, gðhorn galan, they heard the sound, (heard) the battle-horn sound, 1432.

bearm, m., gremium, sinus, lap, bosom: nom. sg. foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. on bearm scipes, 35, 897; on bearm nacan, 214; him on bearm hladan bunan and discas, 2776.—2) figuratively, possession, property, because things bestowed were placed in the lap of the receiver (1145 and 2195, on bearm licgan, lecgan); dat. sg. him t bearme cwom mððumft mre, came into his possession, 2405.

bearn, st. n., 1) child, son: nom. sg. bearn Healfdenes, 469, etc.; Ecglfes bearn, 499, etc.; dat. sg. bearne, 2371; nom. pl. bearn, 59; dat. pl. bearnum, 1075.—2) in a broader sense, scion, offspring, descendant: nom. sg. Ongenþew's bearn, of his grandson, 2388; nom. pl. yldo. bearn, 70; gumena bearn, children of men, 879; hleða bearn, 1190; ðelinga bearn, 3172; acc. pl. ofer ylda bearn, 606; dat. pl. ylda bearnum, 150; gen. pl. niðða bearna, 1006.—Comp.: brðor-, dryht-bearn.

bearn-gebyrdu, f., birth, birth of a son: gen. sg. þt hyre ealdmetod ste wre bearn-gebyrdo, has been gracious through the birth of such a son (i.e. as Bewulf), 947.

bearu, st. m., (the bearer, hence properly only the fruit-tree, especially the oak and the beech), tree, collectively forest: nom. pl. hrmge bearwas, rime-covered or ice-clad, 1364.

becen, st. n., sign, banner, vexillum: nom. sg. beorht becen godes, of the sun, 570; gen. pl. becna beorhtost, 2778. See bcn.

ge-becnian, w. v., to mark, to indicate: pret. part. ge-becnod, 140.

beg, st. m., ring, ornament: nom. sg. beh (neck-ring), 1212; acc. sg. beh (the collar of the murdered king of the Heaðobeardnas), 2042; bg (collective for the acc. pl.), 3165; dat. sg. cwom Wealhþe forð gn under gyldnum bege, she walked along under a golden head-ring, wore a golden diadem, 1164; gen. sg. beges (of a collar), 1217; acc. pl. begas (rings in general), 80, 523, etc.; gen. pl. bega, 35, 352, 1488, 2285, etc.— Comp.: earm-, heals-beg.

beg-gyfa, w. m., ring-giver, designation of the prince: gen. sg. -gyfan, 1103.

beg-hroden, adj., adorned with rings, ornamented with clasps: nom. sg. beghroden, cwn, of Hrðgr's consort, perhaps with reference to her diadem (cf. 1164, 624.

beh-hord, st. m. n., ring-hoard, treasure consisting of rings: gen. sg. beh-hordes, 895; dat. pl. beh-hordum, 2827; gen. pl. beh-horda weard, of King Hrðgr, 922.

beh-sele, st. m., ring-hall, hall in which the rings were distributed: nom. sg., of Heorot, 1178.

beh-þegu, st. f., the receiving of the ring: dat. sg. fter beh-þege, 2177.

beh-wriða, w. m. ring-band, ring with prominence given to its having the form of a band: acc. sg. beh-wriðan, 2019.

bem, st. m., tree, only in the compounds fyrgen-, gle-bem.

betan, st. v., thrust, strike: pres. sg. mearh burhstede beteð, the steed beats the castle-ground (place where the castle is built), i.e. with his hoofs, 2266; pret. part. swealt bille ge-beten, died, struck by the battle-axe, 2360.

beorh, st. m.: 1) mountain, rock: dat. sg. beorge, 211; gen. sg. beorges, 2525, 2756; acc. pl. beorgas, 222.—2) grave-mound, tomb-hill: acc. sg. biorh, 2808; beorh, 3098, 3165. A grave-mound serves the drake as a retreat (cf. 2277, 2412): nom. sg. beorh, 2242; gen. sg. beorges, 2323.—Comp. stn-beorh.

beorh, st. f., veil, covering, cap; only in the comp. hefod-beorh.

beorgan, st. v. (w. dat. of the interested person or thing), to save, to shield: inf. wolde feore beorgan, place her life in safety, 1294; here-byrne ... se þe bncfan beorgan cðe, which could protect his body, 1446; pret. pl. ealdre burgan, 2600.

be-beorgan (w. dat. refl. of pers. and acc. of the thing), to take care, to defend one's self from: inf. him be-beorgan ne con wom, cannot keep himself from stain (fault), 1747; imp. bebeorh þe þone bealontð, 1759.

ge-beorgan (w, dat. of person or thing to be saved), to save, to protect: pret. sg. þt gebearh feore, protected the life, 1549; scyld wel gebearg lfe and lce, 2571.

ymb-beorgan, to surround protectingly: pret. sg. bring tan ymb-bearh, 1504.

beorht, byrht, adj.: 1) gleaming, shining, radiant, shimmering: nom. sg. beorht, of the sun, 570, 1803; beorhta, of Heorot, 1178; þt beorhte bold, 998; acc. sg. beorhtne, of Bewulf's grave-mound, 2804; dat. sg. t þre byrhtan (here-byrhtan, MS.) byrig, 1200; acc. pl. beorhte frtwe, 214, 897; beorhte randas, 231; bordwudu beorhtan, 1244; n. beorht hofu, 2314. Superl.: becna beorhtost, 2778. —2) excellent, remarkable: gen. sg. beorhtre bte, 158. —Comp.: sadol-, wlite-beorht.

beorhte, adv., brilliantly, brightly, radiantly, 1518.

beorhtian, w. v., to sound clearly: pret. sg. beorhtode benc-swg, 1162.

beorn, st. m., hero, warrior, noble man: nom. sg. (Hrðgr), 1881, (Bewulf), 2434, etc.; acc. sg. (Bew.), 1025, (schere), 1300; dat. sg. beorne, 2261; nom. pl. beornas (Bewulf and his companions), 211, (Hrðgr's guests), 857; gen. pl. biorna (Bewulf's liege-men), 2405.—Comp.: folc-, gð-beorn.

beornan, st. v., to burn: pres. part. byrnende (of the drake), 2273.—Comp. un-byrnende.

for-beornan, to be consumed, to burn: pret. sg. for-barn, 1617, 1668; for-born, 2673.

ge-beornan, to be burned: pret. gebarn, 2698.

beorn-cyning, st. m., king of warriors, king of heroes: nom. sg. (as voc.), 2149.

bedan, st. v.: 1) to announce, to inform, to make known: inf. bidan, 2893.—2) to offer, to proffer (as the notifying of a transaction in direct reference to the person concerned in it): pret. pl. him geþingo budon, offered them an agreement, 1086; pret. part. þ ws ht boden Sweona ledum, then was pursuit offered the Swedish people, 2958; inf. ic þm gdan sceal mðmas bedan, I shall offer the excellent man treasures, 385.

-bedan, to present, to announce: pret. word inne bed, made known the words within, 390; to offer, to tender, to wish: pret. him hl bed, wished him health (greeted him), 654. Similarly, hlo bed, 2419; eoton weard bed, offered the giant a watcher, 669.

be-bedan, to command, to order: pret. sw him se hearda bebed, as the strong man commanded them, 401. Similarly, sw se rca bebed, 1976.

ge-bedan: 1) to command, to order: inf. ht þ gebedan byre Wihstnes hleða monegum, þt hie..., the son of Wihstan caused orders to be given to many of the men..., 3111.—2) to offer: him Hygd gebed hord and rce, offered him the treasure and the chief power, 2370; inf. gðe gebedan, to offer battle, 604.

bed-genet, st. m., table-companion: nom. and acc. pl. genetas, 343, 1714.

ben, verb, to be, generally in the future sense, will be: pres. sg. I. gðgeweorca ic be gearo sna, I shall immediately be ready for warlike deeds, 1826; sg. III. w bið þm þe sceal..., woe to him who...! 183; so, 186; gifeðe bið is given, 299; ne bið þe wilna gd (no wish will be denied thee), 661; þr þe bið manna þearf, if thou shalt need the warriors, 1836; ne bið swylc cwnlc þew, is not becoming, honorable to a woman, 1941; eft sna bið will happen directly, 1763; similarly, 1768, etc.; pl. þonne bið brocene, then are broken, 2064; feor cððe beð slran geshte þam þe..., "terrae longinquae meliores sunt visitatu ei qui..." (Grein), 1839; imp. be (bi) þu on feste, hasten! 386, 2748; be wið Getas gld, be gracious to the Getas, 1174.

ber, st. n., beer: dat. sg. t bere, at beer-drinking, 2042; instr. sg. bere druncen, 531; bere druncne, 480.

ber-scealc, st. m., keeper of the beer, cup-bearer: gen. pl. ber-scealca sum (one of Hrðgr's followers, because they served the Getas at meals), 1241.

ber-sele, st. m., beer-hall, hall in which beer is drunk: dat. sg. in (on) bersele, 482, 492, 1095; birsele, 2636.

ber-þegu, st. f., beer-drinking, beer-banquet: dat. sg. fter berþege, 117; t þre berþege, 618.

bet, st. n., promise, binding agreement to something that is to be undertaken: acc. sg. he bet ne lh, did not break his pledge, 80; bet eal ... gelste, performed all that he had pledged himself to, 523.

ge-betian, w. v., to pledge one's self to an undertaking, to bind one's self: pret. gebetedon, 480, 536.

bet-word, st. n., same as bet: dat. pl. bet-wordum sprc, 2511.

biddan, st. v., to beg, to ask, to pray: pres. sg. I. dð sw ic bidde! 1232; inf. (w. acc. of the pers. and gen. of the thing asked for) ic þe biddan wille nre bne, beg thee for one, 427; pret. sw he selfa bd, as he himself had requested, 29; bd hine blðne (supply wesan) t þre berþege, begged him to be cheerful at the beer-banquet, 618; ic þe lange bd þt þu..., begged you a long time that you, 1995; frioðowre bd hlford snne, begged his lord for protection (acc. of pers. and gen. of thing), 2283; bd þt ge geworhton, asked that you..., 3097; pl. wordum bdon þt..., 176.

on-bidian, w. v., to await: inf. ltað hilde-bord her onbidian ... worda geþinges, let the shields await here the result of the conference (lay the shields aside here), 397.

bil, st. n. sword: nom. sg. bil, 1568; bill, 2778; acc. sg. bil, 1558; instr. sg. bille, 2360; gen. sg. billes, 2061, etc.; instr. pl. billum, 40; gen. pl. billa, 583, 1145.—Comp.: gð-, hilde-, wg-bil.

bindan, st. v., to bind, to tie: pret. part. acc. sg. wudu bundenne, the bound wood, i.e. the built ship, 216; bunden golde swurd, a sword bound with gold, i.e. either having its hilt inlaid with gold, or having gold chains upon the hilt (swords of both kinds have been found), 1901; nom. sg. heoru bunden, 1286, has probably a similar meaning.

ge-bindan, to bind: pret. sg. þr ic ffe geband, where I had bound five(?), 420; pret. part. cyninges þegn word ðer fand sðe gebunden, the king's man found (after many had already praised Bewulf's deed) other words (also referring to Bewulf, but in connection with Sigemund) rightly bound together, i.e. in good alliterative verses, as are becoming to a gid, 872; wundenml wrttum gebunden, sword bound with ornaments, i.e. inlaid, 1532; bisgum gebunden, bound together by sorrow, 1744; gomel gðwga eldo gebunden, hoary hero bound by old age (fettered, oppressed), 2112.

on-bindan, to unbind, to untie, to loose: pret. onband, 501.

ge-bind, st. n. coll., that which binds, fetters: in comp. s-gebind.

bite, st. m., bite, figuratively of the cut of the sword: acc. sg. bite rena, the swords' bite, 2260; dat. sg. fter billes bite, 2061.—Comp. lð-bite.

biter (primary meaning that of biting), adj.: 1) sharp, cutting, cutting in: acc. sg. biter (of a short sword), 2705; instr. sg. biteran strle, 1747; instr. pl. biteran bnum, with sharp teeth, 2693.—2) irritated, furious: nom. pl. bitere, 1432.

bitre, adv., bitterly (in a moral sense), 2332.

b, big (fuller form of the prep. be, which see), prep. w. dat.: 1) near, at, on, about, by (as under be, No. 1): b sm twenum, in the circuit of both seas, 1957; rs b ronde, raised himself up by the shield, 2539; b wealle gest, sat by the wall, 2718. With a freer position: him big stdan bunan and orcas, round about him, 3048.—2) to, towards (motion): hwearf þ b bence, turned then towards the bench, 1189; geng b sesse, went to the seat, 2757.

bd (see bdan), st. n., tarrying hesitation: þr wearð Ongenþi on bd wrecen, forced to tarry, 2963.

bdan, st. v.: 1) to delay, to stay, to remain, to wait: inf. n on wealle leng bdan wolde, would not stay longer within the wall (the drake), 2309; pret. in þstrum bd, remained in darkness, 87; flota stille bd, the craft lay still, 301; receda ... on þm se rca bd, where the mighty one dwelt, 310; þr se snottra bd, where the wise man (Hrðgr) waited, 1314; he on searwum bd, he (Bewulf) stood there armed, 2569; ic on earde bd mlgesceafta, lived upon the paternal ground the time appointed me by fate, 2737; pret. pl. sume þr bidon, some remained, waited there, 400.—2) to await, to wait for, with the gen. of that which is awaited: inf. bdan woldon Grendles gðe, wished to await the combat with Grendel, to undertake it, 482; similarly, 528; wges bdan, await the combat, 1269; nalas andsware bdan wolde, would await no answer, 1495; pret. bd beadwa geþinges, awaited the event of the battle, 710; sgenga bd gend-fren, the sea-goer (boat) awaited its owner, 1883; sele ... heaðowylma bd, lðan lges (the poet probably means to indicate by these words that the hall Heorot was destroyed later in a fight by fire; an occurrence, indeed, about which we know nothing, but which 1165 and 1166, and again 2068 ff. seem to indicate), 82.

-bdan, to await, with the gen.: inf., 978.

ge-bdan: 1) to tarry, to wait: imp. gebde ge on beorge, wait ye on the mountain, 2530; pret. part. þeh þe wintra lyt under burhlocan gebiden hbbe Hreðes dhtor although H's daughter had dwelt only a few years in the castle, 1929.—2) to live through, to experience, to expect (w. acc.): inf. sceal endedg mnne gebdan, shall live my last day, 639; ne wnde ... bte gebdan, did not hope ... to live to see reparation, 935; fela sceal gebdan lefes and lðes, experience much good and much affliction, 1061; ende gebdan, 1387, 2343; pret. he þs frfre gebd, received consolation (compensation) therefore, 7; gebd wintra worn, lived a great number of years, 264; in a similar construction, 816, 930, 1619, 2259, 3117. With gen.: inf. t gebdanne ðres yrfeweardes, to await another heir, 2453. With depend, clause: inf. t gebdanne þt his byre rde on galgan, to live to see it, that his son hang upon the gallows, 2446; pret. drem-les gebd þt he..., joyless he experienced it, that he..., 1721; þs þe ic on aldre gebd þt ic..., for this, that I, in my old age, lived to see that..., 1780.

on-bdan, to wait, to await: pret. hordweard onbd earfoðlce ð þt fen cwom, scarcely waited, could scarcely delay till it was evening, 2303.

btan, st. v., to bite, of the cutting of swords: inf. btan, 1455, 1524; pret. bt bnlocan, bit into his body (Grendel), 743; bt unswðor, cut with less force (Bewulf's sword), 2579.

blanca, w. m., properly that which shines here of the horse, not so much of the white horse as the dappled: dat. pl. on blancum, 857.

ge-bland, ge-blond, st. n., mixture, heaving mass, a turning.—Comp.: sund-, ð-geblond, windblond.

blanden-feax, blonden-feax, adj., mixed, i.e. having gray hair, gray-headed, as epithet of an old man: nom. sg. blondenfeax, 1792; blondenfexa, 2963; dat. sg. blondenfeaxum, 1874; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe, 1595.

blc, adj., dark, black: nom. sg, hrefn blaca, 1802.

blc, adj.: 1) gleaming, shining: acc. sg. blcne leman, a brilliant gleam, 1518.—2) of the white death-color, pale; in comp. heoroblc.

bld, st. m.: 1) strength, force, vigor: nom. sg. ws hira bld scacen (of both tribes), strength was gone, i.e. the bravest of both tribes lay slain, 1125; nu is þnes mgnes bld ne hwle, now the fulness of thy strength lasts for a time, 1762.—2) reputation, renown, knowledge (with stress upon the idea of filling up, spreading out): nom. sg. bld, 18; (þn) bld is rred, thy renown is spread abroad, 1704.

bld-gend, pt., having renown, renowned: nom. pl. bld-gende, 1014.

bld-fst, adj., firm in renown, renowned, known afar: acc. sg. bldfstne beorn (of schere, with reference to 1329, 1300.

blet, adj., miserable, helpless; only in comp. wl-blet.

blete, adv., miserably, helplessly, 2825.

blcan, st. v., shine, gleam: inf., 222

blðe, adj.: 1) blithe, joyous, happy acc. sg. blðne, 618.—2) gracious, pleasing: nom. sg. blðe, 436.—Comp. un-blðe.

blð-heort, adj., joyous in heart, happy: nom. sg., 1803.

bld, st. n., blood: nom. sg., 1122; acc. sg., 743; dat. sg. blde, 848; fter derum men him langað beorn wið blde, the hero (Hrðgr) longs for the beloved man contrary to blood, i.e. he loves him although he is not related to him by blood, 1881; dat. as instr. blde, 486, 935, 1595, etc.

bld-fg, adj., spotted with blood, bloody, 2061.

bldig, adj., bloody: acc. sg. f. bldge, 991; acc. sg. n. bldig, 448; instr. sg. bldigan gre, 2441.

ge-bldian, w. v., to make bloody, to sprinkle with blood: pret. part. ge-bldegod, 2693.

bldig-tð, adj., with bloody teeth: nom. sg. bona bldig-tð (of Grendel, because he bites his victims to death), 2083.

bld-rew, adj., bloodthirsty, bloody-minded: nom. sg. him on ferhðe grew brest-hord bld-rew, in his bosom there grew a bloodthirsty feeling, 1720.

be-bod, st. n., command, order; in comp. wundor-bebod.

bodian, w. v., (to be a messenger), to announce, to make known: pret. hrefn blaca heofones wynne blð-heort bodode, the black raven announced joyfully heaven's delight (the rising sun), 1803.

boga, w. m., bow, of the bended form; here of the dragon, in comp. hring-boga; as an instrument for shooting, in the comp. fln-, horn-boga; bow of the arch, in comp. stn-boga.

bolca, w. m., "forus navis" (Grein), gangway; here probably the planks which at landing are laid from the ship to the shore: acc. sg. ofer bolcan, 231.

bold, st. n., building, house, edifice: nom. sg. (Heorot), 998; (Hygelc's residence), 1926; (Bewulfs residence), 2197, 2327.—Comp. fold-bold.

bold-gend, pt., house-owner, property-holder: gen. pl. monegum boldgendra, 3113.

bolgen-md, adj., angry at heart, angry, 710, 1714.

bolster, st. m., bolster, cushion, pillow: dat. pl. (reced) geond-brded wearð beddum and bolstrum, was covered with beds and bolsters, 1241.—Comp. hler-bolster.

bon-. See ban-.

bora, w. m., carrier, bringer, leader: in the comp. mund-, rd-, wg-bora.

bord, st. n., shield: nom. sg., 2674; acc. sg., 2525; gen. pl. ofer borda gebrc, over the crashing of the shields, 2260.—Comp.: hilde-, wg-bord.

bord-hbbend, pt., one having a shield, shield-bearer: nom. pl. hbbende, 2896.

bord-hreða, w. m., shield-cover, shield with particular reference to its cover (of hides or linden bark): dat. sg. -hreðan, 2204.

bord-rand, st. m., shield: acc. sg., 2560.

bord-weall, st. m., shield-wall, wall of shields: acc. sg., 2981.

bord-wudu, st. m., shield-wood, shield: acc. pl. beorhtan beord-wudu, 1244.

botm, st. m., bottom: dat. sg. t botme (here of the bottom of the fen-lake), 1507.

bt (emendation, cf. btan), st. f.: 1) relief, remedy: nom. sg., 281; acc. sg. bte, 935; acc. sg. bte, 910.—2) a performance in expiation, a giving satisfaction, tribute: gen. sg. bte, 158.

brand, brond, st. m.: 1) burning, fire: nom. sg. þ sceal brond fretan (the burning of the body), 3015; instr. sg. by hine ne mston ... bronde forbrnan (could not bestow upon him the solemn burning), 2127; hfde landwara lge befangen, ble and bronde, with glow, fire, and flame, 2323.—2) in the passage, þt hine n brond ne beadomcas btan ne meahton, 1455, brond has been translated sword, brand (after the O.N. brand-r). The meaning fire may be justified as well, if we consider that the old helmets were generally made of leather, and only the principal parts were mounted with bronze. The poet wishes here to emphasize the fact that the helmet was made entirely of metal, a thing which was very unusual.—3) in the passage, forgeaf þ Bewulfe brand Healfdenes segen gyldenne, 1021, our text, with other editions, has emendated, bearn, since brand, if it be intended as a designation of Hrðgr (perhaps son), has not up to this time been found in this sense in A.-S.

brant, bront, adj., raging, foaming, going-high, of ships and of waves: acc. sg. brontne, 238, 568.

brd, adj.: 1) extended, wide: nom. pl. brde rce, 2208.—2) broad: nom. sg. heh and brd (of Bewulf's grave-mound), 3159; acc. sg. brdne mce, 2979; (seax) brd [and] brnecg, the broad, short sword with bright edge, 1547.—3) massive, in abundance. acc, sg. brd gold, 3106.

ge-brc, st. n., noise, crash: acc. sg. borda gebrc, 2260.

geond-brdan, w. v., to spread over, to cover entirely: pret. part. geond-brded, 1240.

brecan, st. v.: 1) to break, to break to pieces: pret. bnhringas brc, (the sword) broke the joints, 1568. In a moral sense: pret. subj. þt þr nig mon wre ne brce, that no one should break the agreement, 1101; pret. part. þonne bið brocene ... ð-sweord eorla, then are the oaths of the men broken, 2064.—2) probably also simply to break in upon something, to press upon, w. acc.: pret. sg. sder monig hildetuxum heresyrcan brc, many a sea-animal pressed with his battle-teeth upon the shirt of mail (did not break it, for, according to 1549 f., 1553 f., it was still unharmed). 1512.—3) to break out, to spring out: inf. geseah ... strem t brecan of beorge, saw a stream break out from the rocks, 2547; lt se hearda Higelces þegn brdne mce ... brecan ofer bordweal, caused the broadsword to spring out over the wall of shields, 2981.—4) figuratively, to vex, not to let rest: pret. hine fyrwyt brc, curiosity tormented (N.H.G. brachte die Neugier um), 232, 1986, 2785.

ge-brecan, to break to pieces: pret. bnhs gebrc, broke in pieces his body (Bewulf in combat with Dghrefn), 2509.

t-brecan, to break in pieces: inf., 781; pret. part. t-brocen, 998.

þurh-brecan, to break through, pret. wordes ord bresthord þurh-brc, the word's point broke through his closed breast, i.e. a word burst out from his breast, 2793.

brecð, st. f., condition of being broken, breach: nom. pl. mdes brecða (sorrow of heart), 171.

-bredwian, w. v. w. acc., to fell to the ground, to kill (?): pret. bredwade, 2620.

bregdan, st. v., properly to swing round, hence: 1) to swing: inf. under sceadu bregdan, swing among the shadows, to send into the realm of shadows, 708; pret. brgd ealde lfe, swung the old weapon, 796; brgd feorh-genðlan, swung his mortal enemy (Grendel's mother), threw her down, 1540; pl. git egorstrem ... mundum brugdon, stirred the sea with your hands (of the movement of the hands in swimming), 514; pret. part. broden (brogden) ml, the drawn sword, 1617, 1668.—2) to knit, to knot, to plait: inf., figuratively, inwitnet ðrum bregdan, to weave a waylaying net for another (as we say in the same way, to lay a trap for another, to dig a pit for another), 2168; pret. part. beadohrgl broden, a woven shirt of mail (because it consisted of metal rings joined together), 552; similarly, 1549; brogdne beadusercean, 2756.

-bregdan, to swing: pret. hond up -brd, swung, raised his hand, 2576.

ge-bregdan: 1) swing: pret. hring-ml gebrgd, swung the ringed sword, 1565; eald sweord ecen ... þt ic þ wpne gebrgd, an old heavy sword that I swung as my weapon, 1665; with interchanging instr. and acc. wllseaxe gebrd, biter and beadu-scearp, 2704; also, to draw out of the sheath: sweord r gebrd, had drawn the sword before, 2563.—2) to knit, to knot, to plait: pret. part. bere-byrne hondum gebroden, 1444.

on-bregdan, to tear open, to throw open: pret. onbrd þ recedes mðan, had then thrown open the entrance of the hall (onbregdan is used because the opening door swings upon its hinges), 724.

brego, st. m., prince, ruler: nom. sg. 427, 610.

brego-rf, adj., powerful, like a ruler, of heroic strength : nom. sg. m., 1926.

brego-stl, st. m., throne, figuratively for rule: acc. sg. him gesealde seofon þsendo, bold and brego-stl, seven thousand see under sceat), a country-seat, and the dignity of a prince, 2197; þr him Hygd gebed ... brego-stl, where H. offered him the chief power, 2371; lt þone bregostl Bewulf healdan, gave over to Bewulf the chief power (did not prevent Bewulf from entering upon the government), 2390.

breme, adj., known afar, renowned. nom. sg., 18.

brenting (see brant), st. m., ship craft: nom. pl. brentingas, 2808.

