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The 1913 Webster Unabridged Dictionary:
          Letters X, Y, Z and The "New Words" supplement
February, 1999  [Etext #670]

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Begin file 11 of 11:  X, Y, Z and "New Words". (Version 0.50) of
          An electronic field-marked version of:

         Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
                 Version published 1913
               by the  C. & G. Merriam Co.
                   Springfield, Mass.
                 Under the direction of
                Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D.

   This electronic version was prepared by MICRA, Inc. of Plainfield, NJ.
   Last edit February 11, 1999.

   MICRA, Inc. makes no proprietary claims on this version of the
1913 Webster dictionary.  If the original printed edition of the
1913 Webster is in the public domain, this version may also be
considered as public domain.

    This version is only a first typing, and has numerous typographic errors, including errors in the field-marks.  Assistance in bringing this dictionary to a more accurate and useful state will be greatly appreciated.
    This electronic dictionary is made available as a potential starting point for development of a modern on-line comprehensive encyclopedic dictionary, by the efforts of all individuals willing to help build a large and freely available knowledge base.  Anyone willing to assist in any way in constructing such a knowledge base should contact:

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X (ks). X, the twenty-fourth letter of the English alphabet, has three sounds; a compound nonvocal sound (that of ks), as in wax; a compound vocal sound (that of gz), as in example; and, at the beginning of a word, a simple vocal sound (that of z), as in xanthic. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 217, 270, 271.

The form and value of X are from the Latin X, which is from the Greek , which in some Greek alphabets had the value of ks, though in the one now in common use it represents an aspirated sound of k.

Xanth*am"ide (?), n. [Xanthic + amide.] (Chem.) An amido derivative of xanthic acid obtained as a white crystalline substance, C2H5O.CS.NH2; -- called also xanthogen amide.

Xan"thate (?), n. [See Xanthic.] (Chem.) A salt of xanthic; a xanthogenate.

||Xan`the*las"ma (?), n. [NL.; Gr. xanqo`s yellow + 'e`lasma a metal plate.] (Med.) See Xanthoma.

Xan"thi*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Xanthus, an ancient town on Asia Minor; -- applied especially to certain marbles found near that place, and now in the British Museum.

Xan"thic (?), a. [Gr. xanqo`s yellow: cf. F. xanthique.]

1. Tending toward a yellow color, or to one of those colors, green being excepted, in which yellow is a constituent, as scarlet, orange, etc.

2. (Chem.) (a) Possessing, imparting, or producing a yellow color; as, xanthic acid. (b) Of or pertaining to xanthic acid, or its compounds; xanthogenic. (c) Of or pertaining to xanthin.

Xanthic acid (Chem.), a heavy, astringent, colorless oil, C2H5O.CS.SH, having a pungent odor. It is produced by leading carbon disulphide into a hot alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide. So called from the yellow color of many of its salts. Called also xanthogenic acid. -- Xanthic colors (Bot.), those colors (of flowers) having some tinge of yellow; -- opposed to cyanic colors. See under Cyanic.

Xan"thide (?), n. [See Xantho-.] (Chem.) A compound or derivative of xanthogen. [Archaic]

||Xan*thid"i*um (?), n.; pl. Xanthidia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. xanqo`s yellow.] (Bot.) A genus of minute unicellular algæ of the desmids. These algæ have a rounded shape and are armed with glochidiate or branched aculei. Several species occur in ditches, and others are found fossil in flint or hornstone.

Xan"thin (?), n. [Gr. xanqo`s yellow.]

1. (Physiol. Chem.) A crystalline nitrogenous body closely related to both uric acid and hypoxanthin, present in muscle tissue, and occasionally found in the urine and in some urinary calculi. It is also present in guano. So called from the yellow color of certain of its salts (nitrates).

2. (Chem.) A yellow insoluble coloring matter extracted from yellow flowers; specifically, the coloring matter of madder. [Formerly written also xanthein.]

3. (Chem.) One of the gaseous or volatile decomposition products of the xanthates, and probably identical with carbon disulphide. [Obs.]

Xan"thi*nine (?), n. [Gr. xanqo`s yellow + quinine.] (Chem.) A complex nitrogenous substance related to urea and uric acid, produced as a white powder; -- so called because it forms yellow salts, and because its solution forms a blue fluorescence like quinine.

||Xan"thi*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. xa`nqion a plant used for dyeing the hair yellow, said to be the Xanthium strumarium, from xanqo`s yellow.] (Bot.) A genus of composite plants in which the scales of the involucre are united so as to form a kind of bur; cocklebur; clotbur.

Xan"tho- (?). A combining form from Gr. xanqo`s yellow; as in xanthocobaltic salts. Used also adjectively in chemistry.

Xan`tho*car"pous (?), a. [Xantho- + Gr. karpo`s fruit.] (Bot.) Having yellow fruit.

||Xan*thoch"ro*i (?), n. pl. [NL. See Xanthochroic.] (Ethnol.) A division of the Caucasian races, comprising the lighter-colored members.

The Xanthochroi, or fair whites, . . . are the prevalent inhabitants of Northern Europe, and the type may be traced into North Africa, and eastward as far as Hindostan.


Xan`tho*chro"ic (?), a. [Xantho- + Gr. chro`a color.] (Ethnol.) Having a yellowish or fair complexion; of or pertaining to the Xanthochroi.

Xan`tho*don"tous (?), a. [Xantho- + Gr. 'odoy`s, 'odo`ntos, tooth.] Having yellow teeth.

Xan"tho*gen (?), n. [Xantho- + -gen.] (Chem.) (a) The hypothetical radical supposed to be characteristic of xanthic acid. [Archaic] (b) Persulphocyanogen. [R.]

Xan"tho*gen*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of xanthic acid.

Xan`tho*gen"ic (?), a. [See Xantho- , and -gen.] (Chem.) Producing a yellow color or compound; xanthic. See Xanthic acid, under Xanthic.

||Xan*tho"ma (?), n. [NL. See Xantho-, and -oma.] (Med.) A skin disease marked by the development or irregular yellowish patches upon the skin, especially upon the eyelids; -- called also xanthelasma.

Xan"tho*phane (?), n. [Xantho- + Gr. fai`nein to show.] (Physiol.) The yellow pigment present in the inner segments of the retina in animals. See Chromophane.

Xan"tho*phyll (?), n. [Xantho- + Gr. fy`llon leaf.] (Bot.) A yellow coloring matter found in yellow autumn leaves, and also produced artificially from chlorophyll; -- formerly called also phylloxanthin.

Xan"tho*pous (?), a. [Xantho- + Gr. poy`s, podo`s, foot.] (Bot.) Having a yellow stipe, or stem.

Xan`tho*pro*te"ic (?), a. (Physiol. Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, xanthoprotein; showing the characters of xanthoprotein; as, xanthoproteic acid; the xanthoproteic reaction for albumin.

Xan`tho*pro"te*in (?), n. [Xantho- + protein.] (Physiol. Chem.) A yellow acid substance formed by the action of hot nitric acid on albuminous or proteid matter. It is changed to a deep orange-yellow color by the addition of ammonia.

Xan`tho*puc"cine (?), n. [Xantho- + puccoon + -ine.] (Chem.) One of three alkaloids found in the root of the yellow puccoon (Hydrastis Canadensis). It is a yellow crystalline substance, and resembles berberine.

Xan`tho*rham"nin (?), n. [Xantho- + NL. Rhamnus, the generic name of the plant bearing Persian berries.] (Chem.) A glucoside extracted from Persian berries as a yellow crystalline powder, used as a dyestuff.

Xan`tho*rhi"za (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. xanqo`s yellow + "ri`za root.] (Bot.) A genus of shrubby ranunculaceous plants of North America, including only the species Xanthorhiza apiifolia, which has roots of a deep yellow color; yellowroot. The bark is intensely bitter, and is sometimes used as a tonic.

<! p. 1671 !>

||Xan`tho*rhœ"a (?), n. [NL., from Gr. xanqo`s yellow + "rei^n to flow.] (Bot.) A genus of endogenous plants, native to Australia, having a thick, sometimes arborescent, stem, and long grasslike leaves. See Grass tree.

Xan"those (?), n. (Chem.) An orange-yellow substance found in pigment spots of certain crabs.

||Xan*tho"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. xanqo`s yellow.] (Med.) The yellow discoloration often observed in cancerous tumors.

Xan`tho*sper"mous (?), a. [Xantho- + Gr. spe`rma sperm.] (Bot.) Having yellow seeds.

Xan"thous (?), a. [Gr. xanqo`s yellow.] Yellow; specifically (Ethnol.), of or pertaining to those races of man which have yellowish, red, auburn, or brown hair.