-bretan, st. v., to break, to break in pieces, to kill: pret. bret brimwsan, killed the sea-king (King Hðcyn), 2931. See bretan.

brest, st. n.: 1) breast: nom. sg., 2177; often used in the pl., so acc. þt mne brest wereð, which protects my breast, 453; dat. pl. beadohrgl broden on brestum lg. 552.—2) the inmost thoughts, the mind, the heart, the bosom: nom. sg. brest innan well þestrum geþoncum, his breast heaved with troubled thoughts, 2332; dat. pl. lt þ of brestum word t faran, caused the words to come out from his bosom, 2551.

brest-gehygd, st. n. f., breast-thought, secret thought: instr. pl. -gehygdum, 2819.

brest-gewdu, st. n. pl., breast-clothing, garment covering the breast, of the coat of mail: nom., 1212; acc., 2163.

brest-hord, st. m., breast-hoard, that which is locked in the breast, heart, mind, thought, soul: nom. sg., 1720; acc. sg., 2793.

brest-net, st. n., breast-net, shirt of chain-mail, coat of mail: nom. sg. brest-net broden, 1549.

brest-weorðung, st. f., ornament that is worn upon the breast: acc. sg. brest-weorðunge, 2505: here the collar is meant which Bewulf receives from Wealhþew (1196, 2174) as a present, and which B., according to 2173, presents to Hygd, while, according to 1203, it is in the possession of her husband Hygelc. In front the collar is trimmed with ornaments (frtwe), which hang down upon the breast, hence the name brest-weorðung.

brest-wylm, st. m., heaving of the breast, emotion of the bosom: acc. sg, 1878.

bretan, st. v., to break, to break in pieces, to kill: pret. bret bedgenetas, killed his table-companions (courtiers), 1714.

-bretan, same as above: pret. þone þe he on rste bret, whom she killed upon his couch, 1299; pret. part. þ þt monige gewearð, þt hine se brimwylf broten hfde, many believed that the sea-wolf (Grendel's mother) had killed him, 1600; h hyne ... broten hfdon, had killed him (the dragon), 2708.

brim, st. n., flood, the sea: nom. sg., 848, 1595; gen. sg. t brimes faroðe, to the sea, 28; t brimes nosan, at the sea's promontory, 2804; nom. pl. brimu swaðredon, the waves subsided, 570.

brim-clif, st. n., sea-cliff, cliff washed by the sea: acc. pl. -clifu, 222.

brim-ld, st. f., flood-way, sea-way: acc. sg. þra þe mid Bewulfe brimlde teh, who had travelled the sea-way with B., 1052.

brim-lðend, pt, sea-farer, sailor acc. p. -lðende, 568.

brim-strem, st. m., sea-stream, the flood of the sea: acc. pl. ofer brim-stremas, 1911.

brim-wsa, w. m., sea-king: acc. sg. brimwsan, of Hðcyn, king of the Getas, 2931.

brim-wylf, st. f., sea-wolf (designation of Grendel's mother): nom. sg. se brimwylf, 1507, 1600.

brim-wylm, st. m., sea-wave: nom. sg., 1495.

bringan, anom. v., to bring, to bear: prs. sg. I. ic þe þsenda þegna bringe t helpe, bring to your assistance thousands of warriors, 1830; inf. sceal hringnaca ofer heðu bringan lc and luftcen, shall bring gifts and love-tokens over the high sea, 1863; similarly, 2149, 2505; pret. pl. we þs slc ... brhton, brought this sea-offering (Grendel's head), 1654.

ge-bringan, to bring: pres. subj. pl. þat we þone gebringan ... on dfre, that we bring him upon the funeral-pile, 3010.

brosnian, w. v., to crumble, to become rotten, to fall to pieces: prs. sg. III. herepd ... brosnað fter beorne, the coat of mail falls to pieces after (the death of) the hero, 2261.

brðor, st. m., brother: nom. sg., 1325, 2441; dat sg. brðer, 1263; gen. sg. his brðor bearn, 2620; dat. pl. brðrum, 588, 1075.

ge-brðru, pl., brethren, brothers: dat. pl. st be þm gebrðrum twm, sat by the two brothers, 1192.

brga, w. m., terror, horror: nom. sg., 1292, 2325, 2566; acc. sg. billa brgan, 583.—Comp.: gryre-, here-brga.

brcan, st. v. w. gen., to use, to make use of: prs. sg. III. se þe longe her worolde brceð, who here long makes use of the world, i.e. lives long, 1063; imp. brc manigra mda, make use of many rewards, give good rewards, 1179; to enjoy: inf. þt he behhordes brcan mste, could enjoy the ring-hoard, 895; similarly, 2242, 3101; pret. brec lfgesceafta, enjoyed the appointed life, lived the appointed time, 1954. With the genitive to be supplied: brec þonne mste, 1488; imp. brc þisses beges, enjoy this ring, take this ring, 1217. Upon this meaning depends the form of the wish, wel brcan (compare the German geniesze froh!): inf. ht hine wel brcan, 1046; ht hine brcan well, 2813; imp. brc ealles well, 2163.

brn, adj., having a brown lustre, shining: nom. sg. si ecg brn, 2579.

brn-ecg, adj., having a gleaming blade: acc. sg. n. (hyre seaxe) brd [and] brnecg, her broad sword with gleaming blade, 1547.

brn-fg, adj., gleaming like metal: acc. sg. brnfgne helm, 2616.

bryne-lema, w. m., light of a conflagration, gleam of fire : nom. sg., 2314.

bryne-wylm, st. m., wave of fire: dat. pl. -wylmum, 2327.

brytnian (properly to break in small pieces, cf. bretan), w. v., to bestow, to distribute: pret. sinc brytnade, distributed presents, i.e. ruled (since the giving of gifts belongs especially to rulers), 2384.

brytta, w. m., giver, distributer, always designating the king: nom. sg. sinces brytta, 608, 1171, 2072; acc. sg. bega bryttan, 35, 352, 1488; sinces bryttan, 1923.

bryttian (to be a dispenser), w. v., to distribute, to confer: prs. sg. III. god manna cynne snyttru bryttað, bestows wisdom upon the human race, 1727.

brd, st. f.: 1) wife, consort: acc. sg. brd, 2931; brde, 2957, both times of the consort of Ongenþew (?).—2) betrothed, bride: nom. sg., of Hrðgr's daughter, Freware, 2032.

brd-br, st. n., woman's apartment: dat. sg. eode ... cyning of brdbre, the king came out of the apartment of his wife (into which, according to 666, he had gone), 922.

bunden-stefna, w. m., (that which has a bound prow), the framed ship: nom. sg., 1911.

bune, w. f., can or cup, drinking-vessel: nom. pl. bunan, 3048; acc. pl. bunan, 2776.

burh, burg, st. f., castle, city, fortified house: acc. sg. burh, 523; dat. sg. byrig, 1200; dat. pl. burgum, 53, 1969, 2434.—Comp.: fre, freoðo-, he-, hle-, hord-, led-, mg-burg.

burh-loca, w. m., castle-bars: dat. sg. under burh-locan, under the castle-bars, i.e. in the castle (Hygelc's), 1929.

burh-stede, st. m., castle-place, place where the castle or city stands: acc. sg. burhstede, 2266.

burh-wela, w. m., riches, treasure of a castle or city: gen. sg. þenden he burh-welan brcan mste, 3101.

burne, w. f., spring, fountain: gen. þre burnan wlm, the bubbling of the spring, 2547.

ban, st. v.: 1) to stay, to remain, to dwell: inf. gif he weard onfunde ban on beorge, if he had found the watchman dwelling on the mountain, 2843.—2) to inhabit, w. acc.: meduseld ban, to inhabit the mead-house, 3066.

ge-ban, w. acc., to occupy a house, to take possession: pret. part. hen hses, h hit Hring Dene fter berþege gebn hfdon, how the Danes, after their beer-carouse, had occupied it (had made their beds in it), 117.—With the pres. part. bend are the compounds ceaster-, fold-, grund-, lond-bend.

bgan, st. v., to bend, to bow, to sink; to turn, to flee: prs. sg. III. bon-gr bgeð, the fatal spear sinks, i.e. its deadly point is turned down, it rests, 2032; inf. þt se byrnwga bgan sceolde, that the armed hero had to sink down (having received a deadly blow), 2919; similarly, 2975; pret. sg. beh eft under eorðweall, turned, fled again behind the earth-wall, 2957; pret. pl. bugon t bence, turned to the bench, 327, 1014; hy on holt bugon, fled to the wood, 2599.

-bgan, to bend off, to curve away from: pret. fram sylle beg medubenc monig, from the threshold curved away many a mead-bench, 776.

be-bgan, w. acc., to surround, to encircle: prs. sw (which) wter bebgeð, 93; efne sw sde sw s bebgeð windige weallas, as far as the sea encircles windy shores, 1224.

ge-bgan, to bend, to bow, to sink: a) intrans.: he on flet gebeh, sank on the floor, 1541; þ gebeh cyning, then sank the king, 2981; þ se wyrm gebeh snde tsomne (when the drake at once coiled itself up), 2568; gewt þ gebogen scrðan t, advanced with curved body (the drake), 2570.—b) w. acc. of the thing to which one bends or sinks: pret. selereste gebeh, sank upon the couch in the hall, 691; similarly gebeg, 1242.

br, st. n., apartment, room: dat. sg. bre, 1311, 2456; dat. pl. brum, 140.—Comp. brd-br.

btan, bton (from be and tan, hence in its meaning referring to what is without, excluded): 1) conj. with subjunctive following, lest: btan his lc swice, lest his body escape, 967. With ind. following, but: bton hit ws mre þonne nig mon ðer t beadulce tberan meahte, but it (the sword) was greater than any other man could have carried to battle, 1561. After a preceding negative verb, except: þra þe gumena bearn gearwe ne wiston bton Fitela mid hine, which the children of men did not know at all, except Fitela, who was with him, 880; ne nom he mðm-hta m bton þone hafelan, etc., he took no more of the rich treasure than the head alone, 1615.—2) prep, with dat., except: bton folcscare, 73; bton þe, 658; ealle bton num, 706.

bycgan, w. v., to buy, to pay: inf. ne ws þt gewrixle til þt hie on b healfa bicgan scoldon frenda feorum, that was no good transaction, that they, on both sides (as well to Grendel as to his mother), had to pay with the lives of their friends, 1306.

be-bycgan, to sell: pret. nu ic on mðma hord mne bebohte frde feorhlege (now I, for the treasure-hoard, gave up my old life), 2800.

ge-bycgan, to buy, to acquire; to pay: pret. w. acc. n þr nige ... frfre gebohte, obtained no sort of help, consolation, 974; hit (his, MS.) ealdre gebohte, paid it with his life, 2482; pret. part. sylfes feore begas [geboh]te, bought rings with his own life, 3015.

byldan, w. v. (to make beald, which see), to excite, to encourage, to brave deeds: inf. w. acc. sw he Fresena cyn on bersele byldan wolde (by distributing gifts), 1095.

ge-byrd, st. n., "fatum destinatum" (Grein) (?): acc. sg. hie on gebyrd hruron gre wunde, 1075.

ge-byrdu, st. f., birth; in compound, bearn-gebyrdu.

byrdu-scrd, st. n., shield-ornament, design upon a shield(?): nom. sg., 2661.

byre, st. m., (born) son: nom. sg., 2054, 2446, 2622, etc.; nom. pl. byre, 1189. In a broader sense, young man, youth: acc. pl. bdde byre geonge, encouraged the youths (at the banquet), 2019.

byrðen, st. f., burden; in comp. mgen-byrðen.

byrele, st. m., steward, waiter, cupbearer: nom. pl. byrelas, 1162.

byrgan, w. v., to feast, to eat: inf., 448.

ge-byrgea, w. m., protector; in comp. led-gebyrgea.

byrht. See beorht.

byrne, w. f., shirt of mail, mail: nom. sg. byrne, 405, 1630, etc.; hringed byrne, ring-shirt, consisting of interlaced rings, 1246; acc. sg. byrnan, 1023, etc.; sde byrnan, large coat of mail, 1292; hringde byrnan, 2616; hre byrnan, gray coat of mail (of iron), 2154; dat. sg. on byrnan, 2705; gen. sg. byrnan hring, the ring of the shirt of mail (i.e. the shirt of mail), 2261; dat. pl. byrnum, 40, 238, etc.; beorhtum byrnum, with gleaming mail, 3141.—Comp.: gð-, here-, heaðo-, ren-, sern-byrne.

byrnend. See beornan.

byrn-wga, w. m., warrior dressed in a coat of mail: nom. sg., 2919.

bysgu, bisigu, st. f., trouble, difficulty, opposition: nom. sg. bisigu, 281; dat. pl. bisgum, 1744, bysigum, 2581.

bysig, adj., opposed, in need, in the compounds lf-bysig, syn-bysig.

bme, w. f., a wind-instrument, a trumpet, a trombone: gen. sg. bman gealdor, the sound of the trumpet, 2944.

bwan, w. v., to ornament, to prepare: inf. þ þe beado-grman bwan sceoldon, who should prepare the helmets, 2258.

C

camp, st. m., combat, fight between two: dat. sg. in campe (Bewulf's with Dghrefn; cempan, MS.), 2506.

candel, st. f., light, candle: nom. sg. rodores candel, of the sun, 1573.—Comp. woruld-candel.

cempa, w. m., fighter, warrior, hero: nom. sg. ðele cempa, 1313; Geta cempa, 1552; rðe cempa, 1586; mre cempa (as voc.), 1762; gyrded cempa, 2079; dat. sg. geongum (geongan) cempan, 1949, 2045, 2627; Hga cempan, 2503; acc. pl. cempan, 206.—Comp. fðe-cempa.

cennan, w. v.: 1) to bear, w. acc.: efne sw hwylc mgða sw þone magan cende, who bore the son, 944; pret. part. þm eafera ws fter cenned, to him was a son born, 12.—2) reflexive, to show one's self, to reveal one's self: imp. cen þec mid crfte, prove yourself by your strength, 1220.

-cennan, to bear: pret. part. n hie fder cunnon, hwðer him nig ws r cenned dyrnra gsta, they (the people of the country) do not know his (Grendel's) father, nor whether any evil spirit has been before born to him (whether he has begotten a son), 1357.

cnðu, st. f., boldness: acc. sg. cnðu, 2697.

cne, adj., keen, warlike, bold: gen. p.. cnra gehwylcum, 769. Superl., acc. pl. cnoste, 206.—Comp.: dd-, gr-cne.

ceald, adj., cold: acc. pl. cealde stremas, 1262; dat. pl. cealdum cearsðum, with cold, sad journeys, 2397. Superl. nom. sg. wedera cealdost, 546;—Comp. morgen-ceald.

cearian, w. v., to have care, to take care, to trouble one's self: prs. sg. III. n ymb his lf cearað, takes no care for his life, 1537.

cearig, adj., troubled, sad: in comp. sorh-cearig.

cear-sð, st. m., sorrowful way, an undertaking that brings sorrow, i.e. a warlike expedition: dat. pl. cearsðum (of Bewulf's expeditions against Edgils), 2397.

cearu, st. f., care, sorrow, lamentation: nom. sg., 1304; acc. sg. [ceare], 3173.—Comp.: ealdor-, gð-, ml-, md-cearu.

cear-wlm, st. m., care-agitation, waves of sorrow in the breast: dat. pl. fter cear-wlmum, 2067.

cear-wylm, st. m., same as above; nom. pl. þ cear-wylmas, 282.

ceaster-bend, pt, inhabitant of a fortified place, inhabitant of a castle: dat. pl. ceaster-bendum, of those established in Hrðgr's castle, 769.

cep, st. m., purchase, transaction: figuratively, nom. sg. ns þt ðe cep, no easy transaction, 2416; instr. sg. þeh þe ðer hit ealdre gebohte, heardan cepe, although the one paid it with his life, a dear purchase, 2483.

ge-cepian, w. v., to purchase: pret. part. gold unrme grimme gecepod, gold without measure, bitterly purchased (with Bewulf's life), 3013.

be-ceorfan, st. v., to separate, to cut off (with acc. of the pers. and instr. of the thing): pret. hine þ hefde becearf, cut off his head, 1591; similarly, 2139.

ceorl, st. m., man: nom. sg. snotor ceorl monig, many a wise man, 909; dat. sg. gomelum ceorle, the old man (of King Hrðel), 2445; so, ealdum ceorle, of King Ongenþew, 2973; nom. pl. snotere ceorlas, wise men, 202, 416, 1592.

cel, st. m., keel, figuratively for the ship: nom. sg., 1913; acc. sg. cel, 38, 238; gen. sg. celes, 1807.

cesan, st. v., to choose, hence, to assume: inf. þone cynedm cisan wolde, would assume the royal dignity, 2377; to seek: pret. subj. r he bl cure, before he sought his funeral-pile (before he died), 2819.

ge-cesan, to choose, to elect: gerund, t gecesenne cyning nigne (slran), to choose a better king, 1852; imp. þe þt slre ge-ces, choose thee the better (of two: bealonð and ce rdas), 1759; pret. he sic on herge geces t þyssum siðfate, selected us among the soldiers for this undertaking, 2639; geces cne rd, chose the everlasting gain, i.e. died, 1202; similarly, godes leht geces, 2470; pret. part. acc. pl. hfde ... cempan gecorone, 206.

on-cirran, w. v., to turn, to change: inf. ne meahte ... þs wealdendes [willan] wiht on-cirran, could not change the will of the Almighty, 2858; pret. ufor oncirde, turned higher, 2952; þyder oncirde, turned thither, 2971.

-cgan, w. v., to call hither: pret. cgde of corðre cyninges þegnas syfone, called from the retinue of the king seven men, 3122.

clam, clom, st. m., f. n.? fetter, figuratively of a strong gripe: dat. pl. heardan clammum, 964; heardum clammum, 1336; atolan clommum (horrible claws of the mother of Grendel), 1503.

clif, cleof, st. n., cliff, promontory: acc. pl. Geta clifu, 1912.—Comp.: brim-, g-, holm-, stn-clif.

ge-cnwan, st. v., to know, to recognize: inf. meaht þu, mn wine, mce gecnwan, mayst thou, my friend, recognize the sword, 2048.

on-cnwan, to recognize, to distinguish: hordweard oncniw mannes reorde, distinguished the speech of a man, 2555.

cniht, st. m., boy, youth: dat. pl. þyssum cnyhtum, to these boys (Hrðgr's sons), 1220.

cniht-wesende, prs. part., being a boy or a youth: acc. sg. ic hine cðe cniht-wesende, knew him while still a boy, 372; nom. pl. wit þt gecwdon cniht-wesende, we both as young men said that, 535.

cnyssan, w. v., to strike, to dash against each other: pret. pl. þonne ... eoferas cnysedan, when the bold warriors dashed against each other, stormed (in battle), 1329.

collen-ferhð, -ferð, adj., (properly, of swollen mind), of uncommon thoughts, in his way of thinking, standing higher than others, high-minded: nom. sg. cuma collen-ferhð, of Bewulf, 1807; collen-ferð, of Wglf, 2786.

corðer, st. n., troop, division of an army, retinue: dat. sg. þ ws ... Fin slgen, cyning on corðre, then was Fin slain, the king in the troop (of warriors), 1154; of corðre cyninges, out of the retinue of the king, 3122.

costian, w. v., to try; pret. (w. gen.) he mn costode, tried me, 2085.

cfa, w. m., apartment, sleeping-room, couch: in comp. bn-cfa.

cl, adj., cool: compar. cearwylmas clran wurðað, the waves of sorrow become cooler, i.e. the mind becomes quiet, 282; him wflufan ... clran weorðað, his love for his wife cools, 2067.

crft, st. m., the condition of being able, hence: 1) physical strength: nom. sg. mgða crft, 1284; acc. sg. mgenes crft, 418; þurh nes crft, 700; crft and cnðu, 2697; dat. (instr.) sg. crfte, 983, 1220, 2182, 2361.—2) art, craft, skill: dat. sg. as instr. dyrnum crfte, with secret (magic) art, 2169; dyrnan crfte, 2291; þefes crfte, with thief's craft, 2221; dat. pl. defles crftum, by devil's art (sorcery), 2089.—3) great quantity (?): acc. sg. wyrm-horda crft, 2223.—Comp.: leoðo-, mgen-, nearo-, wg-crft.

crftig, adj.: 1) strong, stout: nom. sg. eafoðes crftig, 1467; nða crftig, 1963. Comp. wg-crftig.—2) adroit, skilful: in comp. lagu-crftig.—3) rich (of treasures); in comp. ecen-crftig.

cringan, st. v., to fall in combat, to fall with the writhing movement of those mortally wounded: pret. subj. on wl crunge, would sink into death, would fall, 636; pret. pl. for the pluperfect, sume on wle crungon, 1114.

ge-cringan, same as above: pret. he under rande gecranc, fell under his shield, 1210; t wge gecrang, fell in battle, 1338; he on flet gecrong, fell to the ground, 1569; in campe gecrong, fell in single combat, 2506.

cuma (he who comes), w. m., newcomer, guest: nom. sg. 1807.—Comp.: cwealm-, wil-cuma.

cuman, st. v., to come: pres. sg. II. gyf þu on weg cymest, if thou comest from there, 1383; III. cymeð, 2059; pres. subj. sg. III. cume, 23; pl. þonne we t cymen, when we come out, 3107; inf. cuman, 244, 281, 1870; pret. sg. com, 430, 569, 826, 1134, 1507, 1601, etc.; cwom, 419, 2915; pret. subj. sg. cwme, 732; pret. part. cumen, 376; pl. cumene, 361. Often with the inf. of a verb of motion, as, com gongan, 711; com sðian, 721; com in gn, 1645; cwom gn, 1163; com scacan, 1803; cwmon ldan, 239; cwmon scean, 268; cwman scrðan, 651, etc. [pret. cm, etc.]

be-cuman, to come, to approach, to arrive: pret. syððan niht becom, after the night had come, 115; þe on þ lede becom, that had come over the people, 192; þ he t hm becom, 2993. And with inf. following: stefn in becom ... hlynnan under hrne stn, 2553; lyt eft becwom ... hmes nisan, 2366; ð þt ende becwom, 1255; similarly, 2117. With acc. of pers.: þ hyne si þrag becwom, when this time of battle came over him, 2884.

ofer-cuman, to overcome, to compel: pret. þ he þone fend ofercwom, thereby he overcame the foe, 1274: pl. hie fend heora ... ofercmon, 700; pret. part. (w. gen.) nða ofercumen, compelled by combats, 846.

cumbol, cumbor, st. m., banner: gen. sg. cumbles hyrde, 2506.—Comp. hilte-cumbor.

cund, adj., originating in, descended from: in comp. feorran-cund.

cunnan, verb pret. pres.: 1) to know, to be acquainted with (w. acc. or depend, clause): sg. pres. I. ic mnne can gldne Hrðulf þt he ... wile, I know my gracious H., that he will..., 1181; II. eard git ne const, thou knowest not yet the land, 1378; III. he þt wyrse ne con, knows no worse, 1740. And reflexive: con him land geare, knows the land well, 2063; pl. men ne cunnon hwyder helrnan scrðað, men do not know whither..., 162; pret. sg. ic hine cðe, knew him, 372; cðe he duguð þew, knew the customs of the distinguished courtiers, 359; so with the acc., 2013; seolfa ne cðe þurh hwt..., he himself did not know through what..., 3068; pl. sorge ne cðon, 119; so with the acc., 180, 418, 1234. With both (acc. and depend. clause): n hie fder cunnon (scil. n hie cunnon) hwðer him nig ws r cenned dyrnra gsta, 1356.—2) with inf. following, can, to be able: prs. sg. him bebeorgan ne con, cannot defend himself, 1747; prs. pl. men ne cunnon secgan, cannot say, 50; pret. sg. cðe reccan, 90; beorgan cðe, 1446; pret. pl. hrian ne cðon, could not praise, 182; pret. subj. healdan cðe, 2373.

cunnian, w. v., to inquire into, to try, w. gen. or acc.: inf. sund cunnian (figurative for roam over the sea), 1427, 1445; geongne cempan higes cunnian, to try the young warrior's mind, 2046; pret. eard cunnode, tried the home, i.e. came to it, 1501; pl. wada cunnedon, tried the flood, i.e. swam through the sea, 508.

, adj.: 1) known, well known; manifest, certain: nom. sg. undyrne cð, 150, 410; wde cð, 2924; acc. sg. fern. cðe folme, 1304; cðe strte, 1635; nom. pl. ecge cðe, 1146; acc. pl. cðe nssas, 1913.—2) renowned: nom. sg. gðum cð, 2179; nom. pl. cystum cðe, 868.—3) also, friendly, dear, good (see un-cð).—Comp.: un-, wd-cð.

cð-lce, adv., openly, publicly: comp. n her cðlcor cuman ongunnon lind-hbbende, no shield-bearing men undertook more boldly to come hither (the coast-watchman means by this the secret landing of the Vikings), 244.

cwalu, st. f., murder, fall: in comp. deð-cwalu.

cweccan (to make alive, see cwic), w. v., to move, to swing: pret. cwehte mgen-wudu, swung the wood of strength (= spear), 235.

cweðan, st. v., to say, to speak: a) absolutely: prs. sg. III. cwið t bere, speaks at beer-drinking, 2042.—b) w. acc.: pret. word fter cwð, 315; fe worda cwð, 2247, 2663.—c) with þt following: pret. sg. cwð, 92, 2159; pl. cwdon, 3182.—d) with þt omitted: pret. cwð he gð-cyning scean wolde, said he would seek out the war-king, 199; similarly, 1811, 2940.

-cweðan, to say, to speak, w. acc.: prs. þt word cwyð, speaks the word, 2047; pret. þt word cwð, 655.

ge-cweðan, to say, to speak: a) absolutely: pret. sg. II. sw þu gecwde, 2665.—b)w. acc.: pret. wel-hwylc gecwð, spoke everything, 875; pl. wit þt gecwdon, 535.—c) w. þt following: pret. gecwð, 858, 988.

cwellan, w. v., (to make die), to kill, to murder: pret. sg. II. þu Grendel cwealdest, 1335.