Xan*thox"y*lene (?), n. [See Xanthoxylum.] (Chem.) A liquid hydrocarbon of the terpene series extracted from the seeds of a Japanese prickly ash (Xanthoxylum pipertium) as an aromatic oil.

||Xan*thox"y*lum (?), n. [NL., from Gr. xanqo`s yellow + xy`lon wood.] (Bot.) A genus of prickly shrubs or small trees, the bark and rots of which are of a deep yellow color; prickly ash.

The commonest species in the Northern United States is Xanthoxylum Americanum. See Prickly ash, under Prickly.

Xe"bec (z"bk), n. [Sp. jabegue, formerly spelt xabeque, or Pg. xabeco; both from Turk. sumbeki a kind of Asiatic ship; cf. Per. sumbuk, Ar. sumbk a small ship.] (Naut.) A small three-masted vessel, with projecting bow stern and convex decks, used in the Mediterranean for transporting merchandise, etc. It carries large square sails, or both. Xebecs were formerly armed and used by corsairs.

Xeme (zm), n. (Zoöl.) An Arctic fork-tailed gull (Xema Sabinii).

||Xen`e*la"si*a (?), n. [NL., from Gr. xenhlasi`a expulsion of strangers.] (Gr. Antiq.) A Spartan institution which prohibited strangers from residing in Sparta without permission, its object probably being to preserve the national simplicity of manners.

||Xe"ni*um (?), n.; pl. Xenia (#). [L., from Gr. xe`nion gift to a guest, fr. xe`nos guest.] (Class. Antiq.) A present given to a guest or stranger, or to a foreign ambassador.

||Xen`o*do*chi"um (?), n. [LL., fr. L. xenodochium a building for the reception of strangers, Gr. &?; .] (a) (Class. Antiq.) A house for the reception of strangers. (b) In the Middle Ages, a room in a monastery for the reception and entertainment of strangers and pilgrims, and for the relief of paupers. [Called also Xenodocheion.]

Xe*nod"o*chy (?), n. [Gr. &?;.] Reception of strangers; hospitality. [R.]

Xe*nog"a*my (?), n. [Gr. xe`nos strange, foreign + &?; marriage.] (Bot.) Cross fertilization.

Xen`o*gen"e*sis (?), n. [Gr. xe`nos a stranger + E. genesis.] (Biol.) (a) Same as Heterogenesis. (b) The fancied production of an organism of one kind by an organism of another. Huxley.

Xen`o*ge*net"ic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to xenogenesis; as, the xenogenetic origin of microzymes. Huxley.

Xen`o*ma"ni*a (?), n. [Gr. xe`nos strange + E. mania.] A mania for, or an inordinate attachment to, foreign customs, institutions, manners, fashions, etc. [R.] Saintsbury.

||Xen"o*mi (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. xe`nos strange.] (Zoöl.) A suborder of soft-rayed fresh-water fishes of which the blackfish of Alaska (Dallia pectoralis) is the type.

||Xe*nop`te*ryg"i*i (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. xe`nos strange + &?;, dim. of &?; a wing.] (Zoöl.) A suborder of fishes including Gobiesox and allied genera. These fishes have soft-rayed fins, and a ventral sucker supported in front by the pectoral fins. They are destitute of scales.

Xen"o*time (?), n. [Gr. &?; honoring guests or strangers; xe`nos guest, stranger + &?; honor: cf. G. xenotim.] (Min.) A native phosphate of yttrium occurring in yellowish-brown tetragonal crystals.

Xe*nu"rine (?), n. [Gr. xe`nos strange + &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) A cabassou.

Xen"yl (?), n. [Gr. xe`nos strange + -yl.] (Chem.) The radical characteristic of xenylic compounds.

Xe*nyl"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, designating, certain amido compounds obtained by reducing certain nitro derivatives of diphenyl.

Xer"a*phim (?), n. [Pg. xarafin, xerafin, fr. Ar. ashraf noble, the name of a gold coin.] An old money of account in Bombay, equal to three fifths of a rupee.

Xer"es (?), n. Sherry. See Sherry.

Xer"if (?), n. A shereef.

Xer"iff (?), n. [See Shereef.] A gold coin formerly current in Egypt and Turkey, of the value of about 9s. 6d., or about $2.30; -- also, in Morocco, a ducat.

||Xe`ro*der"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; dry + &?; skin.] (Med.) (a) Ichthyosis. (b) A skin disease characterized by the presence of numerous small pigmented spots resembling freckles, with which are subsequently mingled spots of atrophied skin.