-cwellan, to kill: pret. sg. (he) wyrm cwealde, 887; þone þe Grendel r mne cwealde, whom Grendel had before wickedly murdered, 1056; beorn cwealde, 2122.

cwn, st. f.: 1) wife, consort (of noble birth): nom. sg. cwn, 62; (Hrðgr's), 614, 924; (Finn's), 1154.—2) particularly denoting the queen: nom. sg. beghroden cwn (Wealhþew), 624; mru cwn, 2017; fremu folces cwn (Þryðo), 1933; acc. sg. cwn (Wealhþew), 666.-Comp. folc-cwn.

cwn-lc, adj., feminine, womanly: nom. sg. ne bið swylc cwnlc þew (such is not the custom of women, does not become a woman), 1941.

cwealm, st. m., violent death, murder, destruction: acc. sg. þone cwealm gewrc, avenged the death (of Abel by Cain), 107; mndon mondryhtnes cwealm, lamented the ruler's fall, 3150.—Comp.: bealo-, deð-, gr-cwealm.

cwealm-bealu, st. n., the evil of murder: acc. sg., 1941.

cwealm-cuma, w. m., one coming for murder, a new-comer who contemplates murder: acc. sg. þone cwealm-cuman (of Grendel), 793.

cwic and cwico, adj., quick, having life, alive: acc. sg. cwicne, 793, 2786; gen. sg. ht cwices, something living, 2315; nom. pl. cwice, 98; cwico ws þ gena, was still alive, 3094.

cwide, st. m., word, speech, saying: in comp. gegn-, gilp-, hle-, ðor- [non-existant form—KTH], word-cwide.

cwðan, st. v., to complain, to lament: inf. w. acc. ongan ... gioguðe cwðan hilde-strengo, began to lament the (departed) battle-strength of his youth, 2113 [ceare] cwðan, lament their cares, 3173.

cyme, st. m., coming, arrival: nom. pl. hwanan ewre cyme syndon, whence your coming is, i. e. whence ye are, 257.—Comp. eft-cyme.

cymlce, adv., (convenienter), splendidly, grandly: comp. cymlcor, 38.

cyn, st. n., race, both in the general sense, and denoting noble lineage: nom. sg. Fresena cyn, 1094; Wedera (gara, MS.) cyn, 461; acc. sg. eotena cyn, 421; giganta cyn, 1691; dat. sg. Caines cynne, 107; manna cynne, 811, 915, 1726; ewrum (of those who desert Bewulf in battle) cynne, 2886; gen. sg. manna (gumena) cynnes, 702, etc.; mran cynnes, 1730; lðan cynnes, 2009, 2355; sses cynnes Wgmundinga, 2814; gen. pl. cynna gehwylcum, 98.—Comp.: eormen-, feorh-, frum-, gum-, man-, wyrm-cyn.

cyn, st. n., that which is suitable or proper: gen. pl. cynna (of etiquette) gemyndig, 614.

ge-cynde, adj., innate, peculiar, natural: nom. sg., 2198, 2697.

cyne-dm, st. m., kingdom, royal dignity: acc. sg., 2377.

cyning, st. m., king: nom. acc. sg. cyning, II, 864, 921, etc.; kyning, 620, 3173; dat. sg. cyninge, 3094; gen. sg. cyninges, 868, 1211; gen. pl. kyning[a] wuldor, of God, 666.—Comp. beorn-, eorð-, folc-, guð-, heh-, led-, s-, sð-, þed-, worold-, wuldor-cyning.

cyning-beald, adj., "nobly bold" (Thorpe), excellently brave (?): nom. pl. cyning-balde men, 1635.

ge-cyssan, w. v., to kiss: pret. gecyste þ cyning ... þegen betstan, kissed the best thane (Bewulf), 1871.

cyst (choosing, see cesan), st. f., the select, the best of a thing, good quality, excellence: nom. sg. renna cyst, of the swords, 803, 1698; wpna cyst, 1560; symbla cyst, choice banquet, 1233; acc. sg. rena cyst, 674; dat. pl. foldwegas ... cystum cðe, known through excellent qualities, 868; (cyning) cystum gecðed, 924.—Comp. gum-, hilde-cyst.

. See on-cð.

cðan (see ), w. v., to make known, to manifest, to show: imp. sg. mgen-ellen cð, show thy heroic strength, 660; inf. cwealmbealu cðan, 1941; ellen cðan, 2696.

ge-cðan (to make known, hence): 1) to give information, to announce: inf. andsware gecðan, to give answer, 354; gerund, t gecðanne hwanan ewre cyme syndon (to show whence ye come), 257; pret. part. sð is gecðed þt ... (the truth has become known, it has shown itself to be true), 701; Higelce ws sð Bewulfes snde gecðed, the arrival of B. was quickly announced, 1972; similarly, 2325.—2) to make celebrated, in pret. part.: ws mn fder folcum gecðed (my father was known to warriors), 262; ws his mdsefa manegum gecðed, 349; cystum gecðed, 924.

cððu (properly, condition of being known, hence relationship), st. f., home, country, land: in comp. feor-cððu.

[should be cð, feor-cð—KTH]

ge-cpan, w. v., to purchase: inf. ns him nig þearf þt he ... þurfe wyrsan wgfrecan weorðe gecpan, had need to buy with treasures no inferior warrior, 2497.

D

daroð, st. m., spear: dat. pl. dareðum lcan (to fight), 2849.

ge-dl, st. n., parting, separation: nom. sg. his worulde gedl, his separation from the world (his death), 3069.—Comp. ealdor-, lf-gedl.

dg, st. m., day: nom. sg. dg, 485, 732, 2647; acc. sg. dg, 2400; andlangne dg, the whole day, 2116; morgenlongne dg (the whole morning), 2895; ð dmes dg, till judgment-day, 3070; dat. sg. on þm dge þysses lfes (eo tempore, tunc), 197, 791, 807; gen. sg. dges, 1601, 2321; hwl dges, a day's time, a whole day, 1496; dges and nihtes, day and night, 2270; dges, by day, 1936; dat. pl. on tyn dagum, in ten days, 3161.—Comp. r-, deð-, ende-, ealdor-, fyrn-, ger-, ln-, lf-, swylt-, win-dg, an-dges.

dg-hwl, st. f., day-time: acc. pl. þt he dghwla gedrogen hfde eorðan wynne, that he had enjoyed earth's pleasures during the days (appointed to him), i.e. that his life was finished, 2727.—(After Grein.)

dg-rm, st. n., series of days, fixed number of days: nom. sg. dgera dgrm (number of the days of his life), 824.

dd, st. f., deed, action: acc. sg. derlce dd, 585; dmlesan dd, 2891; frcne dde, 890; dd, 941; acc. pl. Grendles dda, 195; gen. pl. dda, 181, 479, 2455, etc.; dat. pl. ddum, 1228, 2437, etc.—Comp. ellen-, fyren-, lof-dd.

dd-cne, adj., bold in deed: nom. sg. dd-cne mon, 1646.

dd-fruma, w. m., doer of deeds, doer: nom. sg., of Grendel, 2091.

dd-bata, w. m., he who pursues with his deeds: nom. sg., of Grendel, 275.

ddla, w. m., doer: in comp. mn-for-ddla.

dl, st. m., part, portion: acc. sg. dl, 622, 2246, 3128; acc. pl. dlas, 1733.—Often dl designates the portion of a thing or of a quality which belongs in general to an individual, as, ð þt him on innan oferhygda dl weaxeð, till in his bosom his portion of arrogance increases: i.e. whatever arrogance he has, his arrogance, 1741. Biwulfe wearð dryhtmðma dl deðe, forgolden, to Bewulf his part of the splendid treasures was paid with death, i.e. whatever splendid treasures were allotted to him, whatever part of them he could win in the fight with the dragon, 2844; similarly, 1151, 1753, 2029, 2069, 3128.

dlan, w. v., to divide, to bestow, to share with, w. acc.: pres. sg. III. mdmas dleð, 1757; pres. subj. þt he wið aglcean eofoðo dle, that he bestow his strength upon (strive with) the bringer of misery the drake), 2535; inf. hringas dlan, 1971; pret. begas dlde, 80; sceattas dlde, 1687.

be-dlan, w. instr., (to divide), to tear away from, to strip of: pret. part. dremum (dreme) bedled, deprived of the heavenly joys (of Grendel), 722, 1276.

ge-dlan: 1) to distribute: inf. (w. acc. of the thing distributed); br on innan eall gedlan geongum and ealdum swylc him god sealde, distribute therein to young and old all that God had given him, 71.—2) to divide, to separate, with acc.: inf. sundur gedlan lf wið lce, separate life from the body, 2423; so pret. subj. þt he gedlde ... nra gehwylces lf wið lce, 732.

denn (cf. denu, dene, vallis), st. n., den, cave: acc. sg. þs wyrmes denn, 2761; gen. sg. (draca) gewt dennes nisian, 3046.

ge-defe, adj.: 1) (impersonal) proper, appropriate: nom. sg. sw hit gedfe ws (bið), as was appropriate, proper, 561, 1671, 3176.—2) good, kind, friendly; nom sg. be þu suna mnum ddum gedfe, be friendly to my son by deeds (support my son in deed, namely, when he shall have attained to the government), 1228.—Comp. un-ge-dfelce.

dman (see dm), w. v.: 1) to judge, to award justly: pres. subj. mrðo dme, 688.—2) to judge favorably, to praise, to glorify: pret. pl. his ellenweorc duguðum dmdon, praised his heroic deed with all their might, 3176.

dmend, judge: dda dmend (of God), 181.

deal, adj., "superbus, clarus, fretus" (Grimm): nom. pl. þryðum dealle, 494.

ded, adj., dead: nom. sg. 467, 1324, 2373; acc. sg. dedne, 1310.

deð, st. m., death, dying: nom. sg, deð, 441, 447, etc.; acc. sg. deð, 2169; dat. sg. deðe, 1389, 1590, (as instr.) 2844, 3046; gen. sg. deðes wylm, 2270; deðes nd, 2455.—Comp. gð-, wl-, wundor-deð.

deð-bed, st. n., death-bed: dat. sg. deð-bedde fst, 2902.

deð-cwalu, st. f., violent death, ruin and death: dat. pl. t deð-cwalum, 1713.

deð-cwealm, st. m., violent death, murder: nom. sg. 1671.

deð-dg, st. m., death-day, dying day: dat. sg. fter deð-dge (after his death), 187, 886.

deð-fge, adj., given over to death: nom. sg. (Grendel) deð-fge deg, had hidden himself, being given over to death (mortally wounded), 851.

deð-sca, w. m., death-shadow, ghostly being, demon of death: nom. sg. deorc deð-sca (of Grendel), 160.

deð-wrig, adj., weakened by death, i.e. dead: acc. sg. deð-wrigne, 2126. See wrig.

deð-wc, st. n. death's house, home of death: acc. sg. gewt deðwc sen (had died), 1276.

degan (O.H.G. pret. part. tougan, hidden), to conceal one's self, to hide: pret. (for pluperf.) deg, 851.—Leo.

deorc, adj., dark: of the night, nom. sg. (nihthelm) deorc, 1791; dat. pl. deorcum nihtum, 275, 2212; of the terrible Grendel, nom. sg. deorc deð-sca, 160.

defol, st. m. n., devil: gen. sg. defles, 2089; gen. pl. defla, of Grendel and his troop, 757, 1681.

degol, dgol, adj., concealed, hidden, inaccessible, beyond information, unknown: nom. sg. degol ddhata (of Grendel), 275; acc. sg. dgel lond, inaccessible land, 1358.

dep, st. n., deep, abyss: acc. sg., 2550.

dep, adv. deeply: acc. sg. dep wter, 509, 1905.

dipe, adj., deep: hit ð dmes dg dipe benemdon þednas mre, the illustrious rulers had charmed it deeply till the judgment-day, had laid a solemn spell upon it, 3070.

der, st. n., animal, wild animal: in comp. mere-, s-der.

der, adj.: 1) wild, terrible: nom. sg. dir dd-fruma (of Grendel), 2091.—2) bold, brave: nom. nnig ... der, 1934.—Comp.: heaðu-, hilde-der.

dere, dre, adj.: 1) dear, costly (high in price): acc. sg. dre ren, 2051; drincft dre (dere), 2307, 2255; instr. sg. deran sweorde, 561; dat. sg. derum mðme, 1529; nom. pl. dre swyrd, 3049; acc. pl. dere (dre) mðmas, 2237, 3132.—2) dear, beloved, worthy: nom. sg. f., ðelum dire, worthy by reason of origin, 1950; dat. sg. fter derum men, 1880; gen. sg. derre duguðe, 488; superl. acc. sg. aldorþegn þone derestan, 1310.

der-lc, adj., bold, brave: acc. sg. derlce dd, 585. See der.

disc, st. m., disc, plate, flat dish: nom. acc. pl. discas, 2776, 3049.

ge-dgan. See ge-dgan.

dol-gilp, st. m., mad boast, foolish pride, vain-glory, thoughtless audacity: dat. sg. for dolgilpe, 509.

dol-lc, adj., audacious: gen. pl. mst ... dda dollcra, 2647.

dol-sceaða, w. m., bold enemy: acc. sg. þone dol-scaðan (Grendel), 479.

dgor, st. m. n., day; 1) day as a period of 24 hours: gen. sg. ymb ntd ðres dgores, at the same time of the next day, 219; morgen-leht ðres dgores, the morning-light of the second day, 606.—2) day in the usual sense: acc. sg. n. þys dgor, during this day, 1396; instr. þ dgore, 1798; forman dgore, 2574; gen. pl. dgora gehwm, 88; dgra gehwylce, 1091; dgera dgrim, the number of his days (the days of his life), 824.—3) day in the wider sense of time: dat. pl. ufaran dgrum, in later days, times, 2201, 2393.—Comp. ende-dgor.

dgor-germ, st. n., series of days: gen. sg. ws eall sceacen dgor-germes, the whole number of his days (his life) was past, 2729.

dhtor, st. f., daughter: nom. acc. sg. dhtor, 375, 1077, 1930, 1982, etc.

dm, st. m.: I., condition, state in general; in comp. cyne-, wis-dm.—II., having reference to justice, hence: 1) judgment, judicial opinion: instr. sg. weotena dme, according to the judgment of the Witan, 1099. 2) custom: fter dme, according to custom, 1721. 3) court, tribunal: gen. sg. miclan dmes, 979; ð dmes dg, 3070, both times of the last judgment.—III., condition of freedom or superiority, hence: 4) choice, free will: acc. sg. on snne sylfes dm, according to his own choice, 2148; instr. sg. selfes dme, 896, 2777. 5) might, power: nom. sg. dm godes, 2859; acc. sg. Eofores nne dm, 2965; dat. sg. drihtnes dme, 441. 6) glory, honor, renown: nom. sg. [dm], 955; dm unlytel, not a little glory, 886; þt ws forma sð derum mðme þt his dm lg, it was the first time to the dear treasure (the sword Hrunting) that its fame was not made good, 1529; acc. sg. ic me dm gewyrce, make renown for myself, 1492; þt þu ne lte dm gedresan, that thou let not honor fall, 2667; dat. instr. sg. þr he dme forles, here he lost his reputation, 1471; dme gewurðad, adorned with glory, 1646; gen. sg. wyrce se þe mte dmes, let him make himself reputation, whoever is able, 1389. 7) splendor (in heaven): acc. sð-fstra dm, the glory of the saints, 2821.

dm-les, adj., without reputation, inglorious: acc. sg. f. dmlesan dd, 2891.

dn, red. v., to do, to make, to treat: 1) absolutely: imp. dð sw ic bidde, do as I beg, 1232.—2) w. acc.: inf. ht hire selfre sunu on bl dn, 1117; pret. þ he him of dyde sernbyrnan, took off the iron corselet, 672; (þonne) him Hnlfing, ... billa slest, on bearm dyde, when he made a present to him of Hnlfing, the best of swords, 1145; dyde him of healse hring gyldenne, took off the gold ring from his neck, 2810; ne him þs wyrmes wg for wiht dyde, eafoð and ellen, nor did he reckon as anything the drake's fighting, power, and strength, 2349; pl. hi on beorg dydon bg and siglu, placed in the (grave-) mound rings and ornaments, 3165.—3) representing preceding verbs: inf. t Getum sprec mildum wordum! sw sceal man dn, as one should do, 1173; similarly, 1535, 2167; pres. metod eallum weld, sw he nu git dð, the creator ruled over all, as he still does, 1059; similarly, 2471, 2860, and (sg. for pl.) 1135; pret. II. sw þu r dydest, 1677; III. sw he nu gyt dyde, 957; similarly, 1382, 1892, 2522; pl. sw hie oft r dydon, 1239; similarly, 3071. With the case also which the preceding verb governs: wn' ic þt he wille ... Getena lede etan unforhte, sw he oft dyde mgen Hrðmanna, I believe he will wish to devour the Get people, the fearless, as he often did (devoured) the bloom of the Hrðmen, 444; gif ic þt gefricge ... þt þec ymbesittend egesan þwað, sw þec hetende hwlum dydon, that the neighbors distress thee as once the enemy did thee (i.e. distressed), 1829; gif ic wihte mg þnre md-lufan mran tilian þonne ic gyt dyde, if I can with anything obtain thy greater love than I have yet done, 1825; similarly, pl. þonne þ dydon, 44.

ge-dn, to do, to make, with the acc. and predicate adj.: prs. (god) gedð him sw gewealdene worolde dlas, makes the parts of the world (i.e. the whole world) so subject that ..., 1733; inf. ne hyne on medo-bence micles wyrðne drihten wereda gedn wolde, nor would the leader of the people much honor him at the mead-banquet, 2187. With adv.: he mec þr on innan ... gedn wolde, wished to place me in there, 2091.

draca, w. m., drake, dragon: nom. sg., 893, 2212; acc. sg. dracan, 2403, 3132; gen. sg., 2089, 2291, 2550.—Comp.: eorð-, fr-, lg-, lg-, nð-draca.

on-drdan, st. v., w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the pers., to fear, to be afraid of: inf. þt þu him on-drdan ne þearft ... aldorbealu, needest not fear death for them, 1675; pret. n he him þ scce ondrd, was not afraid of the combat, 2348.

ge-drg (from dragan, in the sense se gerere), st. n., demeanor, actions: acc. sg. scan defla gedrg, 757.

drepan, st. v., to hit, to strike: pret. sg. sweorde drep ferhð-genðlan, 2881; pret. part. bið on hreðre ... drepen biteran strle, struck in the breast with piercing arrow, 1746; ws in feorh dropen (fatally hit), 2982.

drepe, st. m., blow, stroke: acc. sg. drepe, 1590.

drfan, ge-drfan, w. v., to move, to agitate, to stir up: inf. gewt ... drfan dep wter (to navigate), 1905; pret. part. wter under std drerig and gedrfed, 1418.

drem, st. m., rejoicing, joyous actions, joy: nom. sg. hleða drem, 497; acc. sg. drem hldne, 88; þu ... drem healdende, thou who livest in rejoicing (at the drinking-carouse), who art joyous, 1228: dat. instr. sg. dreme bedled, 1276; gen. pl. drema les, 851; dat. pl. dremum (here adverbial) lifdon, lived in rejoicing, joyously, 99; dremum bedled, 722; the last may refer also to heavenly joys.—Comp. gle-, gum-, man-, sele-drem.

drem-les, adj., without rejoicing, joyless: nom. sg. of King Heremd, 1721.

dregan, st. v.: 1) to lead a life, to be in a certain condition: pret. dreh fter dme, lived in honor, honorably, 2180; pret. pl. fyren-þearfe ongeat, þt hie r drugon aldorlese lange hwile, (God) had seen the great distress, (had seen) that they had lived long without a ruler (?), 15.—2) to experience, to live through, to do, to make, to enjoy: imp. dreh symbelwynne, pass through the pleasure of the meal, to enjoy the meal, 1783; inf. driht-scype dregan (do a heroic deed), 1471; pret. sundnytte dreh (had the occupation of swimming, i.e. swam through the sea), 2361; pret. pl. hie gewin drugon (fought), 799; h sð drugon, made the way, went, 1967.—3) to experience, to bear, to suffer: scealt werhðo dregan, shall suffer damnation, 590; pret. þegn-sorge dreh, bore sorrow for his heroes, 131; nearoþearfe dreh, 422; pret. pl. inwidsorge þe hie r drugon, 832; similarly, 1859.

-dregan, to suffer, to endure: inf. wrc dregan, 3079.

ge-dregan, to live through, to enjoy, pret. part. þt he ... gedrogen hfde eorðan wynne, that he had now enjoyed the pleasures of earth (i.e. that he was at his death), 2727.

drer, st. m., blood dropping or flowing from wounds: instr. sg. drere, 447.—Comp. heoru-, swul-, wl-drer.

drer-fh, adj., colored with blood, spotted with blood: nom. sg. 485.

drerig, adj., bloody, bleeding: nom. sg. wter std drerig, 1418; acc. sg. dryhten snne dririgne fand, 2790.—Comp. heoru-drerig.

ge-dresan, st. v., to fall down, to sink: pres. sg. III. lc-homa lne gedreseð, the body, belonging to death, sinks down, 1755; inf. þt þu ne lte dm gedresan, honor fall, sink, 2667.

drincan, st. v., to drink (with and without the acc.): pres. part. nom. pl. ealo drincende, 1946; pret. bld drum dranc, drank the blood in streams(?), 743; pret. pl. druncon wn weras, the men drank wine, 1234; þr guman druncon, where the men drank, 1649. The pret. part., when it stands absolutely, has an active sense: nom. pl. druncne dryhtguman, ye warriors who have drunk, are drinking, 1232; acc. pl. nealles druncne slg heorð-genetas, slew not his hearth-companions who had drunk with him, i.e. at the banquet, 2180. With the instr. it means drunken: nom. sg. bere (wne) druncen, 531, 1468; nom. pl. bere druncne, 480.

drfan, st. v., to drive: pres. pl. þ þe brentingas ofer flda genipu feorran drfað, who drive their ships thither from afar over the darkness of the sea, 2809; inf. (w. acc.) þeh þe he [ne] meahte on mere drfan hringedstefnan, although he could not drive the ship on the sea, 1131.

to-drfan, to drive apart, to disperse: pret. ð þt unc fld tdrf, 545.

drohtoð, st. m., mode of living or acting, calling, employment: nom. sg. ne ws his drohtoð þr swylce he r gemtte, there was no employment for him (Grendel) there such as he had found formerly, 757.

drusian, w. v. (cf. dresan, properly, to be ready to fall; here of water), to stagnate, to be putrid. pret. lagu drusade (through the blood of Grendel and his mother), 1631.

dryht, driht, st. f., company, troop, band of warriors; noble band: in comp. mago-driht.

ge-dryht, ge-driht, st. f., troop, band of noble warriors: nom. sg. mnra eorla gedryht, 431; acc. sg. ðelinga gedriht, 118; mid his eorla (hleða) gedriht (gedryht), 357, 663; similarly, 634, 1673.—Comp. sibbe-gedriht.

dryht-bearn, st. n., youth from a noble warrior band, noble young man: nom. sg. dryhtbearn Dena, 2036.

dryhten, drihten, st. m., commander, lord: a) temporal lord: nom. sg. dryhten, 1485, 2001, etc.; drihten, 1051; dat. dryhtne, 2483, etc.; dryhten, 1832.—b) God: nom. drihten, 108, etc.; dryhten, 687, etc.; dat. sg. dryhtne, 1693, etc.; drihtne, 1399, etc.; gen. sg. dryhtnes, 441; drihtnes, 941.—Comp.: fre-, fre-, gum-, man-, sige-, wine-dryhten.

dryht-guma, w. m., one of a troop of warriors, noble warrior: dat. sg. drihtguman, 1389; nom. pl. drihtguman, 99; dryhtguman, 1232; dat. pl. ofer dryhtgumum, 1791 (of Hrðgr's warriors).

dryht-lc, adj., (that which befits a noble troop of warriors), noble, excellent: dryhtlc ren, excellent sword, 893; acc. sg. f. (with an acc. sg. n.) drihtlce wf (of Hildeburh), 1159.

dryht-mðum, st. m., excellent jewel, splendid treasure: gen. pl. dryhtmðma, 2844.

dryht-scipe, st. m., (lord-ship) warlike virtue, bravery; heroic deed: acc. sg. drihtscype dregan, to do a heroic deed, 1471.

dryht-sele, st. m., excellent, splendid hall: nom. sg. driht-sele, 485; dryhtsele, 768; acc. sg. dryhtsele, 2321.

dryht-sib, st. f., peace or friendship between troops of noble warriors: gen. sg. dryhtsibbe, 2069.

drync, st. m., drink: in comp. heoru-drync.

drync-ft, st. n., vessel for drink, to receive the drink: acc. sg., 2255; drinc-ft, 2307.

drysmian, w. v., to become obscure, gloomy (through the falling rain): pres. sg. III. lyft drysmað, 1376.

drysne, adj. See on-drysne.

dugan, v., to avail, to be capable, to be good: pres. sg. III. hru se aldor deh, especially is the prince capable, 369; ðonne his ellen deh, if his strength avails, is good, 573; þe him selfa deh, who is capable of himself, who can rely on himself, 1840; pres. subj. þeh þn wit duge, though, indeed, your understanding be good, avail, 590; similarly, 1661, 2032; pret. sg. þu s wel dohtest, you did us good, conducted yourself well towards us, 1822; similarly, nu se hand ligeð se þe ew welhwylcra wilna dohte, which was helpful to each one of your desires, 1345; pret. subj. þeh þu heaðorsa gehwr dohte, though thou wast everywhere strong in battle, 526.

duguð (state of being fit, capable), st. f.: 1) capability, strength: dat. pl. for dugeðum, in ability(?), 2502; duguðum dmdon, praised with all their might(?), 3176.—2) men capable of bearing arms, band of warriors, esp., noble warriors: nom. sg. duguð unlytel, 498; duguð, 1791, 2255; dat. sg. for duguðe, before the heroes, 2021; nalles frtwe geaf ealdor duguðe, gave the band of heroes no treasure (more), 2921; leda duguðe on lst, upon the track of the heroes of the people, i.e. after them, 2946; gen. sg. cðe he duguðe þew, the custom of the noble warriors, 359; derre duguðe, 488; similarly, 2239, 2659; acc. pl. duguða, 2036.—3) contrasted with geogoð, duguð designates the noted warriors of noble birth (as in the Middle Ages, knights in contrast with squires): so gen. sg. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; gehwylc ... duguðe and iogoðe, 1675; duguðe and geogoðe dl ghwylcne, 622.

durran, v. pret. and pres. to dare; prs. sg. II. þu dearst bdan, darest to await, 527; III. he gescean dear, 685; pres. subj. sc gyf þu dyrre, seek (Grendel's mother), if thou dare, 1380; pret. dorste, 1463, 1469, etc.; pl. dorston, 2849.

duru, st. f., door, gate, wicket: nom. sg., 722; acc. sg. [duru], 389.

ge-dfan, st. v., to dip in, to sink into: pret. þt sweord gedef (the sword sank into the drake, of a blow), 2701.

þurh-dfan, to dive through; to swim through, diving: pret. wter up þurh-def, swam through the water upwards (because he was before at the bottom), 1620.

dwellan, w. v., to mislead, to hinder: prs. III. n hine wiht dweleð, dl ne yldo, him nothing misleads, neither sickness nor age, 1736.

dyhtig, adj., useful, good for: nom. sg. n. sweord ... ecgum dyhtig, 1288.

dynnan, w. v., to sound, to groan, to roar: pret. dryhtsele (healwudu, hruse) dynede, 768, 1318, 2559.

dyrne, adj.: 1) concealed, secret, retired: nom. sg. dyrne, 271; acc. sg. dryhtsele dyrnne (of the drake's cave-hall), 2321.—2) secret, malicious, hidden by sorcery: dat. instr. sg. dyrnan crfte, with secret magic art, 2291; dyrnum crfte, 2169; gen. pl. dyrnra gsta, of malicious spirits (of Grendel's kin), 1358.—Comp. un-dyrne.

dyrne, adv., in secret, secretly: him ...fter derum men dyrne langað, longs in secret for the dear man, 1880.

dyrstig, adj., bold, daring: þeh þe he dda gehws dyrstig wre, although he had been courageous for every deed, 2839.

ge-dgan, ge-dgan, w. v., to endure, to overcome, with the acc. of the thing endured: pres. sg. II. gif þu þt ellenweorc aldre gedgest, if thou survivest the heroic work with thy life, 662; III. þt þone hilders hl gedgeð, that he survives the battle in safety, 300; similarly, inf. unfge gedgan wen and wrcsð, 2293; hwðer sl mge wunde gedgan, which of the two can stand the wounds better (come off with life), 2532; ne meahte unbyrnende dep gedgan, could not endure the deep without burning (could not hold out in the deep), 2550; pret. sg. I. III. ge-dgde, 578, 1656, 2351, 2544.

dgol. See degol.

dre. See dere.

E

ecg, st. f., edge of the sword, point: nom. sg. sweordes ecg, 1107; ecg, 1525, etc.; acc. sg. wið ord and wið ecge ingang forstd, defended the entrance against point and edge (i.e. against spear and sword), 1550; mces ecge, 1813; nom. pl. ecge, 1146.—Sword, battle-axe, any cutting weapon: nom. sg. ne ws ecg bona (not the sword killed him), 2507; si ecg brn (Bewulf's sword Ngling), 2578; hyne ecg fornam, the sword snatched him away, 2773, etc.; nom. pl. ecga, 2829; dat. pl. scum and ecgum, 1773; dat. pl. (but denoting only one sword) ecnum ecgum, 2141; gen. pl. ecga, 483, 806, 1169;—blade: ecg ws ren, 1460.—Comp.: brn-, heard-, stl-ecg, adj.

ecg-bana, w. m., murderer by the sword: dat. sg. Cain wearð t ecg-banan ngan brðer, 1263.

ecg-hete, st. m., sword-hate, enmity which the sword carries out: nom. sg., 84, 1739.

ecg-þracu, st. f., sword-storm (of violent combat): acc. atole ecg-þrce, 597.

ed-hwyrft, st. m., return (of a former condition): þ þr sna wearð edhwyrft eorlum, siððan inne fealh Grendles mdor (i.e. after Grendel's mother had penetrated into the hall, the former perilous condition, of the time of the visits of Grendel, returned to the men), 1282.

ed-wendan, w. v., to turn back, to yield, to leave off: inf. gyf him edwendan fre scolde bealuwa bisigu, if for him the affliction of evil should ever cease, 280.

ed-wenden, st. f., turning, change: nom. sg. edwenden, 1775; ed-wenden torna gehwylces (reparation for former neglect), 2189.

edwt-lf, st. n., life in disgrace: nom. sg., 2892.

efn, adj., even, like, with preceding on, and with depend. dat., upon the same level, near: him on efn ligeð ealdorgewinna, lies near him, 2904.

efnan (see fnan) w. v., to carry out, to perform, to accomplish: pres. subj. eorlscype efne (accomplish knightly deeds), 2536; inf. eorlscipe efnan, 2623; sweorda gelc efnan (to battle), 1042; gerund. t efnanne, 1942; pret. eorlscipe efnde, 2134, 3008.

efne, adv., even, exactly, precisely, just, united with sw or swylc: efne sw swðe sw, just so much as, 1093; efne sw sde sw, 1224; ws se gryre lssa efne sw micle sw, by so much the less as ..., 1284; leht inne std efne sw ... scneð, a gleam stood therein (in the sword) just as when ... shines, 1572; efne sw hwylc mgða sw þone magan cende (a woman who has borne such a son), 944; efne sw hwylcum manna sw him gemet þhte, to just such a man as seemed good to him, 3058; efne swylce mla swylce ... þearf geslde, just at the times at which necessity commanded it, 1250.

eft, adv.: l) thereupon, afterwards: 56, 1147, 2112, 3047, etc.; eft sna bið, then it happens immediately, 1763; bt eft cuman, help come again, 281.—2) again, on the other side: þt hine on ylde eft gewunigen wilgesðas, that in old age again (also on their side) willing companions should be attached to him, 22;—anew, again: 135, 604, 693, 1557, etc.; eft sw r, again as formerly, 643.—3) retro, rursus, back: 123, 296, 854, etc.; þt hig ðelinges eft ne wndon (did not believe that he would come back), 1597.

eft-cyme, st. m., return: gen. sg. eftcymes, 2897.

eft-sð, st. m., journey back, return: acc. sg. 1892; gen. sg. eft-sðes georn, 2784; acc. pl. eftsðas teh, went the road back, i.e. returned, 1333.

egesa, egsa (state of terror, active or passive): l) frightfulness: acc. sg. þurh egsan, 276; gen. egesan ne gmeð, cares for nothing terrible, is not troubled about future terrors(?), 1758.—2) terror, horror, fear: nom. sg. egesa, 785; instr. sg. egesan, 1828, 2737.—Comp.: gld-, lg-, wter-egesa.

eges-full, adj., horrible (full of fear, fearful), 2930.

eges-lc, adj., terrible, bringing terror: of Grendel's head, 1650; of the beginning of the fight with the drake, 2310; of the drake, 2826.

egle, adj., causing aversion, hideous: nom. pl. neut., or, more probably, perhaps, adverbial, egle (MS. egl), 988.

egsian (denominative from egesa), w. v., to have terror, distress: pret. (as pluperf.) egsode eorl(?), 6.

ehtian, w. v., to esteem, to make prominent with praise: III. pl. pres. þt þe ... weras ehtigað, that thee men shall esteem, praise, 1223.

elde (those who generate, cf. O.N. al-a, generare), st. m. only in the pl., men: dat. pl. eldum, 2215; mid eldum, among men, 2612.—See ylde.

eldo, st. f., age: instr. sg. eldo gebunden, 2112.

el-land, st. n., foreign land, exile: acc. sg. sceall ... elland tredan, (shall be banished), 3020.

ellen, st. n., strength, heroic strength, bravery: nom. sg. ellen, 573; eafoð and ellen, 903; Geta ... eafoð and ellen, 603; acc. sg. eafoð and ellen, 2350; ellen cðan, show bravery, 2696; ellen fremedon, exercised heroic strength, did heroic deeds, 3; similarly, ic gefremman sceal eorlc ellen, 638; ferh ellen wrc, life drove out the strength, i.e. with the departing life (of the dragon) his strength left him, 2707; dat. sg. on elne, 2507, 2817; as instr. þ ws t þam geongum grim andswaru ðbegte þm þe r his elne forles, then it was easy for (every one of) those who before had lost his hero-courage, to obtain rough words from the young man (Wglf), 2862; mid elne, 1494, 2536; elne, alone, in adverbial sense, strongly, zealously, and with the nearly related meaning, hurriedly, transiently, 894, 1098, 1968, 2677, 2918; gen. sg. elnes lt, 1530; þ him ws elnes þearf, 2877.—Comp. mgen-ellen.

ellen-dd, st. f., heroic deed: dat. pl. -ddum, 877, 901.

ellen-gst, st. m., strength-spirit, demon with heroic strength: nom. sg. of Grendel, 86.

ellen-lce, adv., strongly, with heroic strength, 2123.

ellen-mrðu, st. f., renown of heroic strength, dat. pl. -mrðum, 829, 1472.

ellen-rf, adj., renowned for strength: nom. sg. 340, 358, 3064; dat. pl. -rfum, 1788.

ellen-sec, adj., infirm in strength: acc. sg. þeden ellensicne (the mortally wounded king, Bewulf), 2788.

ellen-weorc, st. n., (strength-work), heroic deed, achievement in battle: acc. sg. 662, 959, 1465, etc.; gen. pl. ellen-weorca, 2400.

elles, adv., else, otherwise: a (modal), in another manner, 2521.—b (local), elles hwr, somewhere else, 138; elles hwergen, 2591.

ellor, adv., to some other place, 55, 2255.

ellor-gst, -gst, st. m., spirit living elsewhere (standing outside of the community of mankind): nom. sg. se ellorgst (Grendel), 808; (Grendel's mother), 1622; ellorgst (Grendel's mother), 1618; acc. pl. ellorgstas, 1350.

ellor-sð, st. m., departure, death: nom. sg. 2452.

elra, adj. (comparative of a not existing form, ele, Goth. aljis, alius), another: dat. sg. on elran men, 753.

el-þedig, adj., of another people: foreign: acc. pl. el-þedige men, 336.

ende, st. m., the extreme: hence, 1) end: nom. sg. aldres (lfes) ende, 823, 2845; ð þt ende becwom (scil. unrihtes), 1255; acc. sg. ende lfgesceafta (lfes, ln-daga), 3064, 1387, 2343; hfde eorðscrafa ende genyttod, had used the end of the earth-caves (had made use of the caves for the last time), 3047; dat. sg. ealdres (lfes) t ende, 2791, 2824; eoletes t ende, 224.—2) boundary: acc. sg. sde rce þt he his selfa ne mg ... ende geþencean, the wide realm, so that he himself cannot comprehend its boundaries, 1735.—3) summit, head: dat. sg. eorlum on ende, to the nobles at the end (the highest courtiers), 2022.—Comp. woruld-ende.

ende-dg, st. m., last day, day of death: nom. sg. 3036; acc. sg. 638.

ende-dgor, st. m., last day, day of death: gen. sg. bega on wnum endedgores and eftcymes letes monnes (hesitating between the belief in the death and in the return of the dear man), 2897.

ende-lf, st. f., last remnant: nom. sg. þu eart ende-lf sses cynnes, art the last of our race, 2814.

ende-len, st. n., final reparation: acc. sg. 1693.

ende-sta, w. m., he who sits on the border, boundary-guard: nom. sg. (here of the strand-watchman), 241.

ende-stf, st. m. (elementum finis), end: acc. sg. hit on endestf eft gelimpeð, then it draws near to the end, 1754.

ge-endian, w. v., to end: pret. part. ge-endod, 2312.

enge, adj., narrow: acc. pl. enge npaðas, narrow paths, 1411.

ent, st. m., giant: gen. pl. enta r-geweorc (the sword-hilt out of the dwelling-place of Grendel), 1680; enta geweorc (the dragon's cave), 2718; eald-enta r-geweorc (the costly things in the dragon's cave), 2775.

entisc, adj., coming from giants: acc. sg. entiscne helm, 2980.

etan, st. v., to eat, to consume: pres. sg. III. bldig wl ... eteð n-genga, he that goes alone (Grendel) will devour the bloody corpse, 448; inf. Getena lede ... etan, 444.

þurh-etan, to eat through: pret. part. pl. nom. swyrd ... þurhetone, swords eaten through (by rust), 3050.

c. See ec.

ce, adj., everlasting; nom. ce drihten (God), 108; acc. sg. ce eorðreced, the everlasting earth-hall (the dragon's cave), 2720; geces cne rd, chose the everlasting gain (died), 1202; dat. sg. cean dryhtne, 1693, 1780, 2331; acc. pl. geces ce rdas, 1761.

dre. See dre.

ð-begte, adj., easy to obtain, ready: nom. sg. þ ws t þam geongum grim andswaru ð-begte, then from the young man (Wglf) it was an easy thing to get a gruff answer, 2862.

ðe. See eðe.

ðel, st. m., hereditary possessions, hereditary estate: acc. sg. swsne ðel, 520; dat. sg. on ðle, 1731.—In royal families the hereditary possession is the whole realm: hence, acc. sg. ðel Scyldinga, of the kingdom of the Scyldings, 914; (Offa) wsdme held ðel snne, ruled with wisdom his inherited kingdom, 1961.

ðel-riht, st. n., hereditary privileges (rights that belong to a hereditary estate): nom. sg. eard ðel-riht, estate and inherited privileges, 2199.

ðel-stl, st. m., hereditary seat, inherited throne: acc. pl. ðel-stlas, 2372.

ðel-turf, st. f., inherited ground, hereditary estate: dat. sg. on mnre ðeltyrf, 410.

ðel-weard, st. m., lord of the hereditary estate (realm): nom. sg. ðelweard (king), 1703, 2211; dat. sg. Est-Dena ðel wearde (King Hrðgr), 617.

ðel-wyn, st. f., joy in, or enjoyment of, hereditary possessions: nom. sg. nu sceal ... eall ðelwyn ewrum cynne, lufen licgean, now shall your race want all home-joy, and subsistence(?) (your race shall be banished from its hereditary abode), 2886; acc. sg. he me lond forgeaf, eard ðelwyn, presented me with land, abode, and the enjoyment of home, 2494.

ð-gesne, ð-gesne, adj., easy to see, visible to all: nom. sg. 1111, 1245.

fstan, w. v., to be in haste, to hasten: inf. uton nu fstan, let us hurry now, 3102; pret. fste mid elne, hastened with heroic strength, 1494.

g-clif, st. n., sea-cliff: acc. sg. ofer g-clif (ecg-clif, MS.), 2894.

g-strem, st. m., sea-stream, sea-flood: dat. pl. on g-stremum, in the sea-floods, 577. See egor-strem.

htan (M.H.G. chten; cf. ht and ge-htla), w. v. w. gen., to be a pursuer, to pursue: pres. part. glca htende ws duguðe and geogoðe, 159; pret. pl. hton aglcan, they pursued the bringer of sorrow (Bewulf)(?), 1513.

st, st. m. f., favor, grace, kindness: acc. sg. he him st geteh meara and mðma (honored him with horses and jewels), 2166; gearwor hfde gendes st r gescewod, would rather have seen the grace of the Lord (of God) sooner, 3076.—dat. pl., adverbial, libenter: him on folce held, stum mid re, 2379; stum gewan (to present), 2150; him ws ... wunden gold stum geewed (presented), 1195; we þt ellenweorc stum miclum fremedon, 959.

ste, adj., gracious: w. gen. ste bearn-gebyrdo, gracious through the birth (of such a son as Bewulf), 946.

EA

eafoð, st. n., power, strength: nom, sg. eafoð and ellen, 603, 903; acc. sg. eafoð and ellen, 2350; we frcne genðdon eafoð uncðes, we have boldly ventured against the strength of the enemy (Grendel) have withstood him, 961; gen. sg. eafoðes crftig, 1467; þt þec dl oððe ecg eafoðes getwfed, shall rob of strength, 1764; acc. pl. eafeðo (MS. earfeðo), 534; dat. pl. hine mihtig god ... eafeðum stpte, made him great through strength, 1718. See Note for l. 534.

eafor, st. m., boar; here the image of the boar as banner: acc. sg. eafor, 2153.

eafora (offspring), w. m.: 1) son: nom. sg. eafera, 12, 898; eafora, 375; acc. sg. eaferan, 1548, 1848; gen. sg. eafera, 19; nom. pl. eaferan, 2476; dat. pl. eaferum, 1069, 2471; uncran eaferan, 1186.—2) in broader sense, successor: dat. pl. eaforum, 1711.

eahta, num., eight: acc. pl. eahta mearas, 1036; eode eahta sum, went as one of eight, with seven others, 3124.

eahtian, w. v.: 1) to consider; to deliberate: pret. pl. w. acc. rd eahtedon, consulted about help, 172; pret. sg. (for the plural) þone slestan þra þe mid Hrðgre hm eahtode, the best one of those who with Hrðgr deliberated about their home (ruled), 1408.—2) to speak with reflection of (along with the idea of praise): pret. pl. eahtodan eorlscipe, spoke of his noble character, 3175.

eal, eall, adj., all, whole: nom. sg. werod eall, 652; pl. eal bencþelu, 486; sg. eall ðelwyn, 2886; eal worold, 1739, etc.; þt hit wearð eal gearo, healrna mst, 77; þt hit (wgbil) eal gemealt, 1609. And with a following genitive: þr ws eal geador Grendles grpe, there was all together Grendel's hand, the whole hand of Grendel, 836; eall ... lissa, all favor, 2150; ws eall sceacen dgorgermes, 2728. With apposition: þhte him eall t rm, wongas and wcstede, 2462; acc. sg. bet eal, 523; similarly, 2018, 2081; oncððe ealle, all distress, 831; heals ealne, 2692; hlw ... ealne tan-weardne, 2298; gif he þt eal gemon, 1186, 2428; þt eall geondseh, recedes geatwa, 3089; ealne wde-ferhð, through the whole wide life, through all time, 1223; instr. sg. ealle mgene, with all strength, 2668; dat. sg. eallum ... manna cynne, 914; gen. sg. ealles moncynnes, 1956. Subst. ic þs ealles mg ... gefen habban, 2740; brc ealles well, 2163; fren ealles þanc secge, give thanks to the Lord of all, 2795; nom. pl. untydras ealle, 111; scetend ... ealle, 706; we ealle, 942; acc. pl. fend ealle, 700; similarly, 1081, 1797, 2815; subst. ofer ealle, 650; ealle hie deð fornam, 2237; lg ealle forswealg þra þe þr gð fornam, all of those whom the war had snatched away, 1123; dat. pl. eallum ceaster-bendum, 768; similarly, 824, 907, 1418; subst. na wið eallum, one against all, 145; with gen. eallum gumena cynnes, 1058; gen. pl. ðelinga bearn ealra twelfa, the kinsmen of all twelve nobles (twelve nobles hold the highest positions of the court), 3172; subst. he h ealra geweald, has power over all, 1728.

Uninflected: bil eal þurhwd flschoman, the battle-axe cleft the body through and through, 1568; hfde ... eal gefeormod ft and folma, had devoured entirely feet and hands, 745; se þe eall geman gr-cwealm gumena, who remembers thoroughly the death of the men by the spear, 2043, etc.

Adverbial: þeh ic eal mge, although I am entirely able, 681; h on beorg dydon bg and siglu eall swylce hyrsta, they placed in the grave-mound rings, and ornaments, all such adornments, 3165.—The gen. sg. ealles, adverbial in the sense of entirely, 1001, 1130.

eald, adj., old: a) of the age of living beings: nom. sg. eald, 357, 1703, 2211, etc.; dat. sg. ealdum, 2973; gen. sg. ealdes uhtflogan (dragon), 2761; dat. sg. ealdum, 1875; geongum and ealdum, 72.—b) of things and of institutions: nom. sg. helm monig eald and mig, 2764; acc. sg. ealde lfe (sword), 796, 1489; ealde wsan, 1866; eald sweord, 1559, 1664, etc.; eald gewin, old (lasting years), distress, 1782; eald enta geweorc (the precious things in the drake's cave), 2775; acc. pl. ealde mðmas, 472; ofer ealde riht, against the old laws (namely, the Ten Commandments; Bewulf believes that God has sent him the drake as a punishment, because he has unconsciously, at some time, violated one of the commandments), 2331.

yldra, compar. older: mn yldra mg, 468; yldra brðor, 1325; ð þt he (Heardrd) yldra wearð, 2379.

yldesta, superl. oldest, in the usual sense; dat. sg. þam yldestan, 2436; in a moral sense, the most respected: nom. sg. se yldesta, 258; acc. sg. þone yldestan, 363, both times of Bewulf.

eald-fder, st. m., old-father, grandfather, ancestor: nom. sg. 373.

eald-gesegen, st. f., traditions from old times: gen. pl. eal-fela eald-gesegena, very many of the old traditions, 870.

eald-gesð, st. m., companion ever since old times, courtier for many years: nom. pl. eald-gesðas, 854.

eald-gestren, st. n., treasure out of the old times: dat. pl. eald-gestrenum, 1382; gen. pl. -gestrena, 1459.

eald-gewinna, w. m., old-enemy, enemy for many years: nom. sg. of Grendel, 1777.

eald-gewyrht, st. n., merit on account of services rendered during many years: nom. pl. þt nron eald-gewyrht, þt he na scyle gnorn þrowian, that has not been his desert ever since long ago, that he should bear the distress alone, 2658.

eald-hlford, st. m., lord through many years: gen. sg. bill eald-hlfordes (of the old Bewulf(?)), 2779.

eald-metod, st. m., God ruling ever since ancient times: nom. sg. 946.

ealdor, aldor, st. m., lord, chief (king or powerful noble): nom. sg. ealdor, 1645, 1849, 2921; aldor, 56, 369, 392; acc. sg. aldor, 669; dat. sg. ealdre, 593; aldre, 346.

ealdor, aldor, st. n., life: acc. sg. aldor, 1372; dat. sg. aldre, 1448, 1525; ealdre, 2600; him on aldre std herestrl hearda (in vitalibus), 1435; nalles for ealdre mearn, was not troubled about his life, 1443; of ealdre gewt, went out of life, died, 2625; as instr. aldre, 662, 681, etc.; ealdre, 1656, 2134, etc.; gen. sg. aldres, 823; ealdres, 2791, 2444; aldres orwna, despairing of life, 1003, 1566; ealdres scyldig, having forfeited life, 1339, 2062; dat. pl. aldrum nðdon, 510, 538.—Phrases: on aldre (in life), ever, 1780; t aldre (for life), always, 2006, 2499; wa t aldre, for ever and ever, 956.

ealdor-bealu, st. n., life's evil: acc. sg. þu ... ondrdan ne þearft ... aldorbealu eorlum, thou needest not fear death for the courtiers, 1677.

ealdor-cearu, st. f., trouble that endangers life, great trouble: dat. sg. he his ledum wearð ... t aldor-ceare, 907.

ealdor-dagas, st. m. pl., days of one's life: dat. pl. nfre on aldor-dagum (never in his life), 719; on ealder-dagum r (in former days), 758.

ealdor-gedl, st. n., severing of life, death, end: nom. sg. aldor-gedl, 806.

ealdor-gewinna, w. m., life-enemy, one who strives to take his enemy's life (in N.H.G. the contrary conception, Tod-feind): nom. sg. ealdorgewinna (the dragon), 2904.

ealdor-les, adj., without a ruler(?): nom. pl. aldor-lese, 15.

ealdor-les, adj., lifeless, dead: acc. sg. aldor-lesne, 1588; ealdor-lesne, 3004.

ealdor-þegn, st. m., nobleman at the court, distinguished courtier: acc. sg. aldor-þegn (Hrðgr's confidential adviser, schere), 1309.

eal-fela, adj., very much: with following gen., eal-fela eald-gesegena, very many old traditions, 870; eal-fela eotena cynnes, 884.

ealgian, w. v., to shield, to defend, to protect: inf. w. acc. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; pret. siððan he (Hygelc) under segne sinc eal-gode, wlref werede, while under his banner he protected the treasures, defended the spoil of battle (i.e. while he was upon the Viking expeditions), 1205.

eal-gylden, adj., all golden, entirely of gold: nom. sg. swn ealgylden, 1112; acc. sg. segn eallgylden, 2768.

eal-renne, adj., entirely of iron: acc. sg. eall-renne wgbord, a wholly iron battle-shield, 2339.

ealu, st. n., ale, beer: acc. sg. ealo drincende, 1946.

ealu-benc, st. f., ale-bench, bench for those drinking ale: dat. sg. in ealo-bence, 1030; on ealu-bence, 2868.

ealu-scerwen, st. f., terror, under the figure of a mishap at an ale-drinking, probably the sudden taking away of the ale: nom. sg. Denum eallum wearð ... ealuscerwen, 770.

ealu-wge, st. n., ale-can, portable vessel out of which ale is poured into the cups: acc. sg. 2022; hroden ealowge, 495; dat. sg. ofer ealowge (at the ale-carouse), 481.

eal-wealda, w. adj., all ruling (God): nom. sg. fder alwalda, 316; alwalda, 956, 1315; dat. sg. al-wealdan, 929.

eard, st. m., cultivated ground, estate, hereditary estate; in a broader sense, ground in general, abode, place of sojourn: nom. sg. him ws bm ... lond gecynde, eard ðel-riht, the land was bequeathed to them both, the land and the privileges attached to it. 2199; acc. sg. ffel-cynnes eard, the ground of the giant race, place of sojourn, 104; similarly, lwihta eard, 1501; eard gemunde, thought of his native ground, his home, 1130; eard git ne const, thou knowest not yet the place of sojourn. 1378; eard and eorlscipe, prdium et nobilitatem, 1728; eard ðelwyn, land and the enjoyment of home, 2494; dat. sg. ellor hwearf of earde, went elsewhere from his place of abode, i.e. died, 56; þt we rondas beren eft t earde, that we go again to our homes, 2655; on earde, 2737; nom. pl. ecne eardas, the broad expanses (in the fen-sea where Grendel's home was), 1622.

eardian, w. v.: 1) to have a dwelling-place, to live; to rest: pret. pl. dre swyrd sw hie wið eorðan fðm þr eardodon, costly swords, as they had rested in the earth's bosom, 3051.—2) also transitively, to inhabit: pret. sg. Heorot eardode, 166; inf. wc eardian elles hwergen, inhabit a place elsewhere (i.e. die), 2590.

eard-lufa, w. m., the living upon one's land, home-life: acc. sg. eard-lufan, 693.

earfoð-lce, adv., with trouble, with difficulty, 1637, 1658; with vexation, angrily, 86; sorrowfully, 2823; with difficulty, scarcely, 2304, 2935.

earfoð-þrag, st. f., time full of troubles, sorrowful time: acc. sg. -þrage, 283.

earh, adj., cowardly: gen. sg. ne bið swylc earges sð (no coward undertaken that), 2542.

earm, st. m., arm: acc. sg. earm, 836, 973; wið earm gest, supported himself with his arm, 750; dat. pl. earmum, 513.

earm, adj., poor, miserable, unhappy: nom. sg. earm, 2369; earme ides, the unhappy woman, 1118; dat. sg. earmre teohhe, the unhappy band, 2939.—Comp. acc. sg. earmran mannan, a more wretched, more forsaken man, 577.

earm-beg, st. m., arm-ring, bracelet: gen. pl. earm-bega fela searwum gesled, many arm-rings interlaced, 2764.

earm-hred, st. f., arm-ornament. nom. pl. earm-hrede tw, 1195 (Grein's conjecture, MS. earm reade).

earm-lc, adj., wretched, miserable: nom. sg. sceolde his ealdor-gedl earmlc wurðan, his end should be wretched, 808.

earm-sceapen, pret. part. as adj. (properly, wretched by the decree of fate), wretched: nom. sg. 1352.

earn, st. m., eagle: dat. sg. earne, 3027.

eatol. See atol.

eaxl, st. f., shoulder: acc. sg. eaxle, 836, 973; dat. sg. on eaxle, 817, 1548; be eaxle, 1538; on eaxle ides gnornode, the woman sobbed on the shoulder (of her son, who has fallen and is being burnt), 1118; dat. pl. st fren eaxlum neh, sat near the shoulders of his lord (Bewulf lies lifeless upon the earth, and Wglf sits by his side, near his shoulder, so as to sprinkle the face of his dead lord), 2854; he for eaxlum gestd Deniga fren, he stood before the shoulders of the lord of the Danes (i.e. not directly before him, but somewhat to the side, as etiquette demanded), 358.

eaxl-gestealla, w. m., he who has his position at the shoulder (sc. of his lord), trusty courtier, counsellor of a prince: nom. sg. 1327; acc. pl. -gesteallan, 1715.