Xe"ro*nate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of xeronic acid.

Xe*ron"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; dry + citraconic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid, C8H12O4, related to fumaric acid, and obtained from citraconic acid as an oily substance having a bittersweet taste; -- so called from its tendency to form its anhydride.

Xe*roph"a*gy (?), n. [L. xerophagia, Gr. &?;; &?; dry + &?; to eat.] Among the primitive Christians, the living on a diet of dry food in Lent and on other fasts.

Xe*roph"i*lous (?), a. [Gr. &?; dry + &?; to love.] (Bot.) Drought-loving; able withstand the absence or lack of moisture.

Plants which are peculiarly adapted to dry climates are termed by De Candolle xerophilous.


||Xe`roph*thal"mi*a (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;; &?; dry + &?; the eye. See Ophthalmia.] (Med.) An abnormal dryness of the eyeball produced usually by long- continued inflammation and subsequent atrophy of the conjunctiva.

Xe`roph*thal"my (?), n. (Med.) Xerophthalmia.

||Xiph"i*as (?), n. [L., a swordfish, a sword-shaped comet, fr. Gr. xifi`as, fr. xi`fos a sword.]

1. (Zoöl.) A genus of fishes comprising the common swordfish.

2. (Anat.) (a) The constellation Dorado. (b) A comet shaped like a sword

||Xi*phid"i*um (?), n. [NL., from Gr. &?;, dim. of xi`fos sword.] (Bot.) A genus of plants of the order Hæmodraceæ, having two-ranked, sword-shaped leaves.

Xiph"i*oid (?), a. [Xiphius + -oid.] (Zoöl.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a cetacean of the genus Xiphius or family Xiphiidæ.

||Xiph"i*plas"tron (?), n.; pl. Xiphiplastra (#). [NL., fr. Gr. xi`fos a sword + plastron.] (Anat.) The posterior, or fourth, lateral plate in the plastron of turtles; -- called also xiphisternum.

||Xiph"i*ster"num (?), n.; pl. Xiphisterna (#). [NL., fr. Gr. xi`fos a sword + sternum.] (Anat.) (a) The posterior segment, or extremity, of the sternum; -- sometimes called metasternum, ensiform cartilage, ensiform process, or xiphoid process. (b) The xiphiplastron. -- Xiph"i*ster"nal (#) a.

||Xiph"i*us (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. xi`fos a sword.] (Zoöl.) A genus of cetaceans having a long, pointed, bony beak, usually two tusklike teeth in the lower jaw, but no teeth in the upper jaw.

Xiph"o*don (?), n. [Gr. xi`fos a sword + 'odoy`s, 'odo`ntos, a tooth.] (Paleon.) An extinct genus of artiodactylous mammals found in the European Tertiary formations. It had slender legs, didactylous feet, and small canine teeth.

Xiph"oid (?; 277), a. [Gr. &?; sword- shaped; xi`fos a sword + &?; form, shape: cf. F. xiphoide.] (Anat.) (a) Like a sword; ensiform. (b) Of or pertaining to the xiphoid process; xiphoidian.

Xiph*oid"i*an (?), a. (Anat.) Xiphoid.

Xi*phoph"yl*lous (?), a. [Gr. xi`fos sword + &?; leaf.] (Bot.) Having sword- shaped leaves.

||Xiph`o*su"ra (?), n. pl. See Xiphura.

||Xi*phu"ra (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. xi`fos sword + &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) Same as Limuloidea. Called also Xiphosura.

X ray. See under Ray.

Xy*lam"ide (?), n. [Xylic + amide.] (Chem.) An acid amide derivative of xylic acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance.

Xy*lan"thrax (?), n. [Gr. xy`lon wood + &?; coal.] Wood coal, or charcoal; -- so called in distinction from mineral coal.

Xy"late (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of xylic acid.

Xy"lem (?), n. [Gr. xy`lon wood.] (Bot.) That portion of a fibrovascular bundle which has developed, or will develop, into wood cells; -- distinguished from phloëm.

Xy"lene (?), n. [Gr. xy`lon wood.] (Chem.) Any of a group of three metameric hydrocarbons of the aromatic series, found in coal and wood tar, and so named because found in crude wood spirit. They are colorless, oily, inflammable liquids, C6H4.(CH3)2, being dimethyl benzenes, and are called respectively orthoxylene, metaxylene, and paraxylene. Called also xylol.