E

ec, conj., also: 97, 388, 433, etc.; c, 3132.

ecen (pret. part. of a not existing eacan, augere), adj., wide-spread, large: nom. pl. ecne eardas, broad plains, 1622.—great, heavy: eald sweord ecen, 1664; dat. pl. ecnum ecgum, 2141, both times of the great sword in Grendel's habitation.—great, mighty, powerful: ðele and ecen, of Bewulf, 198.

ecen-crftig, adj., immense (of riches), enormously great: acc. sg. hord-rna sum ecen-crftig, that enormous treasure-house, 2281; nom. sg. þt yrfe ecen-crftig, imonna gold, 3052.

edig, adj., blessed with possessions, rich, happy by reason of property: nom. sg. wes, þenden þu lifige, ðeling edig, be, as long as thou livest, a prince blessed with riches, 1226; edig mon, 2471.—Comp. sige-, sigor-, tr-edig.

edig-lce, adv., in abundance, in joyous plenty: dremum lifdon ediglce, lived in rejoicing and plenty, 100.

eðe, ðe, ðe, adj., easy, pleasant: nom. pl. gode þancedon þs þe him ð-lde eðe wurdon, thanked God that the sea-ways (the navigation) had become easy to them, 228; ne ws þt ðe sð, no pleasant way, 2587; ns þt ðe cep, no easy purchase, 2416; n þt ðe byð t beflenne, not easy (as milder expression for in no way, not at all), 1003.

eðe, ðe, adv., easily. eðe, 478, 2292, 2765.

eð-fynde, adj., easy to find: nom. sg. 138.

ege, w. n., eye: dat. pl. him of egum std leht unfger, out of his eyes came a terrible gleam, 727; þt ic ... egum starige, see with eyes, behold, 1782; similarly, 1936; gen. pl. egena bearhtm, 1767.

egor-strem, st. m., sea-stream sea: acc. sg. 513.

e-land, st. n., land surrounded by water (of the land of the Getas): acc. sg. e-lond, 2335; island.

em, st. m., uncle, mothers brother: nom. sg. 882.

estan, adv., from the east, 569.

ewan, w. v., to disclose, to show, to prove: pres. sg. III. eweð ... uncðne nð, shows evil enmity, 276. See ewan, wan.

ge-ewan, to show, to offer: pret. part. him ws ... wunden gold stum ge-ewed, was graciously presented, 1195.

EO

eode. See gangan.

eodor, st. m., fence, hedge, railing. Among the old Germans, an estate was separated by a fence from the property of others. Inside of this fence the laws of peace and protection held good, as well as in the house itself. Hence eodor is sometimes used instead of house: acc. pl. hht eahta mearas on flet ten, in under eoderas, gave orders to lead eight steeds into the hall, into the house, 1038.—2) figuratively, lord, prince, as protector: nom. sg. eodor, 428, 1045; eodur, 664.

eofoð, st. n., strength: acc. pl. eofoðo, 2535. See eafoð.

eofer, st. m.: 1) boar, here of the metal boar-image upon the helmet: nom. sg. eofer renheard, 1113.—2) figuratively, bold hero, brave fighter (O.N. ifur): nom. pl. þonne ... eoferas cnysedan, when the heroes rushed upon each other, 1329, where eoferas and fðan stand in the same relation to each other as cnysedan and hniton.

eofor-lc, st. n. boar-image (on the helmet): nom. pl. eofor-lc scionon, 303.

eofor-spret, st. m., boar-spear: dat. pl. mid eofer-spretum hero-hcyhtum, with hunting-spears which were provided with sharp hooks, 1438.

eoguð, ioguð. See geogoð.

eolet, st. m. n., sea(?): gen. sg. eoletes, 224.

eorclan-stn, st. m., precious stone: acc. pl. -stnas, 1209.

eorð-cyning, st. m., king of the land: gen. sg. eorð-cyninges (Finn), 1156.

eorð-draca, w. m., earth-drake, dragon that lives in the earth: nom. sg. 2713, 2826.

eorðe, w. f.: 1) earth (in contrast with heaven), world: acc. sg. lmihtiga eorðan worhte, 92; wde geond eorðan, far over the earth, through the wide world, 266; dat. sg. ofer eorðan, 248, 803; on eorðan, 1823, 2856, 3139; gen. sg. eorðan, 753.—2) earth, ground: acc. sg. he eorðan gefell, fell to the ground, 2835; forlton eorla gestren eorðan healdan, let the earth hold the nobles' treasure, 3168; dat. sg. þt hit on eorðan lg, 1533; under eorðan, 2416; gen. sg. wið eorðan fðm (in the bosom of the earth), 3050.

eorð-reced, st. n., hall in the earth, rock-hall: acc. sg. 2720.

eorð-scrf, st. n., earth-cavern, cave: dat. sg. eorð-[scrfe], 2233; gen. pl. eorð-scrfe, 3047.

eorð-sele, st. m., hall in the earth, cave: acc. sg. eorð-sele, 2411; dat sg. of eorðsele, 2516.

eorð-weall, st. m., earth-wall: acc. sg. (Ongenþew) beh eft under eorðweall, fled again under the earth-wall (into his fortified camp), 2958; þ me ws ... sð lfed inn under eorðweall, then the way in, under the earth-wall was opened to me (into the dragon's cave), 3091.

eorð-weard, st. m., land-property, estate: acc. sg. 2335.

eorl, st. m., noble born man, a man of the high nobility: nom. sg. 762, 796, 1229, etc.; acc. sg. eorl, 573, 628, 2696; gen. sg. eorles, 690, 983, 1758, etc.; acc. pl. eorlas, 2817; dat. pl. eorlum, 770, 1282, 1650, etc.; gen. pl. eorla, 248, 357, 369, etc.—Since the king himself is from the stock of the eorlas, he is also called eorl, 6, 2952.

eorl-gestren, st. n., wealth of the nobles: gen. pl. eorl-gestrena ... hardfyrdne dl, 2245.

eorl-gewde, st. n., knightly dress, armor: dat. pl. -gewdum, 1443.

eorlc (i.e. eorl-lc), adj., what it becomes a noble born man to do, chivalrous: acc. sg. eorlc ellen, 638.

eorl-scipe, st. m., condition of being noble born, chivalrous nature, nobility: acc. sg. eorl-scipe, 1728, 3175; eorl-scipe efnan, to do chivalrous deeds, 2134, 2536, 2623, 3008.

eorl-weorod, st. n., followers of nobles: nom. sg. 2894.

eormen-cyn, st. n., very extensive race, mankind: gen. sg. eormen-cynnes, 1958.

eormen-grund, st. m., immensely wide plains, the whole broad earth: acc. sg. ofer eormen-grund, 860.

eormen-lf, st. f., enormous legacy: acc. sg. eormen-lfe ðelan cynnes (the treasures of the dragon's cave) 2235.

eorre, adj., angry, enraged: gen. sg. eorres, 1448.

eoton, st. m.: 1) giant: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel), 762; dat. sg. uninflected, eoton (Grendel), 669; nom. pl. eotenas, 112.—2) Eotens, subjects of Finn, the N. Frisians: 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. pl. 1146. See List of Names, p. 114.

eotonisc, adj., gigantic, coming from giants: acc. sg. eald sweord eotenisc (eotonisc), 1559, 2980, (etonisc, MS.) 2617.

E

ered-geatwe, st. f. pl., warlike adornments: acc. pl., 2867.

ewan, w. v., to show, to be seen: pres. sg. III. ne gesacu hwr, ecghete eweð, nowhere shows itself strife, sword-hate, 1739. See ewan, wan.

ewer: 1) gen. pl. pers. pron., vestrum: ewer sum, that one of you (namely, Bewulf), 248; fhðe ewer lede, the enmity of the people of you (of your people), 597; nis þt ewer sð ... nefne mn nes, 2533.—2) poss. pron., your, 251, 257, 294, etc.

F

ge-fandian, -fondian, w. v., to try, to search for, to find out, to experience: w. gen. pret. part. þt hfde gumena sum goldes gefandod, that a man had discovered the gold, 2302; þonne se n hafað þurh deðes nd dda gefondad, now the one (Herebeald) has with death's pang experienced the deeds (the unhappy bow-shot of Hðcyn), 2455.

fara, w. m., farer, traveller: in comp. mere-fara.

faran, st. v., to move from one place to another, to go, to wander: inf. t hm faran, to go home, 124; lton on geflt faran fealwe mearas, let the fallow horses go in emulation, 865; cwom faran flotherge on Fresna land, had come to Friesland with a fleet, 2916; com leda dugoðe on lst faran, came to go upon the track of the heroes of his people, i.e. to follow them, 2946; gerund wron ðelingas eft t ledum fse t farenne, the nobles were ready to go again to their people, 1806; pret. sg. gegnum fr [þ] ofer myrcan mr, there had (Grendel's mother) gone away over the dark fen, 1405; sgenga fr, the seafarer (the ship) drove along, 1909; (wyrm) mid ble fr, (the dragon) fled away with fire, 2309; pret. pl. þt ... scawan scrhame t scipe fron, that the visitors in glittering attire betook themselves to the ship, 1896.

gefaran, to proceed, to act: inf. h se mnsceaða under frgripum gefaran wolde, how he would act in his sudden attacks, 739.

t faran, to go out: w. acc. lt of brestum ... word t faran, let words go out of his breast, uttered words, 2552.

faroð, st. m., stream, flood of the sea: dat. sg. t brimes faroðe, 28; fter faroðe, with the stream, 580; t faroðe, 1917.

faru, st. f., way, passage, expedition: in comp. d-faru.

fcen-stf (elementum nequitiae), st. m., wickedness, treachery, deceit. acc. pl. fcen-stafas, 1019.

fh, fg, adj., many-colored, variegated, of varying color (especially said of the color of gold, of bronze, and of blood, in which the beams of light are refracted): nom. sg. fh (covered with blood), 420; blde fh, 935; tertnum fh (sc. ren) [This is the MS reading; emmended to terterum in text--KTH], 1460; sadol searwum fh (saddle artistically ornamented with gold), 1039; sweord swte fh, 1287; brim blde fh, 1595; wldrere fg, 1632; (draca) frwylmum fh (because he spewed flame), 2672; sweord fh and fted, 2702; blde fh, 2975; acc. sg. drere fhne, 447; goldsele fttum fhne, 717; on fgne flr treddode, trod the shining floor (of Heorot), 726; hrf golde fhne, the roof shining with gold, 928; nom. pl. eoforlc ... fh and fr-beard, 305; acc. pl. þ hilt since fge, 1616; dat. pl. fgum sweordum, 586.—Comp. bn-, bld-, brn-, drer-, gold-, gryre-, searo-, sinc-, stn-, swt-, wl-, wyrm-fh.

fh, fg, f, adj.: 1) hostile: nom. sg. fh fend-scaða, 554; he ws fg wið god (Grendel), 812; acc. sg. fne (the dragon), 2656; gen. pl. fra, 578, 1464.—2) liable to pursuit, without peace, outlawed: nom. sg. fg, 1264; mne fh, outlawed through crime, 979; fyren-ddum fg, 1002.—Comp. nearo-fh.

fmig-heals, adj., with foaming neck: nom. sg. flota fmig-heals, 218; (sgenga) fmig-heals, 1910.

fc, st. n., period of time: acc. sg. lytel fc, during a short time, 2241.

fder, st. m., father: nom. sg. fder, 55, 262, 459, 2609; of God, 1610; fder alwalda, 316; acc. sg. fder, 1356; dat. sg. fder, 2430; gen. sg. fder, 21, 1480; of God, 188—Comp.: r, eald-fder.

fdera, w. m., father's brother in comp. suhter-gefderan.

fder-ðelo, st. n. pl., paternus principatus (?): dat. pl. fder-ðelum, 912.

fderen-mg, st. m., kinsman descended from the same father, co-descendant: dat. sg. fderen-mge, 1264.

fðm, st. m.: 1) the outspread, encircling arms: instr. pl. fendes fð[mum], 2129.—2) embrace, encircling: nom. sg. lges fðm, 782; acc. sg. in fres fðm, 185.—3) bosom, lap: acc. sg. on foldan fðm, 1394; wið eorðan fðm, 3050; dat. pl. t fder (God's) fðmum, 188.—4) power, property: acc. in Francna fðm, 1211.—Cf. sd-fðmed, sð-fðme.

fðmian, w. v., to embrace, to take up into itself: pres. subj. þt minne lchaman ... gld fðmie, 2653; inf. lton fld fðmian frtwa hyrde, 3134.

ge-fg, adj., agreeable, desirable (Old Eng., fawe, willingly): comp. ge-fgra, 916.

fgen, adj., glad, joyous: nom. pl. ferhðum fgne, the glad at heart, 1634.

fger, adj., beautiful, lovely: nom. sg. fger fold-bold, 774; fger foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. freoðoburh fgere, 522; nom. pl. þr him fold-wegas fgere þhton, 867.—Comp. un-fger.

fgere, fgre, adv., beautifully, well, becomingly, according to etiquette: fgere geþgon medoful manig, 1015; þ ws flet-sittendum fgere gereorded, becomingly the repast was served, 1789; Higelc ongan ... fgre fricgean, 1986; similarly, 2990.

fr, st. n., craft, ship: nom. sg., 33.

fst, adj., bound, fast: nom. sg. bið se slp t fst, 1743; acc. sg. frendscipe fstne, 2070; fste frioðuwre, 1097.—The prep. on stands to denote the where or wherein: ws t fst on þm (sc. on fhðe and fyrene), 137; on ancre fst, 303. Or, oftener, the dative: fend-grpum fst, (held) fast in his antagonist's clutch, 637; frbendum fst, fast in the forged hinges, 723; handa fst, 1291, etc.; hygebendum fst (beorn him langað), fast (shut) in the bonds of his bosom, the man longs for (i.e. in secret), 1879.—Comp: r-, bld-, gin-, sð-, tr-, ws-fst.

fste, adv., fst 554, 761, 774, 789, 1296.—Comp. fstor, 143.

be-fstan, w. v., to give over: inf. ht Hildeburh hire selfre sunu sweoloðe befstan, to give over to the flames her own son, 1116.

fsten, st. n., fortified place, or place difficult of access: acc. sg. leda fsten, the fastness of the Getas (with ref. to 2327, 2334; fsten (Ongenþew's castle or fort), 2951; fsten (Grendel's house in the fen-sea), 104.

fst-rd, adj., firmly resolved: acc. sg. fst-rdne geþht, firm determination, 611.

ft, st. m., way, journey: in comp. sð-ft.

ft, st. n., vessel; vase, cup: acc. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, the (drinking-) vessels of men of old times, 2762.—Comp.: bn-, drync-, mððum-, sinc-, wundor-ft.

ft, st. n. (?), plate, sheet of metal, especially gold plate (Dietrich Hpt. Ztschr. XI. 420): dat. pl. gold sele ... fttum fhne, shining with gold plates (the walls and the inner part of the roof were partly covered with gold), 717; sceal se hearda helm hyrsted golde ftum befeallen (sc. wesan), the gold ornaments shall fall away from it, 2257.

fted, ftt, part., ornamented with gold beaten into plate-form: gen. sg. fttan goldes, 1094, 2247; instr. sg. fttan golde, 2103. Elsewhere, covered, ornamented with gold plate: nom. sg. sweord ... fted, 2702; acc. sg. fted wge, 2254, 2283; acc. pl. ftte scyldas, 333; ftte begas, 1751. [fted, etc.]

fted-hler, adj., phaleratus gena (Dietr.): acc. pl. eahta mearas fted-hlere (eight horses with bridles covered with plates of gold), 1037.

ft-gold, st. n., gold in sheets or plates: acc. sg., 1922.

fge, adj.: 1) forfeited to death, allotted to death by fate: nom. sg. fge, 1756, 2142, 2976; fge and ge-flmed, 847; fs and fge, 1242; acc. sg. fgne flsc-homan, 1569; dat. sg. fgum, 2078; gen. sg. fges, 1528.—2) dead: dat. pl. ofer fgum (over the warriors fallen in the battle), 3026.—Comp.: deð-, un-fge.

fhð (state of hostility, see fh), st. f., hostile act, feud, battle: nom. sg. fhð, 2404, 3062; acc. sg. fhðe, 153, 459, 470, 596, 1334, etc.; also of the unhappy bowshot of the Hrðling, Hðcyn, by which he killed his brother, 2466; dat. sg. fore fhðe and fyrene, 137; nalas for fhðe mearn (did not recoil from the combat), 1538; gen. sg, ne gefeah he þre fhðe, 109; gen. pl. fhða gemyndig, 2690.—Comp. wl-fhð.

fhðo, st. f., same as above: nom. sg. si fhðo, 3000; acc. fhðo, 2490.

flsian, w. v., to bring into a good condition, to cleanse: inf. þt ic mte ... Heorot flsian (from the plague of Grendel), 432; pret. Hrðgres ... sele flsode, 2353.

ge-flsian, w. v., same as above: pret. part. hfde geflsod ... sele Hrðgres, 826; Heorot is geflsod, 1177; wron ð-gebland eal geflsod, 1621.

fmne, w. f., virgin, recens nupta: dat. sg. fmnan, 2035; gen. sg. fmnan, 2060, both times of Hrðgr's daughter Freware.

fr, st. m., sudden, unexpected attack: nom. sg. (attack upon Hnf's band by Finn's), 1069, 2231.

fr-gripe, st. m., sudden, treacherous gripe, attack: nom. sg. fr-gripe fldes, 1517; dat. pl. under frgripum, 739.

fr-gryre, st. m., fright caused by a sudden attack: dat. pl. wið fr-gryrum (against the inroads of Grendel into Heorot), 174.

fringa, adv., suddenly, unexpectedly, 1415, 1989.

fr-nð, st. m., hostility with sudden attacks: gen. pl. hwt me Grendel hafað ... frnða gefremed, 476.

feðer-gearwe, st. f. pl. (feather-equipment), the feathers of the shaft of the arrow: dat. (instr.) pl. sceft feðer-gearwum fs, 3120.

fel, st. n., skin, hide: dat. pl. glf ... gegyrwed dracan fellum, made of the skins of dragons, 2089.

fela, I., adj. indecl., much, many: as subst.: acc. sg. fela fricgende, 2107. With worn placed before: hwt þu worn fela ... ymb Brecan sprce, how very much you spoke about Breca, 530.—With gen. sg.: acc. sg. fela fyrene, 810; wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426; worna fela sorge, 2004; t fela micles ... Denigea lede, too much of the race of the Danes, 695; uncðes fela, 877; fela lðes, 930; fela lefes and lðes, 1061.—With gen. pl.: nom. sg. fela mdma, 36; fela þra wera and wfa, 993, etc.; acc. sg. fela missera, 153; fela fyrena, 164; ofer landa fela, 311; mððum-sigla fela (falo, MS.), 2758; ne me swr fela ða on unriht, swore no false oaths, 2739, etc.; worn fela mðma, 1784; worna fela gða, 2543.—Comp. eal-fela.

II., adverbial, very, 1386, 2103, 2951.

fela-hrr, adj., valde agitatus, very active against the enemy, very warlike, 27.

fela-mdig, adj., very courageous: gen. pl. -mdigra, 1638, 1889.

fela-synnig, adj., very criminal, very guilty: acc. sg. fela-sinnigne secg (in MS., on account of the alliteration, changed to simple sinnigne), 1380.

felan, st. v., to betake one's self into a place, to conceal one's self: pret. siððan inne fealh Grendles mdor (in Heorot), 1282; þr inne fealh secg syn-bysig (in the dragon's cave), 2227.—to fall into, undergo, endure: searonðas fealh, 1201.

t-felan, w. dat., insistere, adhrere: pret. n ic him þs georne tfealh (held him not fast enough, 969.

fen, st. n., fen, moor: acc. sg. fen, 104; dat. sg. t fenne, 1296; fenne, 2010.

fen-freoðo, st. f., refuge in the fen: dat. sg. in fen-freoðo, 852.

feng, st. m., gripe, embrace: nom. sg. fres feng, 1765; acc. sg. fra feng (of the hostile sea-monsters), 578.—Comp. inwit-feng.

fengel (probably he who takes possession, cf. t fn, 1756, and fn t rce, to enter upon the government), st. m., lord, prince, king: nom. sg. wsa fengel, 1401; snottra fengel, 1476, 2157; hringa fengel, 2346.

fen-ge-ld, st. n., fen-paths, fen with paths: acc. pl. frcne fengeld (fens difficult of access), 1360.

fen-hlið, st. n., marshy precipice: acc. pl. under fen-hleoðu, 821.

fen-hop, st. n., refuge in the fen: acc. pl. on fen-hopu, 765.

ferh, st. m. n., life; see feorh.

ferh, st. m., hog, boar, here of the boar-image on the helmet: nom. sg., 305.

ferhð, st. m., heart, soul: dat. sg. on ferhðe, 755, 949, 1719; gehwylc hiora his ferhðe trewde, þt ..., each of them trusted to his (Hnferð's) heart, that ..., 1167; gen. sg. ferhðes fore-þanc, 1061; dat. pl. (adverbial) ferhðum fgne, happy at heart, 1634; þt mon ... ferhðum frege, that one ... heartily love, 3178.—Comp.: collen-, sarig-, swift-, wide-ferhð.

ferhð-frec, adj., having good courage, bold, brave: acc. sg. ferhð-frecan Fin, 1147.

ferhð-genðla, w. m., mortal enemy: acc. sg. ferhð-genðlan, of the drake, 2882.

ferian, w. v. w. acc., to bear, to bring, to conduct: pres. II. pl. hwanon ferigeað ftte scyldas, 333; pret. pl. t scypum feredon eal ingesteald eorðcyninges, 1155; similarly, feredon, 1159, 3114.

t-ferian, to carry away, to bear off: pret. ic þt hilt þanan fendum tferede, 1669.

ge-ferian, bear, to bring, to lead: pres. subj. I. pl. þonne (we) geferian fren serne, 3108; inf. geferian ... Grendles hefod, 1639; pret. þt hi t geferedon dre mðmas, 3131; pret. part. her syndon geferede feorran cumene ... Geta lede, men of the Getas, come from afar, have been brought hither (by ship), 361.

ð-ferian, to tear away, to take away: pret. sg. I. unsfte þonan feorh ð-ferede, 2142.

of-ferian, to carry off, to take away, to tear away: pret. ðer swylc t offerede, took away another such (sc. fifteen), 1584.

fetel-hilt, st. n., sword-hilt, with the gold chains fastened to it: acc. (sg. or pl.?), 1564. (See "Leitfaden f. nord. Altertumskunde," pp.45, 46.)

fetian, w. v., to bring near, bring: pres. subj. nh hw ... fe[tige] fted wge, bring the gold-chased tankard, 2254; pret. part. hraðe ws t bre Bewulf fetod, 1311.

ge-fetian, to bring: inf. ht þ eorla hle in gefetian Hrðles lfe, caused Hrðel's sword to be brought, 2191.

-fdan, w. v., to nourish, to bring up: pret. part. þr he fded ws, 694.

fða (O.H.G. fendo), w. m.: 1) foot-soldiers: nom. pl. fðan, 1328, 2545.—2) collective in sing., band of foot-soldiers, troop of warriors: nom. fða eal gest, 1425; dat. on fðan, 2498, 2920.—Comp. gum-fða.

fðe, st. n., gait, going, pace: dat. sg. ws t foremihtig fend on fðe, the enemy was too strong in going (i.e. could flee too fast), 971.

fðe-cempa, w. m., foot-soldier: nom. sg., 1545, 2854.

fðe-gst, st. m., guest coming on foot: dat. pl. fðe-gestum, 1977.

fðe-lst, st. m., signs of going, footprint: dat. pl. frdon forð þonon fðe-lstum, went forth from there upon their trail, i.e. by the same way that they had gone, 1633.

fðe-wg, st. m., battle on foot: gen. sg. nealles Hetware hrmge þorfton (sc. wesan) fðe-wges, 2365.

fl (= fel), st. f. file: gen. pl. fla lfe, what the files have left behind (that is, the swords), 1033.

fran, w. v., iter (A.S. fr) facere, to come, to go, to travel: pres. subj. II. pl. r ge ... on land Dena furður fran, ere you go farther into the land of the Danes, 254; inf. fran on fren wre (to die), 27; gewiton him þ fran (set out upon their way), 301; ml is me t fran, 316; fran ... gang scewigan, go, so as to see the footprints, 1391; wde fran, 2262; pret. frdon folctogan ... wundor scewian, the princes came to see the wonder, 840; frdon forð, 1633.

ge-fran: 1) adire, to arrive at: pres. subj. þonne eorl ende gefre lfgesceafta, reach the end of life, 3064; pret. part. hfde ghwðer ende gefred lnan lfes, frail life's end had both reached, 2845.—2) to reach, to accomplish, to bring about: pret. hafast þu gefred þt ..., 1222, 1856.—3) to behave one's self, to conduct one's self: pret. frcne gefrdon, had shown themselves daring, 1692.

feal, st. m., fall: in comp. wl-feal.

feallan, st. v., to fall, to fall headlong: inf. feallan, 1071; pret. sg. þt he on hrusan ne fel, that it (the hall) did not fall to the ground, 773; similarly, fell on foldan, 2976; fell on fðan (dat. sg.), fell in the band (of his warriors), 2920; pret. pl. þonne walu fellon, 1043.

be-feallen, pret. part. w. dat. or instr., deprived of, robbed: frendum befeallen, robbed of friends, 1127; sceal se hearda helm ... ftum befeallen (sc. wesan), be robbed of its gold mountings (the gold mounting will fall away from it moldering), 2257.

ge-feallan, to fall, to sink down: pres. sg. III. þt se lc-homa ... fge gefealleð, that the body doomed to die sinks down, 1756.—Also, with the acc. of the place whither: pret. meregrund gefell, 2101; he eorðan gefell, 2835.

fealu, adj., fallow, dun-colored, tawny: acc. sg. ofer fealone fld (over the sea), 1951; fealwe strte (with reference to 320, 917; acc. pl. lton on geflt faran fealwe mearas, 866.—Comp. ppel-fealo.

feax, st. n., hair, hair of the head: dat. sg. ws be feaxe on flet boren Grendles hefod, was carried by the hair into the hall, 1648; him ... swt ... sprong forð under fexe, the blood sprang out under the hair of his head, 2968.—Comp.: blonden-, gamol-, wunden-feax.

ge-fe, w. m., joy: acc. sg. þre fylle gefen, joy at the abundant repast, 562; ic þs ealles mg ... gefen habban (can rejoice at all this), 2741.

fe, adj., few dat. pl. nemne feum num, except some few, 1082; gen. pl. fera sum, as one of a few, with a few, 1413; fera sumne, one of a few (some few), 3062. With gen. following: acc. pl. fe worda cwð, spoke few words, 2663, 2247.

fe-sceaft, adj., miserable, unhappy, helpless: nom. sg. syððan rest wearð fesceaft funden, 7; fesceaft guma (Grendel), 974; dat. sg. fesceaftum men, 2286; Edgilse ... fesceaftum, 2394; nom. pl. fesceafte (the Getas robbed of their king, Hygelc), 2374.

feoh, fe, st. n., (properly cattle, herd) here, possessions, property, treasure: instr. sg. ne wolde ... feorh-bealo fe þingian, would not allay life's evil for treasure (tribute), 156; similarly, þ fhðe fe þingode, 470; ic þe þ fhðe fe lenige, 1381.

ge-feohan, ge-fen, st. v. w. gen. and instr., to enjoy one's self, to rejoice at something: a) w. gen.: pret. sg. ne gefeah he þre fhðe, 109; hilde gefeh, beado-weorces, 2299; pl. fylle gefgon, enjoyed themselves at the bounteous repast, 1015; þednes gefgon, rejoiced at (the return of) the ruler, 1628.—b) w. instr.: niht-weorce gefeh, ellen-mrðum, 828; secg weorce gefeh, 1570; slce gefeah, mgen-byrðenne þra þe he him mid hfde, rejoiced at the gift of the sea, and at the great burden of that (Grendel's head and the sword-hilt) which he had with him, 1625.

feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., bestowing of gifts or treasures: gen. sg. þre feoh-gyfte, 1026; dat. pl. t feohgyftum, 1090; fromum feohgiftum, with rich gifts, 21.

feoh-les, adj., that cannot be atoned for through gifts: nom. sg. þt ws feoh-les gefeoht, a deed of arms that cannot be expiated (the killing of his brother by Hðcyn), 2442.

ge-feoht, st. n., combat; warlike deed: nom. sg. (the killing of his brother by Hðcyn), 2442; dat. sg. mce þone þn fader t gefeohte br, the sword which thy father bore to the combat, 2049.

ge-feohtan, st. v., to fight: inf. w. acc. ne mehte ... wg Hengeste wiht gefeohtan (could by no means offer Hengest battle), 1084.

feohte, w. f., combat: acc. sg. feohtan, 576, 960. See were-fyhte.

feor, adj., far, remote: nom. sg. nis þt feor heonon, 1362; ns him feor þanon t gescanne sinces bryttan, 1922; acc. sg. feor eal (all that is far, past), 1702.

feor, adv., far, far away: a) of space, 42, 109, 809, 1806, 1917; feor and (oððe) neh, far and (or) near, 1222, 2871; feorr, 2267.—b) of time: ge feor hafað fhðe gestled (has placed us under her enmity henceforth), 1341.

Comparative, fyr, feorr, and feor: fyr and fstor, 143; fyr, 252; feorr, 1989; feor, 542.

feor-bend, pt., dwelling far away: nom. pl. ge feor-bend, 254.

feor-cð, st. f., home of those living far away, distant land: nom, pl. feor-cððe beð slran geshte þm þe him selfa deh, foreign lands are better sought by him who trusts to his own ability, 1839.

feorh, ferh (Goth. fairhvu-s, world), st. m. and n., life, principle of life, soul: nom. sg. feorh, 2124; n þon lange ws feorh ðelinges flsce bewunden, not for much longer was the soul of the prince enveloped in the body (he was near death), 2425; ferh ellen wrc, life expelled the strength (i.e. with the departing life the strength disappeared also), 2707; acc. sg. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; feorh gehealdan, preserve his life, 2857; feorh legde, gave up his life, 852; similarly, r he feorh seleð, 1371; feorh oðferede, tore away her life, 2142; ð þt hie forlddan t þam lindplegan swse gesðas ond hyra sylfra feorh, till in an evil hour they carried into battle their dear companions and their lives (i.e. led them to their death), 2041; gif þu þn feorh hafast, 1850; ymb feorh sacan (to fight for life), 439; ws in feorh dropen, was wounded into his life, i.e. mortally, 2982; wdan feorh, as temporal acc., through a wide life, i.e. always, 2015; dat. sg. feore, 1294, 1549; t wdan feore, for a wide life, i.e. at all times, 934; on sw geongum feore (at a so youthful age), 1844; as instr., 578, 3014; gen. sg. feores, 1434, 1943; dat. pl. bton ... feorum gumena, 73; frenda feorum, 1307.—Also, body, corpse: þ ws heal hroden fenda feorum (the hall was covered with the slain of the enemy), 1153; gehwearf þ in Francna fðm feorh cyninges, then the body of the king (Hygelc) fell into the power of the Franks, 1211. —Comp. geogoð-feorh.

feorh-bana, w. m., (life-slayer), man-slayer, murderer: dat. sg. feorh-bonan, 2466.

feorh-ben, st. f., wound that takes away life, mortal wound: dat. (instr.) pl. feorh-bennum sec, 2741.

feorh-bealu, st. n., evil destroying life, violent death: nom. sg., 2078, 2251, 2538; acc. sg., 156.

feorh-cyn, st. n., race of the living, mankind: gen. pl. fela feorh-cynna, 2267.

feorh-genðla, w. m., he who seeks life, life's enemy (N.H.G. Tod-feind), mortal enemy: acc. sg. -genðlan, 1541; dat. sg. -genðlan, 970; acc. sg. brgd feorh-genðlan, 1541; acc. pl. folgode feorh-genðlan, (Ongenþew) pursued his mortal enemies, 2934.

feorh-lagu, st. f., the life allotted to anyone, life determined by fate: acc. sg. on mðma hord mine (mnne, MS.) bebohte frde feorh-lege, for the treasure-hoard I sold my old life, 2801.

feorh-lst, st. m., trace of (vanishing) life, sign of death : acc. pl. feorh-lstas br, 847.

feorh-sec, adj., mortally wounded: nom. sg., 821.

feorh-sweng, st. m., (stroke robbing of life), fatal blow: acc. sg., 2490.

feorh-wund, st. f., mortal wound, fatal injury: acc. sg. feorh-wunde hlet, 2386.

feorm, st. f., subsistence, entertainment: acc. sg. n þu ymb mnes ne þearft lces feorme leng sorgian, thou needest no longer have care for the sustenance of my body, 451.—2) banquet: dat. on feorme (or feorme, MS.), 2386.

feormend-les, adj., wanting the. cleanser: acc. pl. geseah ... fyrn-manna fatu feormend-lese, 2762.

feormian, w. v., to clean, to cleanse, to polish: pres. part. nom pl. feormiend swefað (feormynd, MS.), 2257.

ge-feormian, w. v., to feast, to eat; pret. part. sna hfde unlyfigendes eal gefeormod ft and folma, 745.

feorran, w. v., w. acc., to remove: inf. sibbe ne wolde wið manna hwone mgenes Deniga feorh-bealo feorran, fe þingian, (Grendel) would not from friendship free any one of the men of the Danes of life's evil, nor allay it for tribute, 156.

feorran, adv., from afar: a) of space, 361, 430, 826, 1371, 1820, etc.; siððan ðelingas feorran gefricgean flem ewerne, when noble men afar learn of your flight (when the news of your flight reaches distant lands), 2890; frdon folctogan feorran and nen, from far and from near, 840; similarly, nen and feorran þu nu [friðu] hafast, 1175; ws þs wyrmes wg wde gesne ... nen and feorran, visible from afar, far and near, 2318.—b) temporal: se þe cðe frumsceaft fira feorran reccan (since remote antiquity), 91; similarly, feorran rehte, 2107.

feorran-cund, adj., foreign-born: dat. sg. feorran-cundum, 1796.

feor-weg, st. m., far way: dat. pl. mdma fela of feorwegum, many precious things from distant paths (from foreign lands), 37.

ge-fen. See feohan.

fend, st. m., enemy: nom. sg., 164, 726, 749; fend on helle (Grendel), 101; acc. sg., 279, 1865, 2707; dat. sg. fende, 143, 439; gen. sg. fendes, 985, 2129, 2290; acc, pl. fend, 699; dat. pl. fendum, 420, 1670; gen. pl. feonda 294, 809, 904.

fend-grp, st. f., foe's clutch: dat. (instr.) pl. fend-grpum fst, 637.

fend-sceaða, w. m., one who is an enemy and a robber: nom. sg. fh fend-scaða (a hostile sea-monster), 554.

fend-scipe, st. m., hostility: nom. sg., 3000.

fewer, num., four: nom. fewer bearn, 59; fewer mearas, 2164; fewer, as substantive, 1638; acc. fewer mðmas, 1028.

fewer-tyne, num., fourteen: nom. with following gen. pl. fewertyne Geta, 1642.

findan, st. v., to find, to invent, to attain: a) with simple object in acc.: inf. þra þe he cnoste findan mihte, 207; swylce hie at Finnes-hm findan meahton sigla searo-gimma, 1157; similarly, 2871; mg þr fela frenda findan, 1839; wolde guman findan, 2295; sw hyt weorðlcost fore-snotre men findan mihton, so splendidly as only very wise men could devise it, 3164; pret. sg. healþegnas fand, 720; word ðer fand, found other words, i.e. went on to another narrative, 871; grimne gryrelcne grund-hyrde fond, 2137; þt ic gdne funde bega bryttan, 1487; pret. part. syððan rest wearð fesceaft funden (discovered), 7.—b) with acc. and pred. adj.: pret. sg. dryhten snne dririgne fand, 2790.—c) with acc. and inf.: pret. fand þ þr inne ðelinga gedriht swefan, 118; fand wccendne wer wges bdan, 1268; hord-wynne fond opene standan, 2271; ð þt he fyrgen-bemas ... hleonian funde, 1416; pret. pl. fundon þ swullesne hlim-bed healdan, 3034.—d) with dependent clause: inf. n þ r fesceafte findan meahton t þam ðelinge þt he Heardrde hlford wre (could by no means obtain it from the prince), 2374.

on-findan, to be sensible of, to perceive, to notice: a) w. acc.: pret. sg. landweard onfand eftsð eorla, the coast-guard observed the return of the earls, 1892; pret. part. þ he onfunden ws (was discovered), 1294.—b) w. depend, clause: pret. sg. þ se gist onfand þt se beado-lema btan nolde, the stranger (Bewulf) perceived that the sword would not cut, 1523; sna þt onfunde, þt ..., immediately perceived that..., 751; similarly, 810, 1498.

finger, st. m., finger: nom. pl. fingras, 761; acc. pl. fingras, 985; dat. (instr.) pl. fingrum, 1506; gen. pl. fingra, 765.

firas, fyras (O.H.G. firah, i.e. the living; cf. feorh), st. m., only in pl., men: gen. pl. fira, 91, 2742; monegum fira, 2002; fyra gehwylcne leda mnra, 2251; fira fyrngeweorc, 2287.

firen, fyren, st. f., cunning waylaying, insidious hostility, malice, outrage: nom. sg. fyren, 916; acc. sg. fyrene and fhðe, 153; fhðe and fyrene, 880, 2481; firen' ondrysne, 1933; dat. sg. fore fhðe and fyrene, 137; gen. pl. fyrena, 164, 629; and fyrene, 812; fyrena hyrde (of Grendel), 751. The dat. pl., fyrenum, is used adverbially in the sense of maliciously, 1745, or fallaciously, with reference to Hðcyn's killing Herebeald, which was done unintentionally, 2442.

firen-dd, st. f., wicked deed: acc. pl. fyren-dda, 1670; instr. pl. fyren-ddum, 1002; both times of Grendel and his mother, with reference to their nocturnal inroads.

firen-þearf, st. f., misery through the malignity of enemies: acc. sg. fyren-þearfe, 14.

firgen-bem, st. m., tree of a mountain-forest: acc. pl. fyrgen-bemas, 1415.

firgen-holt, st. m., mountain-wood, mountain-forest: acc. sg. on fyrgen-holt, 1394.

firgen-strem, st. m., mountain-stream: nom. sg. fyrgen-strem, 1360; acc. sg. under fyrgen-strem (marks the place where the mountain-stream, according to 1360, empties into Grendel's sea), 2129.

fisc, st. m., fish: in comp. hron-, mere-fisc.

ff, num., five: uninflect. gen. ff nihta fyrst, 545; acc. ffe (?), 420.

ffel-cyn (O.N. ffl, stultus and gigas), st. n., giant-race: gen. sg. ffelcynnes eard, 104.

ff-tene, ff-tyne, num., fifteen: acc. fftyne, 1583; gen. fftena sum, 207.

ff-tig, num., fifty: 1) as substantive with gen. following; acc. fftig wintra, 2734; gen. se ws fftiges ft-gemearces lang, 3043.—2) as adjective: acc. fftig wintru, 2210.

fln, st. m., arrow: dat. sg. flne, 3120; as instr., 2439.

fln-boga, w. m., bow which shoots the fln, bow: dat. sg. of fln-bogan, 1434, 1745.

flsc, st. n., flesh, body in contrast with soul: instr. sg. n þon lange ws feorh ðelinges flsce bewunden, not much longer was the son of the prince contained in his body, 2425.

flsc-hama, w. m., clothing of flesh, i.e. the body: acc. sg. flsc-homan, 1569.

flet, st. n.: 1) ground, floor of a hall: acc. sg. he on flet gebeh, fell to the ground, 1541; similarly, 1569.—2) hall, mansion: nom. sg. 1977; acc. sg. flet, 1037, 1648, 1950, 2018, etc.; flett, 2035; þt hie him ðer flet eal germdon, that they should give up entirely to them another hall, 1087; dat. sg. on flette, 1026.

flet-rst, st. f., resting-place in the hall: acc. sg. flet-rste gebeg, reclined upon the couch in the hall, 1242.

flet-sittend, pres. part., sitting in the hall: acc. pl -sittende, 2023; dat. pl. -sittendum, 1789.

flet-werod, st. n., troop from the hall: nom. sg., 476.

flem, st. m., flight: acc. sg. on flem gewand, had turned to flight, 1002; flem ewerne, 2890.

flegan, st. v., to fly: prs. sg. III. flegeð, 2274.

flen, st. v., to flee: inf. on heolster flen, 756; flen on fenhopu, 765; flen under fen-hleoðu, 821; pret. hete-swengeas fleh, 2226.

be-flen, w. acc., to avoid, to escape: gerund n þt ðe byð t beflenne, that is not easy (i.e. not at all) to be avoided, 1004.

ofer-flen, w. acc., to flee from one, to yield: inf. nelle ic beorges weard oferflen ftes trem, will not yield to the warder of the mountain (the drake) a foot's breadth, 2526.

fletan, st. v., to float upon the water, to swim: inf. n he wiht fram me fld-ðum feor fletan meahte. hraðor on helme, no whit, could he swim from me farther on the waves (regarded as instrumental, so that the waves marked the distance), more swiftly in the sea, 542; pret. sgenga flet fmigheals forð ofer ðe, floated away over the waves, 1910.

fliht. See flyht.

flitme. See un-flitme.

fltan, st. v., to exert one's self, to strive, to emulate: pres. part. fltende fealwe strte mearum mton (rode a race), 917; pret. sg. II. eart þu se Bewulf, se þe wið Brecan ... ymb sund flite, art thou the Bewulf who once contended with Breca for the prize in swimming? 507.

ofer-fltan, to surpass one in a contest, to conquer, to overcome: pret. w. acc. he þe t sunde oferflt (overcome thee in a swimming-wager), 517.

ge-flt, st. n., emulation: acc. sg. lton on geflt faran fealwe mearas, let the fallow horses go in emulation, 866.

floga, w. m., flyer; in the compounds: gð-, lyft-, uht-, wd-floga.

flota (see fletan), w. m., float, ship, boat: nom. sg., 210, 218, 301; acc. sg. flotan ewerne, 294.—Comp. wg-flota.

flot-here, st. m., fleet: instr. sg. cwom faran flotherge on Fresna land, 2916.

fld, st. m., flood, stream, sea-current: nom. sg., 545, 580, 1362, etc.; acc. sg. fld, 3134; ofer fealone fld, 1951; dat. sg. t flde, 1889; gen. pl. flda begong, the region of floods, i.e. the sea, 1498, 1827; flda genipu, 2809.

fld-ð, st. f., flood-wave: instr. pl. fld-ðum, 542.

flr, st. m., floor, stone-floor: acc. sg. on fgne flr (the floor was probably a kind of mosaic, made of colored flags), 726; dat. sg. gang þ fter flre, along the floor (i.e. along the hall), 1317.

flyht, fliht, st. m., flight: nom. sg. gres fliht, flight of the spear, 1766.

ge-flman, w. v., to put to flight: pret. part. geflmed, 847, 1371.

folc, st. n., troop, band of warriors; folk, in the sense of the whole body of the fighting men of a nation: acc. sg. folc, 522, 694, 912; Sðdene folc, 464; folc and rce, 1180; dat. sg. folce, 14, 2596; folce Deninga, 465; as instr. folce gestepte ofer s sde, went with a band of warriors over the wide sea, 2394; gen. sg. folces, 1125; folces Denigea, 1583.—The king is called folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2645, 2982; frewine folces, 2358; or folces weard, 2514. The queen, folces cwn, 1933.—The pl., in the sense of warriors, fighting men: nom. pl. folc, 1423, 2949; dat. pl. folcum, 55, 262, 1856; gen. pl. fre- (fre-) wine folca, of the king, 430, 2430; friðu-sibb folca, of the queen, 2018.—Comp. sige-folc.

folc-gend, pres. part., leader of a band of warriors: nom. pl. folc-gende, 3114.

folc-beorn, st. m., man of the multitude, a common man: nom. sg. folc-beorn, 2222.

folc-cwn, st. f., queen of a warlike host: nom. sg., of Wealhþew, 642.

folc-cyning, st. m., king of a warlike host: nom. sg., 2734, 2874.

folc-rd, st. m, what best serves a warlike host: acc. sg., 3007.

folc-riht, st. n., the rights of the fighting men of a nation: gen. pl. him r forgeaf ... folcrihta gehwylc, sw his fder hte, 2609.

folc-scearu, st. f., part of a host of warriors, nation: dat. sg. folc-scare, 73.

folc-stede, st. m., position of a band of warriors, place where a band of warriors is quartered: acc. sg. folcstede, of the hall, Heorot, 76; folcstede fra (the battle-field), 1464.

folc-toga, w. m., leader of a body of warriors, duke: nom. pl., powerful liege-men of Hrðgr are called folc-togan, 840.

fold-bold, st. n., earth-house (i.e. a house on earth in contrast with a dwelling in heaven): nom. sg. fger fold-bold, of the hall, Heorot, 774.

fold-bend, pres. part. dweller on earth, man: nom. pl. fold-bend, 2275; fold-bende, 1356; dat. pl. fold-bendum, 309.

folde, w. f., earth, ground: acc. sg. under foldan, 1362; fell on foldan, 2976; gen. sg. foldan bearm, the bosom of the earth, 1138; foldan scetas, 96; foldan fðm, 1394.—Also, earth, world: dat. sg. on foldan, 1197.

fold-weg, st. m., field-way, road through the country: acc. sg. fold-weg, 1634; acc. pl. fold-wegas, 867.

folgian, w. v.: 1) to perform vassal-duty, to serve, to follow: pret. pl. þeh hie hira beggyfan banan folgedon, although they followed the murderer of their prince, 1103.—2) to pursue, to follow after: folgode feorh-genðlan (acc. pl.) 2934.

folm, st. f, hand: acc. sg. folme, 971, 1304; dat. sg. mid folme, 743; acc. pl. ft and folma, feet and hands, 746; dat. pl. t banan folmum, 158; folmum (instr.), 723, 993.—Comp.: beado-, gearo-folm.

for, prep. w. dat., instr., and acc.: 1) w. dat. local, before, ante: þt he for eaxlum gestd Deniga fren, 358; for hlwe, 1121.—b) before, coram, in conspectu: no he þre feohgyfte for scetendum scamigan þorfte, had no need to be ashamed of the gift before the warriors, 1027; for þm werede, 1216; for eorlum, 1650; for duguðe, before the noble band of warriors, 2021.—Causal, a) to denote a subjective motive, on account of, through, from: for wlenco, from bravery, through warlike courage, 338, 1207; for wlence, 508; for his wonhdum, 434; for onmdlan, 2927, etc.—b) objective, partly denoting a cause, through, from, by reason of: for metode, for the creator, on account of the creator, 169; for þrendum, 833; for þrendlan, 2225; for dolgilpe, on account of, in accordance with the promise of bold deeds (because you claimed bold deeds for yourself), 509; him for hrfsele hrnan ne mehte fr-gripe fldes, on account of the roofed hall the malicious grasp of the flood could not reach him, 1516; lg-egesan wg for horde, on account of (the robbing of) the treasure, 2782; for mundgripe mnum, on account of, through the gripe of my hand, 966; for þs hildfruman hondgeweorce, 2836; for swenge, through the stroke, 2967; ne meahte ... dep gedgan for dracan lge, could not hold out in the deep on account of the heat of the drake, 2550. Here may be added such passages as ic þm gdan sceal for his mdþrce mðmas bedan, will offer him treasures on account of his boldness of character, for his high courage, 385; ful-oft for lssan len teohhode, gave often reward for what was inferior, 952; nalles for ealdre mearn, was not uneasy about his life, 1443; similarly, 1538. Also denoting purpose: for rstafum, to the assistance, 382, 458.—2) w. instr. causal, because of, for: he hine feor forwrc for þ mane, 110.—3) w. acc., for, as, instead of: for sunu fregan, love as a son, 948; for sunu habban, 1176; ne him þs wyrmes wg for wiht dyde, held the drake's fighting as nothing, 2349.

foran, adv., before, among the first, forward: siððan ... scewedon fendes fingras, foran ghwylc (each before himself), 985; þt ws n foran ealdgestrena, that was one among the first of the old treasures, i.e. a splendid old treasure, 1459; þe him foran ongen linde bron, bore their shields forward against him (went out to fight against him), 2365.

be-foran: 1) adv., local, before: he ... beforan gengde, went before, 1413; temporal, before, earlier, 2498.—2) prep. w. acc. before, in conspectu: mre mððum-sweord manige geswon beforan beorn beran, 1025.

ford, st. m., ford, water-way: acc. sg. ymb brontne ford, 568.

forð: 1) local, forth, hither, near: forð near tstp, approached nearer, 746; þ cwom Wealhþe forð gn, 1163; similarly, 613; him seleþegn forð wsade, led him (Bewulf) forth (to the couch that had been prepared for him in Heorot), 1796; þt him swt sprong forð under fexe, forth under the hair of his head, 2968. Forward, further: gewtað forð beran wpen and gewdu, 291; he t forð gestp, 2290; freoðo-wong þone forð ofereodon, 2960. Away, forth, 45, 904; fyrst forð gewt, the time (of the way to the ship) was out, i.e. they had arrived at the ship, 210; me ... forð-gewitenum, to me the departed, 1480; frdon forð, went forth (from Grendel's sea), 1633; þonne he forð scile, when he must (go) forth, i.e. die, 3178; hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede, carried him forth, over all men, 1719.—2) temporal, forth, from now on: heald forð tela niwe sibbe, 949; ic sceal forð sprecan gen ymbe Grendel, shall from now on speak again of Grendel, 2070. See furðum and furðor.

forð-germed, pres. part., in unbroken succession, 59.

forð-gesceaft, st. f., that which is determined for farther on, future destiny: acc. sg. he þ forð-gesceaft forgyteð and forgmeð, 1751.

forð-weg, st. m., road that leads away, journey: he of ealdre gewt frd on forð-weg (upon the way to the next world), 2626.

fore, prep. w. dat., local, before, coram, in conspectu: he fore þm werede sprc, 1216. Causal, through, for, because of: n mearn fore fhðe and fyrene, 136; fore fder ddum, because of the father's deeds, 2060,—Allied to this is the meaning, about, de, super: þr ws sang and swg samod tgdere fore Healfdenes hildewsan, song and music about Healfdene's general (the song of Hnf), 1065.

fore-mre, adj., renowned beyond (others), prclarus: superl. þt ws fore-mrost foldbendum receda under roderum, 309.

fore-mihtig, adj., able beyond (others), prpotens: nom. sg. ws t foremihtig fend on fðe, the enemy was too strong in going (could flee too rapidly), 970.

fore-snotor, adj., wise beyond (others), sapientissimus: nom. pl. foresnotre men, 3164.

fore-þanc, st. m., forethought, consideration, deliberation: nom. sg., 1061.

forht, adj., fearful, cowardly: nom. sg. forht, 2968; he on mde wearð forht on ferhðe, 755.—Comp. unforht.

forma, adj., foremost, first: nom. sg. forma sð (the first time), 717, 1464, 1528, 2626; instr. sg. forman sðe, 741, 2287; forman dgore, 2574.

fyrmest, adv. superl., first of all, in the first place: he fyrmest lg, 2078.

forst, st. m., frost, cold: gen. sg. forstes bend, 1610.

for-þam, for-þan, for-þon, adv. and conj., therefore, on that account, then: forþam, 149; forþan, 418, 680, 1060; forþon þe, because, 503.

fn, st. v., to catch, to grasp, to take hold, to take: prs. sg. III. fhð ðer t, another lays hold (takes possession), 1756; inf. ic mid grpe sceal fn wið fende, 439; pret. sg. him tgenes fng, caught at him, grasped at him, 1543; w. dat. he þm frtwum fng, received the rich adornments (Ongenþew's equipment), 2990.

be-fn, to surround, to ensnare, to encompass, to embrace: pret. part. hyne sr hafað ... nearwe befongen balwon bendum, 977; he ðelinga nne hfde fste befangen (had seized him firmly), 1296; helm ... befongen frewrsnum (encircled by an ornament like a diadem), 1452; fenne bifongen, surrounded by the fen, 2010; (draca) fre befongen, encircled by fire, 2275, 2596; hfde landwara lge befangen, encompassed by fire, 2322.

ge-fn, w. acc., to seize, to grasp: pret. he gefng slpendne rinc, 741; gðrinc gefng atolan clommum, 1502; gefng þ be eaxle ... Gðgeta led Grendles mdor, 1538; gefng þ fetelhilt, 1564; hond rond gefng, geolwe linde, 2610; ic on foste gefng micle mid mundum mgen-byrðenne, hastily I seized with my hands the enormous burden, 3091.

on-fn, w. dat., to receive, to accept, to take: pres. imp. sg. onfh þissum fulle, accept this cup, 1170; inf. þt þt þednes bearn ... scolde fder-ðelum onfn, receive the paternal rank, 912; pret. sg. hw þm hlste onfng, who received the ship's lading, 52; hler-bolster onfng eorles andwlitan, the pillow received the nobleman's face, 689; similarly, 853, 1495; heal swge onfng, the hall received the loud noise, 1215; he onfng hraðe inwit-þancum, he (Bewulf) at once clutched him (Grendel) devising malice, 749.