Each of these xylenes is the nucleus and prototype of a distinct series of compounds.

Xy"le*nol (?), n. [Xylene + - ol.] (Chem.) Any one of six metameric phenol derivatives of xylene, obtained as crystalline substances, (CH3)2.C6H3.OH.

Xy*let"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a complex acid related to mesitylenic acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance by the action of sodium and carbon dioxide on crude xylenol.

Xy"lic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or related to, xylene; specifically, designating any one of several metameric acids produced by the partial oxidation of mesitylene and pseudo-cumene.

Xy*lid"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, either one of two distinct acids which are derived from xylic acid and related compounds, and are metameric with uvitic acid.

Xy"li*dine (?), n. (Chem.) Any one of six metameric hydrocarbons, (CH3)2.C6H3.NH2 , resembling aniline, and related to xylene. They are liquids, or easily fusible crystalline substances, of which three are derived from metaxylene, two from orthoxylene, and one from paraxylene. They are called the amido xylenes.

The xylidine of commerce, used in making certain dyes, consists chiefly of the derivatives of paraxylene and metaxylene.

Xy*lin"de*in (?), n. (Chem.) A green or blue pigment produced by Peziza in certain kinds of decayed wood, as the beech, oak, birch, etc., and extracted as an amorphous powder resembling indigo.

Xy"lite (?), n. [Gr. xy`lon wood.] (Chem.) A liquid hydrocarbon found in crude wood spirits.

Xy"li*tone (?), n. (Chem.) A yellow oil having a geraniumlike odor, produced as a side product in making phorone; -- called also xylite oil.

Xy"lo- (?). A combining form from Gr. xy`lon wood; as in xylogen, xylograph.

||Xy`lo*bal"sa*mum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. xy`lon wood + &?; the balsam tree, balsam; cf. L. xylobalsamum balsam wood, Gr. &?;.] (Med.) The dried twigs of a Syrian tree (Balsamodendron Gileadense). U. S. Disp.

Xy`lo*car"pous (?), a. [Xylo- + Gr. karpo`s fruit.] (Bot.) Bearing fruit which becomes hard or woody.

||Xy*loc"o*pa (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; cutting wood; xy`lon wood + &?; to cut.] (Zoöl.) A genus of hymenopterous insects including the carpenter. See Carpenter bee, under Carpenter. -- Xy*loc"o*pine (#), a.

Xy"lo*gen (?), n. [Xylo- + - gen.] (a) (Bot.) Nascent wood; wood cells in a forming state. (b) Lignin.

Xy"lo*graph (?), n. [Xylo- + - graph.] An engraving on wood, or the impression from such an engraving; a print by xylography.

Xy*log"ra*pher (?), n. One who practices xylography.

{ Xy`lo*graph"ic (?), Xy`lo*graph"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. xylographique.] Of or pertaining to xylography, or wood engraving.

Xy*log"ra*phy (?), n. [Xylo- + -graphy: cf. F. xylographie.]

1. The art of engraving on wood.

2. The art of making prints from the natural grain of wood. Knight.

3. A method pf printing in colors upon wood for purposes of house decoration. Ure.

Xy"loid (?), a. [Xylo- + - oid.] Resembling wood; having the nature of wood.

Xy*loid"in (?), n. [Xylo- + - oid.] (Chem.) A substance resembling pyroxylin, obtained by the action of nitric acid on starch; -- called also nitramidin.

Xy"lol (?), n. [Xylo- + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) Same as Xylene.

Xy"lon*ite (?), n. See Zylonite.

||Xy*loph"a*ga (?), n. [NL. See Xylophagous.] (Zoöl.) A genus of marine bivalves which bore holes in wood. They are allied to Pholas.

Xy*loph"a*gan (?), n. [See Xylophagous.] (Zoöl.) (a) One of a tribe of beetles whose larvæ bore or live in wood. (b) Any species of Xylophaga. (c) Any one of the Xylophagides.

||Xy`lo*phag"i*des (?), n. pl. [See Xylophagous.] (Zoöl.) A tribe or family of dipterous flies whose larvæ live in decayed wood. Some of the tropical species are very large.