þurh-fn, w. acc., to break through with grasping, to destroy by grasping: inf. þt he þone fyrd-hom þurh-fn ne mihte, 1505.

wið-fn, w. dat., (to grasp at), to seize, to lay hold of: pret. sg. him fste wið-fng, 761.

ymbe-fn, w. acc., to encircle: pret. heals ealne ymbefng biteran bnum, encircled his (Bewulf's) whole neck with sharp bones (teeth), 2692.

ft, st. m., foot: gen. sg. ftes trem (the measure of a foot, a foot broad), 2526; acc. pl. ft, 746; dat. pl. t ftum, at the feet, 500, 1167.

ft-gemearc, st. n., measure, determining by feet, number of feet: gen. sg. se ws fftiges ftgemearces lang (fifty feet long), 3043.

ft-lst, st. m., foot-print: acc. sg. (draca) onfand fendes ft-lst, 2290.

fracod, adj., objectionable, useless. nom. sg. ns se ecg fracod hilde-rince, 1576.

fram, from, I. prep. w. dat. loc. away from something: þr fram sylle beg medubenc monig, 776, 1716; þanon eft gewiton ealdgesðas ... fram mere, 856; cyning-balde men from þm holmclife hafelan bron, 1636; similarly, 541, 543, 2367. Standing after the dat.: he hine feor forwrc ... mancynne fram, 110; similarly, 1716. Also, hither from something: þ ic cwom ... from fendum, 420; ghwðrum ws ... brga fram ðrum, 2566.—Causal with verbs of saying and hearing, of, about, concerning: sgdest from his sðe, 532; n ic wiht fram þe swylcra searo-nða secgan hrde, 581; þt he fram Sigemunde secgan hyrde, 876. II adv., away, thence: n þ r fram meahte, 755; forth, out: from rest cwom oruð aglcean t of stne, the breath of the dragon came forth first from the rock 2557.

fram, from, adj.: 1) directed forwards, striving forwards; in comp. sð-fram.—2) excellent, splendid, of a man with reference to his warlike qualities: nom. sg. ic eom on mde from, 2528; nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate, 1642, 2477. Of things: instr. pl. fromum feoh-giftum, 21.—Comp. un-from; see freme, forma.

ge-frgen. See frignan.

frtwe, st. f. pl., ornament, anything costly, originally carved objects (cf. Dietrich in Hpts. Ztschr. X. 216 ff.), afterwards of any costly and artistic work: acc. pl. frtwe, 2920; beorhte frtwe, 214; beorhte frtwa, 897; frtwe.. eorclan-stnas, 1208; frtwe,... brest-weorðunge, 2504, both times of Hygelc's collar; frtwe and ft-gold, 1922; frtwe (Eanmund's sword and armor), 2621; dat. instr. pl. þm frtwum, 2164; on frtewum, 963; frtwum (Heaðobeard sword) hrmig, 2055; frtwum, of the drake's treasures, 2785; frtwum (Ongenþew's armor), 2990; gen. pl. fela ... frtwa, 37; þra frtwa (drake's treasure), 2795; frtwa hyrde (drake), 3134.

frtwan, w. v., to supply with ornaments, to adorn: inf. folc-stede frtwan, 76.

ge-frtwian, w. v., to adorn: pret. sg. gefrtwade foldan scetas leomum and lefum, 96; pret. part. þ ws hten Heort innanweard folmum gefrtwod, 993.

ge-frge, adj., known by reputation, renowned: nom. sg. led-cyning ... folcum gefrge, 55; sw hyt gefrge ws, 2481.

ge-frge, st. n., information through hearsay: instr. sg. mine gefrge (as I learned through the narrative of others), 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ge-frgnian, w. v., to become known through hearsay: pret. part. fylle gefrgnod (of Grendel's mother, who had become known through the carrying off of schere), 1334?

freca, w. m., properly a wolf, as one that breaks in, robs; here a designation of heroes: nom. sg. freca Scildinga, of Bewulf, 1564.—Comp.: gð-, hilde-, scyld-, sweord-, wg-freca; ferð-frec (adj.).

fremde, adj., properly distant, foreign; then estranged, hostile: nom sg. þt ws fremde þed cean dryhtne, of the giants, 1692.

freme, adj., excellent, splendid: nom. sg. fem. fremu folces cwn, of Þryðo, 1933(?).

fremman, w. v., to press forward, to further, hence: 1) in general, to perform, to accomplish, to do, to make: pres. subj. without an object, fremme se þe wille, let him do (it) whoever will, 1004. With acc.: imp. pl. fremmað ge nu leda þearfe, 2801; inf. fyrene fremman, 101; scce fremman, 2500; fhðe ... mrðum fremman, 2515, etc.; pret. sg. folcrd fremede (did what was best for his men, i.e. ruled wisely), 3007; pl. h þ ðelingas ellen fremedon, 3; feohtan fremedon, 960; nalles fcenstafas ... þenden fremedon, 1020; pret. subj. þt ic ... mrðo fremede, 2135. —2) to help on, to support: inf. þt he mec fremman wile wordum and worcum (to an expedition), 1833.

ge-fremman, w. acc., to do, to make, to render: inf. gefremman eorlc ellen, 637; helpan gefremman, to give help, 2450; fter wespelle wyrpe gefremman, to work a change after sorrow (to give joy after sorrow), 1316; gerund, t gefremmanne, 174, 2645; pret. sg. gefremede, 135, 165, 551, 585, etc.; þeh þe hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede, placed him away, above all men, i.e. raised him, 1719; pret. pl. gefremedon, 1188, 2479; pret. subj. gefremede, 177; pret. part. gefremed, 476; fem, nu scealc hafað ... dd gefremede, 941; absolutely, þu þe self hafast ddum gefremed, þt ..., hast brought it about by thy deeds that, 955.

fretan, st. v., to devour, to consume: inf. þ (the precious things) sceal brond fretan, 3015; nu sceal gld fretan wgena strengel, 3115; pret. sg. (Grendel) slpende frt folces Denigea fftyne men, 1582.

frcne, adj., dangerous, bold: nom. sg. frcne fr-draca, 2690; feorh-bealo frcne, 2251, 2538; acc. sg. frcne dde, 890; frcne fengeld, 1360; frcne stwe, 1379; instr. sg. frcnan sprce (through provoking words), 1105.

frcne, adv., boldly, audaciously, 960, 1033, 1692.

fre, w. m., ruler, lord, of a temporal ruler: nom. sg. fre, 2286; acc. sg. fren, 351, 1320, 2538, 3003, 3108; gen. sg. fren, 359, 500, 1167, 1681; dat. sg. fren, 271, 291, 2663. Of a husband: dat. sg. eode ... t hire fren sittan, 642. Of God: dat. sg. fren ealles, the Lord of all, 2795; gen. sg. fren, 27.— Comp.: gend-, lf-, sin-fre.

fre-dryhten, st. m., lord, ruling lord: gen. sg. fre-drihtnes, 797.

fre-wine, st. m., lord and friend, friendly ruler: nom. sg. fre-wine folces (folca), 2358, 2430; acc. sg. his fre-wine, 2439.

fre-wrsn, st. f., encircling ornament like a diadem: instr. pl. helm ... befongen frewrsnum, 1452; see wrsn.

freoðu, friðu, f., protection, asylum, peace: acc. sg. wel bið þm þe mt ... t fder fðmum freoðo wilnian, who may obtain an asylum in God's arms, 188; nen and feorran þu nu [friðu] hafast, 1175.—Comp. fen-freoðo.

freoðo-burh, st. f., castle, city affording protection: acc. sg. freoðoburh fgere, 522.

freoðo-wong, st. m., field of peace, field of protection: acc. sg., 2960; seems to have been the proper name of a field.

freoðo-wr, st. f., peace-alliance, security of peace: acc. sg. þ hie getrwedon on tw healfa fste frioðu-wre, 1097; gen. sg. frioðowre bd hlford snne, entreated his lord for the protection of peace (i.e. full pardon for his delinquency), 2283.

freoðo-webbe, w. f., peace-weaver, designation of the royal consort (often one given in marriage as a confirmation of a peace between two nations): nom. sg., 1943.

fre-burh, st. f., = fre-burg (?), ruler's castle (?) (according to Grein, arx ingenua): acc. sg. freburh, 694.

fred, st. f., friendship: acc. sg. frede ne woldon ofer heafo healdan, 2477; gen. sg. ns þr mra fyrst frede t friclan, was no longer time to seek for friendship, 2557; —favor, acknowledgement: acc. sg. ic þe sceal mne gelstan frede (will show myself grateful, with reference to 1381 ff.), 1708.

fre-dryhten (= fre-dryhten), st. m., lord, ruler; according to Grein, dominus ingenuus vel nobilis: nom. sg. as voc. fre-drihten min! 1170; dat. sg. mid his fre-dryhtne, 2628.

fregan, w. v., to love; to think of lovingly: pres. subj. þt mon his wine-dryhten ... ferhðum frege, 3178; inf. nu ic þec ... me for sunu wylle fregan on ferhðe, 949.

fre-lc, adj., free, free-born (here of the lawful wife in contrast with the bond concubine): nom. sg. frelc wf, 616; frelcu folc-cwn, 642.

frend, st. m., friend: acc. sg. frend, 1386, 1865; dat. pl. frendum, 916, 1019, 1127; gen. pl. frenda, 1307, 1839.

frend-laðu, st. f., friendly invitation: nom. sg. him ws ful boren and frend-laðu (friendly invitation to drink) wordum bewgned, 1193.

frend-lr, st. f., friendly counsel: dat. (instr.) pl. frend-lrum, 2378.

frend-lce, adv., in a friendly manner, kindly: compar. frend-lcor, 1028.

frend-scipe, st. m., friendship: acc. sg. frend-scipe fstne, 2070.

fre-wine, st. m. (see frewine), lord and friend, friendly ruler; according to Grein, amicus nobilis, princeps amicus: nom. sg. as voc. fre-wine folca! 430.

fricgean, w. v., to ask, to inquire into: inf. ongan snne geseldan fgre fricgean hwylce S-Geta sðas wron, 1986; pres. part, gomela Scilding fela fricgende feorran rehte, the old Scilding, asking many questions (having many things related to him), told of old times (the conversation was alternate), 2107.

ge-fricgean, to learn, to learn by inquiry: pres. pl. syððan hie ge-fricgeað fren serne ealdorlesne, when they learn that our lord is dead, 3003; pres. subj. gif ic þt gefricge, þt..., 1827; pl. syððan ðelingas feorran gefricgean flem ewerne, 2890.

friclan (see freca), w. v. w. gen., to seek, to desire, to strive for: inf. ns þr mra fyrst frede t friclan, 2557.

friðo-sib, st. f., kin for the confirming of peace, designation of the queen (see freoðo—webbe), peace-bringer: nom. sg. friðu-sibb folca, 2018.

frignan, fringan, frinan, st. v., to ask, to inquire: imp. ne frin þu fter slum, ask not after the well-being! 1323; inf. ic þs wine Deniga frinan wille ... ymb þnne sð, 351; pret. sg. frgn, 236, 332; frgn gif ..., asked whether ..., 1320.

ge-frignan, ge-fringan, ge-frinan, to find out by inquiry, to learn by narration. pret. sg. (w. acc.) þt fram hm gefrgn Higelces þegn Grendles dda, 194; n ic gefrgn heardran feohtan, 575; (w. acc. and inf.) þ ic wde gefrgn weorc gebannan, 74; similarly, 2485, 2753, 2774; ne gefrgen ic þ mgðe mran weorode ymb hyra sincgyfan sl gebran, I never heard that any people, richer in warriors, conducted itself better about its chief, 1012; similarly, 1028; pret. pl. (w. acc.) we þedcyninga þrym gefrunon, 2; (w. acc. and inf.) geongne gðcyning gdne gefrunon hringas dlan, 1970; (parenthetical) sw guman gefrungon, 667, (after þonne) medo-rn micel (greater) ... þone yldo bearn fre gefrunon, 70; pret. part. hfde Higelces hilde gefrunen, 2953; hfdon gefrunen þt..., had learned that ..., 695; hfde gefrunen hwanan si fhð rs, 2404; healsbega mst þra þe ic on foldan gefrgen hbbe, 1197.

from, See fram.

frd, adj.: 1) tate provectus, old, gray: nom. sg. frd, 2626, 2951; frd cyning, 1307, 2210; frd folces weard, 2514; wintrum frd, 1725, 2115, 2278; se frda, 2929; ac. sg. frde feorhlege (the laying down of my old life), 2801; dat. sg. frdan fyrnwitan (may also, from its meaning, belong under No. 2), 2124.—2) mente excellentior, intelligent, experienced, wise: nom. sg. frd, 1367; frd and gd, 279; on mde frd, 1845.—Comp.: in-, un-frd.

frfor, st. f., consolation, compensation, help: nom. sg. frfor, 2942; acc. sg. frfre, 7, 974; fyrena frfre, 629; frfre and fultum, 1274; frfor and fultum, 699; dat. sg. t frfre, 14, 1708; gen. sg. frfre, 185.

fruma (see forma), w. m., the foremost, hence: l) beginning: nom. sg. ws se fruma egeslc ledum on lande, sw hyt lungre wearð on hyra sincgifan sre geendod (the beginning of the dragon-combat was terrible, its end distressing through the death of Bewulf), 2310.—2) he who stands first, prince; in comp. dd-, hild-, land-, led-, ord-, wg-fruma.

frum-cyn, st. n., (genus primitivum), descent, origin: acc. sg. nu ic ewer sceal frumcyn witan, 252.

frum-gr, st. m., primipilus, duke, prince: dat. sg. frumgre (of Bewulf), 2857.

frum-sceaft, st. f., prima creatio, beginning: acc. sg. se þe cðe frumsceaft fira feorran reccan, who could tell of the beginning of mankind in old times, 91; dat. sg. frum-sceafte, in the beginning, i.e at his birth, 45.

fugol, st. m., bird: dat. sg. fugle gelcost, 218; dat. pl. [fuglum] t gamene, 2942.

ful, adj., full, filled: nom. sg. w. gen. pl. se ws innan full wrtta and wra, 2413.—Comp.: eges-, sorh-, weorð-ful.

ful, adv., plene, very: ful oft, 480; ful-oft, 952.

ful, st. n., cup, beaker: nom. sg., 1193; acc. sg. ful, 616, 629, 1026; ofer ða ful, over the cup of the waves (the basin of the sea filled with waves), 1209; dat. sg. onfh þissum fulle, 1170.—Comp.: medo-, sele-full.

fullstian, w. v. w. dat, to give help: pres. sg. ic þe fullstu, 2669.

fultum, st. m., help, support, protection: acc. sg. frfor (frfre) and fultum, 699, 1274; mgenes fultum, 1836; on fultum, 2663.—Comp. mgen-fultum.

fundian, w. v., to strive, to have in view: pres. pl. we fundiað Higelc scan, 1820; pret. sg. fundode of geardum, 1138.

furðum, adv., primo, just, exactly; then first: þ ic furðum weld folce Deninga, then first governed the people of the Danes (had just assumed the government), 465; þ hie t sele furðum ... gangan cwmon, 323; ic þr furðum cwom t þam hringsele, 2010;—before, previously: ic þe sceal mne gelstan frede, sw wit furðum sprcon, 1708.

furður, adv., further, forward, more distant, 254, 762, 3007.

fs, adj., inclined to, favorable, ready: nom. sg. nu ic eom sðes fs, 1476; lefra manna fs, prepared for the dear men, i.e. expecting them, 1917; sigel sðan fs, the sun inclined from the south (midday sun), 1967; se wonna hrefn fs ofer fgum, eager over the slain, 3026; sceft ... feðer-gearwum fs, 3120; nom. pl. wron ... eft to ledum fse t farenne, 1806.—Sometimes fs means ready for death, moribundus: fs and fge, 1242.—Comp.: hin-, t-fs.

fs-lc, adj., prepared, ready: acc. sg. fs-lc f[yrd]-leð, 1425; fyrd-searo fs-lc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fs-lcu, 232.

fyl, st. m., fall: nom. sg. fyll cyninges, the fall of the king (in the dragon-fight), 2913; dat. sg. þt he on fylle wearð, that he came to a fall, fell, 1545.—Comp. hr-fyl.

fylce (collective form from folc), st. n., troop, band of warriors: in comp. l-fylce.

ge-fyllan (see feal), w. v., to fell, to slay in battle: inf. fne gefyllan, to slay the enemy, 2656; pret. pl. fend gefyldan, they had slain the enemy, 2707.

-fyllan (see ful), w. v., to fill: pret. part. Heorot innan ws frendum fylled (was filled with trusted men), 1019.

fyllo, st. f. (plenty, abundant meal: dat. (instr.) sg. fylle gefrgnod, 1334; gen. sg. ns hie þre fylle gefen hfdon, 562; fylle gefgon, 1015.—Comp.: wl-, wist-fyllo.

fyl-wrig, adj., weary enough to fall, faint to death, moribundus: acc. sg. fyl-wrigne, 963.

fyr. See feor.

fyrian, w. v. w. acc. (= ferian) to bear, to bring, carry: pret. pl. þ þe gif-sceattas Geta fyredon þyder t þance, 378.

fyras. See firas.

fyren. See firen.

fyrde, adj., movable, that can be moved.—Comp. hard-fyrde.—Leo.

fyrd-gestealla, w. m., comrade on an expedition, companion in battle: dat. pl. fyrd-gesteallum, 2874

fyrd-ham, st. m., war-dress, coat of mail: acc. sg. þone fyrd-hom, 1505.

fyrd-hrgl, st. n., coat of mail, war-dress: acc. sg. fyrd-hrgl, 1528.

fyrd-hwt, adj., sharp, good in war, warlike: nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate, 1642, 2477.

fyrd-leð, st. n., war-song, warlike music: acc. sg. horn stundum song fslc f[yrd]leoð, 1425.

fyrd-searu, st. n., equipment for an expedition: acc. sg. fyrd-searu fslc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fslcu, 232.

fyrd-wyrðe, adj., of worth in war, excellent in battle: nom. sg. fyrd-wyrðe man (Bewulf), 1317.

ge-fyrðran (see forð), w. v., to bring forward, to further: pret. part. r ws on foste, eftsðes georn, frtwum gefyrðred, he was hurried forward by the treasure (i.e. after he had gathered up the treasure, he hasted to return, so as to be able to show it to the mortally-wounded Bewulf), 2785.

fyrmest. See forma.

fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., by-gone days: dat. pl. fyrndagum (in old times), 1452.

fyrn-geweorc, st. n., work, something done in old times: acc. sg. fira fyrn-geweorc (the drinking-cup mentioned in 2283, 2287.

fyrn-gewin, st. n., combat in ancient times: gen. sg. r fyrn-gewinnes (the origin of the battles of the giants), 1690.

fyrn-man, st. m., man of ancient times: gen. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, 2762.

fyrn-wita, w. m., counsellor ever since ancient times, adviser for many years: dat. sg. frdan fyrnwitan, of schere, 2124.

fyrst, st. m., portion of time, definite time, time: nom. sg. ns hit lengra fyrst, ac ymb ne niht ..., 134; fyrst forð gewt, the time (of going to the harbor) was past, 210; ns þr mra fyrst frede t friclan, 2556; acc. sg. niht-longne fyrst, 528; ff nihta fyrst, 545; instr. sg. þ fyrste, 2574; dat. sg. him on fyrste gelomp ..., within the fixed time, 76.

fyr-wit, -wet, -wyt, st. n., prying spirit, curiosity: nom. sg. fyrwyt, 232; fyrwet, 1986, 2785.

ge-fsan (fs), w. v., to make ready, to prepare: part. winde gefsed flota, the ship provided with wind (for the voyage), 217; (wyrm) fre gefsed, provided with fire, 2310; þ ws hringbogan (of the drake) heorte gefsed scce t sceanne, 2562; with gen., in answer to the question, for what? gðe gefsed, ready for battle, determined to fight, 631.

fr, st. n., fire: nom. sg., 1367, 2702, 2882; dat. sg. fre, 2220; as instr. fre, 2275, 2596; gen. sg. fres fðm, 185; fres feng, 1765.— Comp.: d-, bl-, heaðu-, wl-fr.

fr-bend, st. m., band forged in fire: dat. pl. duru ... fr-bendum fst, 723.

fr-draca, w. m., fire-drake, fire-spewing dragon: nom. sg., 2690.

fr-heard, adj., hard through fire, hardened in fire: nom. pl. (eoforlc) fh and fr-heard, 305.

fr-leht, st. n., fire-light: acc. sg., 1517.

fr-wylm, st. m., wave of fire, flame-wave: dat. pl. wyrm ... frwylmum fh, 2672.

G

galan, st. v., to sing, to sound: pres. sg. sorh-leð gleð, 2461; inf. gryre-leð galan, 787; bearhtm ongeton, gðhorn galan, heard the clang, the battle-trumpet sound, 1433.

-galan, to sing, to sound: pret. sg. þt hire on hafelan hringml gl grdig gðleð, that the sword caused a greedy battle-song to sound upon her head, 1522.

gamban, or, according to Bout., gambe, w. f., tribute, interest: acc. sg. gomban gyldan, 11.

gamen, st. n., social pleasure, rejoicing, joyous doings: nom. sg. gamen, 1161; gomen, 2460; gomen glebemes, the pleasure of the harp, 2264; acc. sg. gamen and gledrem, 3022; dat. sg. gamene, 2942; gomene, 1776.—Comp. heal-gamen.

gamen-wð, st. f., way offering social enjoyment, journey in joyous society: dat. sg. of gomen-wðe, 855.

gamen-wudu, st. m., wood of social enjoyment, i.e. harp: nom. sg. þr ws ... gomenwudu grted, 1066; acc. sg. gomenwudu grtte, 2109.

gamol, gomol, gomel, adj., old; of persons, having lived many years, gray: gamol, 58, 265; gomol, 3096; gomel, 2113, 2794; se gomela, 1398; gamela (gomela) Scylding, 1793, 2106; gomela, 2932; acc. sg. þone gomelan, 2422; dat. sg. gamelum rince, 1678; gomelum ceorle, 2445; þam gomelan, 2818; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe gomele, 1596.—Also, late, belonging to former time: gen. pl. gomelra lfe (legacy), 2037.—Of things, old, from old times: nom. sg. sweord ... gomol, 2683; acc. sg. gomele lfe, 2564; gomel swyrd, 2611; gamol is a more respectful word than eald.

gamol-feax, adj., with gray hair: nom. sg., 609.

gang, st. m.: 1) gait, way: dat. sg. on gange, 1885; gen. sg. ic hine ne mihte ... ganges ge-twman, could not keep him from going, 969.—2) step, foot-step: nom. sg. gang (the foot-print of the mother of Grendel), 1405; acc. sg. uton hraðe fran Grendles mgan gang scewigan, 1392.—Comp. in-gang.

be-gang, bi-gang, st. m., (so far as something goes), extent: acc. sg. ofer geofenes begang, over the extent of the sea, 362; ofer flda begang, 1827; under swegles begong, 861, 1774; flda begong, 1498; sioleða bigong, 2368.

gangan. See under gn.

ganot, st. m., diver, fulica marina: gen. sg. ofer ganotes bð (i.e. the sea), 1862.

gd, st. n., lack: nom. sg. ne bið þe wilna gd (thou shalt have no lack of desirable [valuable] things), 661; similarly, 950.

gn, expanded = gangan, st. v., to go: pres. sg. III. gð Wyrd sw hi scel, 455; gð eft ... t medo, 605; þonne he ... on flett gð, 2035; similarly, 2055; pres. subj. III. sg. g þr he wille, let him go whither he will, 1395; imp. sg. II. g nu t setle, 1783; nu þu lungre geong, hord scewian, under hrne stn, 2744; inf. in gn, to go in, 386, 1645 'forð gn, to go forth, to go thither, 1164; þat hie him t mihton gegnum gangan, to go towards, to go to, 314; t sele ... gangan cwmon, 324; in a similar construction, gongan, 1643; nu ge mton gangan ... Hrðgr gesen, 395; þ com of mre ... Grendel gongan, there came Grendel (going) from the fen, 712; ongen gramum gangan, to go to meet the enemy, to go to the war, 1035; cwom ... t hofe gongan, 1975; wutun gangan t, let us go thither, 2649.—As preterite, serve, 1) geng or ging: he t healle geng, 926; similarly, 2019; se þe on orde geng, who went at the head, went in front, 3126; on innan ging, went in, 2215; he ... ging t þs þe he eorðsele nne wisse, went thither, where he knew of that earth-hall, 2410; þ se ðeling, ging, þt he b wealle gest, then went the prince (Bewulf) that he might sit down by the wall, 2716.—2) gang: t healle gang Healfdenes sunu, 1010; similarly, 1296; gang þ fter flre, went along the floor, along the hall, 1317.—3) gengde (Goth. gaggida): he ... beforan gengde ..., wong scewian, went in front to inspect the fields, 1413; gengde, also of riding, 1402.—4) from another stem, eode (Goth. iddja): eode ellenrf, þt he for eaxlum gestd Deniga fren, 358; similarly, 403; [wið duru healle Wulfgr eode], went towards the door of the hall, 390; eode Wealhþew forð, went forth, 613; eode t hire fren sittan, 641; eode yrremd, went with angry feeling, 727; eode ... t sele, 919; similarly, 1233; eode ... þr se snottra bd, 1313; eode weorð Denum ðeling t yppan, the prince (Bewulf), honored by the Danes, went to the high seat, 1815; eode ... under inwit-hrf, 3124; pl. þr swðferhðe sittan eodon, 493; eodon him þ tgenes, went to meet him, 1627; eodon under Earna ns, 3032.

-gangan, to go out, to go forth, to befall: pret. part. sw bit gangen wearð eorla manegum (as it befell many a one of the earls), 1235.

full-gangan, to emulate, to follow after: pret. sg. þonne ... sceft nytte held, feðer-gearwum fs flne full-eode, when the shaft had employment, furnished with feathers it followed the arrow, did as the arrow, 3120.

ge-gn, ge-gangan: 1) to go, to approach: inf. (w. acc.) his mdor ... gegn wolde sorhfulne sð, 1278; se þe gryre-sðas gegn dorste, who dared to go the ways of terror (to go into the combat), 1463; pret. sg. se maga geonga under his mges scyld elne geeode, went quickly under his kinsman's shield, 2677; pl. elne geeodon t þs þe ..., went quickly thither where ..., 1968; pret. part. syððan hie t-gdre gegn hfdon, when they (Wglf and the drake) had come together, 2631; þt his aldres ws ende gegongen, that the end of his life had come, 823; þ ws endedg gdum gegongen, þt se gðcyning ... swealt, 3037.—2) to obtain, to reach: inf. (w. acc.) þonne he t gðe gegn þenceð longsumne lof, 1536; ic mid elne sceall gold gegangan, 2537; gerund, ns þt ðe cep t gegangenne gumena nigum, 2417; pret. pl. elne geeodon ... þt se byrnwga bgan sceolde, 2918; pret. part. hfde ... gegongen þt, had attained it, that ..., 894; hord ys gescewod, grimme gegongen, 3086.—3) to occur, to happen: pres. sg. III. gif þt gegangeð þt ..., if that happen, that ..., 1847; pret. sg. þt geiode ufaran dgrum hilde-hlmmum, it happened in later times to the warriors (the Getas), 2201; pret. part. þ ws gegongen guman unfrdum earfoðlce þt, then it had happened to the young man in sorrowful wise that ..., 2822.

ð-gangan, to-go thither: pret. pl. oð þt hi ðeodon ... in Hrefnesholt, 2935.

ofer-gangan, w. acc., to go over: pret. sg. ofereode þ ðelinga bearn step stn-hliðo, went over steep, rocky precipices, 1409; pl. freoðo-wong þone forð ofereodon, 2960.

ymb-gangan, w. acc., to go around: pret. ymb-eode þ ides Helminga duguðe and geogoðe dl ghwylcne, went around in every part, among the superior and the inferior warriors, 621.

gr, st. m., spear, javelin, missile: nom. sg., 1847, 3022; instr. sg. gre, 1076; bldigan gre, 2441; gen. sg. gres fliht, 1766; nom. pl. gras, 328; gen. pl., 161(?).—Comp.: bon-, frum-gr.

gr-cne, adj., spear-bold: nom. sg., 1959.

gr-cwealm, st. m., murder, death by the spear: acc. sg. gr-cwealm gumena, 2044.

gr-holt, st. n., forest of spears, i.e. crowd of spears: acc. sg., 1835.

gr-secg, st. m. (cf. Grimm, in Haupt l. 578), sea, ocean: acc. sg. on gr-secg, 49, 537; ofer gr-secg, 515.

gr-wga, w. m., one who fights with the spear: dat. sg. geongum gr-wgan, of Wglf, 2675, 2812.

gr-wgend, pres. part., fighting with spear, spear-fighter: acc. pl. gr-wgend, 2642.

gst, gst, st. m., ghost, demon: acc. sg. helle gst (Grendel), 1275; gen. sg. wergan gstes (of Grendel), 133; (of the tempter), 1748; gen. pl. dyrnra gsta (Grendel's race), 1358; gsta gfrost (flames consuming corpses), 1124.—Comp.: ellor-, ge-sceaft-gst; ellen-, wl-gst.

gst-bana, w. m., slayer of the spirit, i.e. the devil: nom. sg. gst-bona, 177.

gdeling, st. m., he who is connected with another, relation, companion: gen. sg. gdelinges, 2618; dat. pl. mid his gdelingum, 2950.

t-gdere, adv., together, united: 321, 1165, 1191; samod tgdere, 329, 387, 730, 1064.

t-gadere, adv., together, 2631.

gst, gist, gyst, st. m., stranger, guest: nom. sg. gst, 1801; se gst (the drake), 2313; se grimma gst (Grendel), 102; gist, 1139, 1523; acc. sg. gryre-lcne gist (the nixy slain by Bewulf), 1442; dat. sg. gyste, 2229; nom. pl. gistas, 1603; acc. pl. gs[tas], 1894.—Comp.: fðe-, gryre-, inwit-, nð-, sele-gst (-gyst).

gst-sele, st. m., hall in which the guests spend their time, guest-hall: acc. sg., 995.

ge, conj., and, 1341; ge ... ge ..., as well ... as ..., 1865; ge ... ge ..., ge ..., 1249; ge swylce, and likewise, and moreover, 2259.

ge, pron., ye, you, plur. of þu, 237, 245, etc.

gegn-cwide, st. m., reply: gen. pl. þnra gegn-cwida, 367.

gegnum, adv., thither, towards, away, with the prep, t, ofer, giving the direction: þt hie him t mihton gegnum gangan (that they might go thither), 314; gegnum fr [þ] ofer myrcan mr, away over the dark moor, 1405.

gehðu, geohðu, st. f., sorrow, care: instr. sg. giohðo mnde, 2268; dat. sg. on gehðo, 3096; on giohðe, 2794.

gen (from gegn), adv., yet, again. ne ws hit lenge þ gen, þt ..., it was not then long before ..., 83; ic sceal forð sprecan gen ymb Grendel, shall from now on speak again of Grendel, 2071; n þ r t þ gen ... gongan wolde (still he would not yet go out), 2082; gen is eall t þe lissa gelong (yet all my favor belongs to thee), 2150; þ gen, then again, 2678, 2703; sw he nu gen dð, as he still does, 2860; furður gen, further still, besides, 3007; nu gen, now again, 3169; ne gen, no more, no farther: ne ws þt wyrd þ gen, that was no more fate (fate no longer willed that), 735.

gena, still: cwico ws þ gena, was still living, 3094.

genga, w. m., goer; in comp. in-, s-, sceadu-genga.

gengde. See gn(3).

genge. See ð-genge.

genunga (from gegnunga), adv., precisely, completely, 2872.

gerwan, gyrwan, w. v.: 1) to prepare, to make ready, to put in condition: pret. pl. gestsele gyredon, 995.—2) to equip, to arm for battle: pret. sg. gyrede hine Bewulf eorl-gewdum (dressed himself in the armor), 1442.

ge-gyrwan: 1) to make, to prepare: pret. pl. him þ gegiredan Geta lede d ... unwclcne, 3138; pret. part. glf ... eall gegyrwed defles crftum and dracan fellum, 2088.—2) to fit out, to make ready: inf. cel gegyrwan hilde-wpnum and heaðowdum, 38; ht him ðlidan gdne gegyrwan, had (his) good ship fitted up for him, 199. Also, to provide warlike equipment: pret. part. syððan he hine t gðe gegyred hfde, 1473.—3) to endow, to provide, to adorn: pret. part. nom. sg. beado-hrgl ... golde gegyrwed, 553; acc. sg. lfe ... golde gegyrede, 2193; acc. pl. mdmas ... golde gegyrede, 1029.

getan, w. v., to injure, to slay: inf., 2941.

be-gte, adj., attainable; in comp. ð-begte.

geador, adv., unitedly, together, jointly, 836; geador tsomne, 491.

on-geador, adv., unitedly, together, 1596.

gealdor, st. n.: 1) sound: acc. sg. bman gealdor, 2944.—2) magic song, incantation, spell: instr. sg. þonne ws þt yrfe ... galdre bewunden (placed under a spell), 3053.

gealga, w. m., gallows: dat. sg. þt his byre rde giong on galgan, 2447.

gealg-md, adj., gloomy: nom. sg. gfre and galgmd, 1278.

gealg-trew, st. n., gallows: dat. pl. on galg-trewu[m], 2941.

geard, st. m., residence; in Bewulf corresponding to the house-complex of a prince's residence, used only in the plur.: acc. in geardas (in Finn's castle), 1135; dat. in geardum, 13, 2460; of geardum, 1139; r he on weg hwurfe ... of geardum, before he went away from his dwelling-place, i.e. died, 265.—Comp. middan-geard.

gearo, adj., properly, made, prepared; hence, ready, finished, equipped: nom. sg. þt hit wearð eal gearo, heal-rna mst, 77; wiht unhlo ... gearo sna ws, the demon of destruction was quickly ready, did not delay long, 121; Here-Scyldinga betst beadorinca ws on bl gearu, was ready for the funeral-pile (for the solemn burning), 1110; þed (is) eal gearo, the warriors are altogether ready, always prepared, 1231; hraðe ws t holme hð-weard gearo (geara, MS.), 1915; gearo gð-freca, 2415; se si br gearo dre gefned, let the bier be made ready at once, 3106. With gen.: gearo gyrnwrce, ready for revenge for harm done, 2119, acc. sg. gearwe stwe, 1007; nom. pl. beornas gearwe, 211; similarly, 1814.

gearwe, gearo, geare, adv., completely, entirely: ne ge ... gearwe ne wisson, you do not know at all ..., 246; similarly, 879; hine gearwe geman witena welhwyle (remembers him very well), 265; wisse he gearwe þt ..., he knew very well that ..., 2340, 2726; þt ic ... gearo scewige swegle searogimmas (that I may see the treasures altogether, as many as they are), 2749; ic wt geare þt ..., 2657.—Comp. gearwor, more readily, rather, 3077.—Superl. gearwost, 716.

gearo-folm, adj., with ready hand, 2086.

gearwe, st. f., equipment, dress; in comp. feðer-gearwe.

geat, st. n., opening, door; in comp. ben-, hilde-geat.

geato-lc, adj., well prepared, handsome, splendid: of sword and armor, 215, 1563, 2155; of Heorot, 308. Adv.: wsa fengel geatolc gengde, passed on in a stately manner, 1402.

geatwe, st. f. pl., equipment, adornment: acc. recedes geatwa, the ornaments of the dragon's cave (its treasures), 3089.—Comp.: ered-, gryre-, gð-, hilde-, wg-geatwe.

gen (from gegn), adv. in

on-gen, adv. and prep., against, towards: þt he me ongen sle, 682; rhte ongen fend mid folme, 748; foran ongen, forward towards, 2365. With dat.: ongen gramum, against the enemy, 1035.

t-genes, t-genes, prep, against, towards: Grendle tgenes, towards Grendel, against Grendel, 667; grp þ tgenes, she grasped at (Bewulf), 1502; similarly, him tgenes fng, 1543; eodon him þ tgenes, went towards him, 1627; ht þ gebedan ... þt hie bl-wudu feorran feredon gdum tgnes, had it ordered that they should bring the wood from far for the funeral-pyre towards the good man (i.e. to the place where the dead Bewulf lay), 3115.

gep, adj., roomy, extensive, wide: nom. sg. reced ... gep, the roomy hall, 1801; acc. sg. under gepne hrf, 837.—Comp.: horn-, s-gep.

ger, st. n., year: nom. sg., 1135; gen. pl. gera, in adverbial sense, olim, in former times, 2665. See un-gera.

ger-dagas, st. m. pl., former days: dat. pl. in (on) ger-dagum, 1, 1355.

geofe. See gifu.

geofon, gifen, gyfen (see Kuhn Zeitschr. I. 137), st. n., sea, flood: nom. sg. geofon, 515; gifen getende, the streaming flood, 1691; gen. sg. geofenes begang, 362; gyfenes, 1395.

geogoð, st. f.: 1) youth, time of youth: dat. sg. on geogoðe, 409, 466, 2513; on giogoðe, 2427; gen. gioguðe, 2113.—2) contrasted with duguð, the younger warriors of lower rank (about as in the Middle Ages, the squires with the knights): nom. sg. geogoð, 66; giogoð, 1191; acc. sg. geogoðe, 1182; gen. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; duguðe and iogoðe (geogoðe), 1675, 622.

geoguð-feorh, st. n., age of youth, i.e. age in which one still belongs in the ranks of the geogoð: on geogoð- (geoguð-) feore, 537, 2665.

geohðo. See gehðo.

geolo, adj., yellow: acc. sg. geolwe linde (the shield of yellow linden bark), 2611.

geolo-rand, st. m., yellow shield (shield with a covering of interlaced yellow linden bark): acc. sg., 438.

geond, prep. w. acc., through, throughout, along, over: geond þisne middangeard, through the earth, over the earth, 75; wide geond eorðan, 266, 3100; frdon folctogan ... geond wd-wegas, went along the ways coming from afar, 841; similarly, 1705; geond þt sld, through the hall, through the extent of the hall, 1281; similarly, 1982, 2265.

geong, adj., young, youthful: nom. sg., 13, 20, 855, etc.; giong, 2447; w. m. se maga geonga, 2676; acc. sg. geongne gðcyning, 1970; dat. sg. geongum, 1949, 2045, 2675, etc.; on sw geongum feore, at a so youthful age, 1844; geongan cempan, 2627; acc. pl. geonge, 2019; dat. pl. geongum and ealdum, 72.—Superl. gingest, the last: nom. sg. w. f. gingeste word, 2818.

georn, adj., striving, eager, w. gen. of the thing striven for: eft sðes georn, 2784.—Comp. lof-georn.

georne, adv., readily, willingly: þt him wine-mgas georne hrdon, 66; georne trwode, 670.—zealously, eagerly: shte georne fter grunde, eagerly searched over the ground, 2295.—carefully, industriously: n ic him þs georne tfealh (held him not fast enough), 969.—completely, exactly: comp. wiste þ geornor, 822.

ge, i, adv., once, formerly, earlier, 1477; gi, 2522; i, 2460.

gec, st. f., help, support: acc. sg. gece gefremman, 2675; þt him gst-bona gece gefremede wið þed-þreum, 177; gece gelfde, believed in the help (of Bewulf), 609; dat. sg. t gece, 1835.

gecor, adj., ill, bad: nom. sg., 766.—See Haupt's Zeitschrift 8, p. 7.

ge-man, i-man, st. m., man of former times: gen. pl. i-manna, 3053.

ge-meowle, w. f., (formerly a virgin), wife: acc. sg. i-meowlan, 2932.

gemor, adj., with depressed feelings, sad, troubled: nom. sg. him ws gemor sefa, 49, 2420, 2633, 2951; mdes gemor, 2101; fem. þt ws gemuru ides, 1076.

gemore, adv., sadly, 151.

gemor-gid, st. n., dirge: acc. sg. gimor-gyd, 3151.

gemor-lc, adj., sad, painful: sw bið gemorlc gomelum ceorle t gebdanne þt..., it is painful to an old man to experience it, that ..., 2445.

gemor-md, adj., sad, sorrowful: nom. sg., 2045, 3019; gimor-md, 2268.

gemrian, w. v., to complain, to lament: pret. sg. gemrode giddum, 1119.

ge-sceaft, st. f., (fixed in past times), fate: acc. sg. gesceaft grimme, 1235.

gesceaft-gst, st. m., demon sent by fate: gen. pl. fela gesceaft-gsta, of Grendel and his race, 1267.

getan, st. v. intrans., to pour, to flow, to stream: pres. part. gifen getende, 1691.

gicel, st. m., icicle: in comp. hilde-gicel.

gid, gyd, st. n., speech, solemn alliterative song: nom. sg. þr ws ... gid oft wrecen, 1066; leð ws sungen, glemannes gyd, the song was sung, the gleeman's lay, 1161; þr ws gidd and gle, 2106; acc. sg. ic þis gid wrc, 1724; gyd wrc, 2109; gyd fter wrc, 2155; þonne he gyd wrece, 2447; dat. pl. giddum, 151, 1119; gen. pl. gidda gemyndig, 869.—Comp.: gemor-, word-gid.

giddian, w. v., to speak, to speak in alliteration: pret. gyddode, 631.

gif, conj.: 1) if, w. ind., 442, 447, 527, 662, etc.; gyf, 945, etc. With subj., 452, 594, 1482, etc.; gyf, 280, 1105, etc.—2) whether, w. ind., 272; w. subj., 1141, 1320.

gifa, geofa, w. m., giver; in comp. gold-, sinc-, wil-gifa (-geofa).

gifan, st. v., to give: inf. giofan, 2973; pret. sg. nallas begas geaf Denum, 1720; he me [mðmas] geaf, 2147; and similarly, 2174, 2432, 2624, etc.; pret. pl. gefon (hyne) on grsecg, 49; pret. part. þ ws Hrðgre here-spd gyfen, 64; þ ws gylden hilt gamelum rince ... on hand gyfen, 1679; syððan rest wearð gyfen ... geongum cempan (given in marriage), 1949.

-gifan, to give, to impart: inf. andsware ... gifan, to give an answer, 355; pret. sg. sna him se frda fder htheres ... ondslyht geaf (gave him a counter-blow), (hand-blow?), 2930.

for-gyfan, to give, to grant: pret. sg. him þs lf-fre ... worold-re forgeaf, 17; þm t hm forgeaf Hrðel Geta ngan dhtor (gave in marriage), 374; similarly, 2998; he me lond forgeaf, granted me land, 2493; similarly, 697, 1021, 2607, 2617; mgen-rs forgeaf hilde-bille, he gave with his battle-sword a mighty blow, i.e. he struck with full force, 1520.

of-gifan, (to give up), to leave: inf. þt se mra maga Ecgþewes grund-wong þone ofgyfan wolde (was fated to leave the earth-plain), 2589; pret. sg. þs worold ofgeaf gromheort guma, 1682; similarly, gumdrem ofgeaf, 2470; Dena land ofgeaf, 1905; pret. pl. ns ofgefon hwate Scyldingas, left the promontory, 1601; þt þ hildlatan holt ofgfan, that the cowards left the wood (into which they had fled), 2847; sg. pret. for pl. þra þe þis [lf] ofgeaf, 2252.

gifeðe, adj., given, granted: Gðfremmendra swylcum gifeðe bið þt..., to such a warrior is it granted that..., 299; similarly, 2682; sw me gifeðe ws, 2492; þr me gifeðe sw nig yrfeweard fter wurde, if an heir, (living) after me, had been given me, 2731.—Neut. as subst.: ws þt gifeðe t swð, þe þone [þeden] þyder ontyhte, the fate was too harsh that has drawn hither the king, 3086; gyfeðe, 555, 820.—Comp. un-gifeðe.

gif-heal, st. f., hall in which fiefs were bestowed, throne-hall: acc. sg. ymb þ gifhealle, 839.

gif-sceat, st. m., gift of value: acc. pl. gif-sceattas, 378.

gif-stl, st. m., seat from which fiefs are granted, throne: nom. sg., 2328; acc. sg., 168.

gift, st. f., gift, present: in comp. feoh-gift.

gifu, geofu, st. f., gift, present, grant; fief: nom. sg. gifu, 1885 acc. sg. gimfste gife þe him god sealde, the great gift that God had granted him (i.e. the enormous strength), 1272; ginfstan gife þe him god sealde, 2183; dat. pl. (as instr.) geofum, 1959; gen. pl. gifa, 1931; geofena, 1174.—Comp.: mððum-, sinc-gifu.

gigant, st. m., giant: nom. pl. gigantas, 113; gen. pl. giganta, 1563, 1691.

gild, gyld, st. n., reparation: in comp. wiðer-gyld(?).

gildan, gyldan, st. v., to do something in return, to repay, to reward, to pay: inf. gomban gyldan, pay tribute, 11; he mid gde gyldan wille uncran eaferan, 1185; we him þ gðgeatwa gyldan woldon, 2637; pret. sg. heaðorsas geald mearum and mðmum, repaid the battles with horses and treasures, 1048; similarly, 2492; geald þone gðrs ... Jofore and Wulfe mid ofermðmum, repaid Eofor and Wulf the battle with exceedingly great treasures, 2992.

an-gildan, to pay for: pret. sg. sum sre angeald fenrste, one (schere) paid for the evening-rest with death's pain, 1252.

-gildan, to offer one's self: pret. sg. þ me sl geald, when the favorable opportunity offered itself, 1666; similarly, þ him rm geald, 2691.

for-gildan, to repay, to do something in return, to reward: pres. subj. sg. III. alwalda þec gde forgylde, may the ruler of all reward thee with good, 957; inf. þone nne hht golde forgyldan, he ordered that the one (killed by Grendel) be paid for (atoned for) with gold, 1055; he ... wolde Grendle for-gyldan gðrsa fela, wished to pay Grendel for many attacks, 1578; wolde se lða lge forgyldan drinc-ft dre, the enemy wished to repay with fire the costly drinking vessel (the theft of it), 2306; pret. sg. he him þs len forgeald, he gave them the reward therefore, 114; similarly, 1542, 1585, 2095; forgeald hraðe wyrsan wrixle wlhlem þone, repaid the murderous blow with a worse exchange, 2969.

gilp, gylp, st. m., speech in which one promises great things for himself in a coming combat, defiant speech, boasting speech: acc. sg. hfde ... Get-mecga led gilp gelsted (had fulfilled what he had claimed for himself before the battle), 830; nallas on gylp seleð ftte begas, gives no chased gold rings for a boastful speech, 1750; þt ic wið þone gðflogan gylp ofersitte, restrain myself from the speech of defiance, 2529; dat. sg. gylpe wiðgrpan (fulfil my promise of battle), 2522.—Comp. dol-gilp.

gilpan, gylpan, st. v. w. gen., acc., and dat., to make a defiant speech, to boast, to exult insolently: pres. sg. I. n ic þs gilpe (after a break in the text), 587; sg. III. morðres gylpeð, boasts of the murder, 2056; inf. sw ne gylpan þearf Grendles maga nig ... uhthlem þone, 2007; nealles folc-cyning fyrdgesteallum gylpan þorfte, had no need to boast of his fellow-warrior, 2875; pret. sg. hrðsigora ne gealp goldwine Geta, did not exult at the glorious victory (could not gain the victory over the drake), 2584.

gilp-cwide, st. m., speech in which a man promises much for himself for a coming combat, speech of defiance: nom. sg., 641.

gilp-hlden, pret. part., laden with boasts of defiance (i.e. he who has made many such boasts, and consequently has been victorious in many combats), covered with glory: nom. sg. guma gilp-hlden, 869.

gilp-sprc, same as gilp-cwide, speech of defiance, boastful speech: dat. sg. on gylp-sprce, 982.

gilp-word, st. n., defiant word before the coming combat, vaunting word: gen. pl. gesprc ... gylp-worda sum, 676.

gim, st. m., gem, precious stone, jewel: nom. sg. heofones gim, heaven's jewel, i.e. the sun, 2073. Comp. searo-gim.

gimme-rce, adj., rich in jewels: acc. sg. gimme-rce hord-burh hleða, 466.

gin (according to Bout., ginne), adj., properly gaping, hence, wide, extended: acc. sg. gynne grund (the bottom of the sea), 1552.

gin-fst, adj., extensive, rich: acc. sg. gim-fste gife (gim-, on account of the following f), 1272; in weak form, gin-fstan gife, 2183.

ginnan, st. v., original meaning, to be open, ready; in

on-ginnan, to begin, to undertake: pret. ð þt n ongan fyrene fremman fend on helle, 100; secg eft ongan sð Bewulfes snyttrum styrian, 872; þ þt sweord ongan ... wanian, the sword began to diminish, 1606; Higelc ongan snne geseldan ... fgre fricgean, began with propriety to question his companion, 1984, etc.; ongon, 2791; pret. pl. n her cðlcor cuman ongunnon lindhbbende, no shield-bearing men e'er undertook more openly to come hither, 244; pret. part. hbbe ic mrða fela ongunnen on geogoðe, have in my youth undertaken many deeds of renown, 409.

gist. See gst.

gistran, adv., yesterday: gystran niht, yesterday night, 1335.

git, pron., ye two, dual of þu, 508, 512, 513, etc.

git, gyt, adv., yet; then still, 536, 1128, 1165, 2142; hitherto, 957; nfre git, never yet, 583; still, 945, 1059, 1135; once more, 2513; moreover, 47, 1051, 1867.

gitan (original meaning, to take hold of, to seize, to attain), in

be-gitan, w. acc., to grasp, to seize, to reach: pret. sg. begeat, 1147, 2231; þ hine wg beget, when war seized him, came upon him, 2873; similarly, begeat, 1069; pret. pl. hit r on þe gde be-geton, good men received it formerly from thee, 2250; subj. sg. for pl. þt ws Hrðgre hrewa tornost þra þe ledfruman lange begete, the bitterest of the troubles that for a long time had befallen the people's chief, 2131.

for-gitan, w. acc., to forget: pres. sg. III. he þ forðgesceaft forgyteð and forgmeð, 1752.

an-gitan, on-gitan, w. acc.: 1) to take hold of, to grasp: imp. sg. gumcyste ongit, lay hold of manly virtue, of what becomes the man, 1724; pret. sg. þe hine se brga angeat, whom terror seized, 1292.—2) to grasp intellectually, to comprehend, to perceive, to distinguish, to behold: pres. subj. I. þt ic rwelan ... ongite, that I may behold the ancient wealth (the treasures of the drake's cave), 2749; inf. sl timbred ... ongytan, 308, 1497; Geta clifu ongitan, 1912; pret. sg. fyren-þearfe ongeat, had perceived their distress from hostile snares, 14; ongeat ... grund-wyrgenne, beheld the she-wolf of the bottom, 1519; pret. pl. bearhtm ongeton, gðhorn galan, perceived the noise, (heard) the battle-trumpet sound, 1432; syððan hie Hygelces horn and bman gealdor ongeton, 2945.

gfre, adj., greedy, eager: nom. sg. gfre and galgmd, of Grendel's mother, 1278.—Superl.: lg..., gsta gfrost, 1124.—Comp. heoro-gfre.

gtsian, w. v., to be greedy: pres. sg. III. gtsað, 1750.

gio-, gi-. see geo-, ge-.

gladian, w. v., to gleam, to shimmer: pres. pl. III. on him gladiað gomelra lfe, upon him gleams the legacy of the men of ancient times (armor), 2037.

gld, adj., gracious, friendly (as a form of address for princes): nom. sg. be wið Getas gld, 1174; acc. sg. gldne Hrðgr, 864; gldne Hrðulf, 1182; dat. sg. gladum suna Frdan, 2026.

glde, adv., in a gracious, friendly way, 58.

gldnian, w. v., to rejoice: inf. w. gen., 367.

gld-md, adj., joyous, glad, 1786.

gld, st. f., fire, flame: nom. sg., 2653, 3115; dat. (instr.) pl. gldum, 2313, 2336, 2678, 3042.

gld-egesa, w. m., terror on account of fire, fire-terror: nom. sg. gld-egesa grim (the fire-spewing of the drake), 2651.

glew (Goth, glaggwu-s), adj., considerate, well-bred, of social conduct; in comp. un-glew.

gle, st. n., social entertainment, (especially by music, play, and jest): nom. sg. þr ws gidd and gle, 2106.

gle-bem, st. m., (tree of social entertainment, of music), harp. gen. sg. gle-bemes, 2264.

gle-drem, st. m., joyous carrying-on in social entertainment, mirth, social gaiety: acc. sg. gamen and g