Xy*loph"a*gous (?), a. [Gr. &?; eating wood; xy`lon wood + &?; to eat.] (Zoöl.) (a) Eating, boring in, or destroying, wood; -- said especially of certain insect larvæ, crustaceans, and mollusks. (b) Of or pertaining to the genus Xylophaga.

Xy*loph"i*lan (?), n. [See Xylophilous.] (Zoöl.) One of a tribe of beetles (Xylophili) whose larvæ live on decayed wood.

Xy*loph"i*lous (?), a. [Xylo- + Gr. filei^n to love.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the xylophilans.

Xy"lo*phone (?), n. [Xylo- + Gr. fwnh` sound.]

1. (Mus.) An instrument common among the Russians, Poles, and Tartars, consisting of a series of strips of wood or glass graduated in length to the musical scale, resting on belts of straw, and struck with two small hammers. Called in Germany strohfiedel, or straw fiddle.

2. An instrument to determine the vibrative properties of different kinds of wood. Knight.

Xy`lo*plas"tic (?), a. [Xylo- + -plastic.] (Technol.) Formed of wood pulp by molds; relating to casts made of wood pulp in molds.

Xy`lo*py*rog"ra*phy (?). n. [Xylo- + Gr. &?;, &?;, fire + -graphy.] The art or practice of burning pictures on wood with a hot iron; -- called also poker painting. See Poker picture, under Poker.

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Xy`lo*qui"none (?), n. [Xylene + quinone.] (Chem.) Any one of a group of quinone compounds obtained respectively by the oxidation of certain xylidine compounds. In general they are yellow crystalline substances.

Xy*lor"cin (?), n. [Xylene + orcin.] (Chem.) A derivative of xylene obtained as a white crystalline substance which on exposure in the air becomes red; -- called also betaorcin.

Xy*los"te*in (?), n. [Xylo- + Gr. &?; bone.] (Chem.) A glucoside found in the poisonous berries of a species of honeysuckle (Lonicera xylosteum), and extracted as a bitter, white, crystalline substance.

Xy"lo*tile (?), n. Same as Parkesine.

||Xy*lo"try*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. xy`lon wood + &?; to rub, wear out.] (Zoöl.) A genus of marine bivalves closely allied to Teredo, and equally destructive to timber. One species (Xylotrya fimbriata) is very common on the Atlantic coast of the United States.

Xy"lyl (?), n. [Xylo- + - yl.] (Chem.) Any one of three metameric radicals which are characteristic respectively of the three xylenes.

Xy"lyl*ene (?), n. (Chem.) Any one of three metameric radicals, CH2.C6H4.CH2, derived respectively from the three xylenes. Often used adjectively; as, xylylene alcohol.

Xyr`i*da"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order (Xyrideæ) of endogenous plants, of which Xyris is the type.

||Xy"ris (?), n. [L., a kind of Iris, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; a razor.] (Bot.) A genus of endogenous herbs with grassy leaves and small yellow flowers in short, scaly- bracted spikes; yellow-eyed grass. There are about seventeen species in the Atlantic United States.

{ Xyst (?), ||Xys"tus (?), } n. [L. xystus, Gr. &?;, from &?; to scrape, polish; -- so called from its smooth and polished floor.] (Anc. Arch.) A long and open portico, for athletic exercises, as wrestling, running, etc., for use in winter or in stormy weather.

Xyst"arch (?), n. [L. xystarches, Gr. &?;, &?; a xyst + &?; to rule.] (Gr. Antiq.) An office&?; having the superintendence of the xyst. Dr. W. Smith.

Xys"ter (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. xysth`r a scraper.] (Surg.) An instrument for scraping bones.


Y (w). Y, the twenty-fifth letter of the English alphabet, at the beginning of a word or syllable, except when a prefix (see Y-), is usually a fricative vocal consonant; as a prefix, and usually in the middle or at the end of a syllable, it is a vowel. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 145, 178-9, 272.

It derives its form from the Latin Y, which is from the Greek , originally the same letter as V. Etymologically, it is most nearly related to u, i, o, and j. g; as in full, fill, AS. fyllan; E. crypt, grotto; young, juvenile; day, AS. dæg. See U, I, and J, G.

Y has been called the Pythagorean letter, because the Greek letter was taken represent the sacred triad, formed by the duad proceeding from the monad; and also because it represents the dividing of the paths of vice and virtue in the development of human life.

Y (w), n.; pl. Y's (wz) or Ys. Something shaped like the letter Y; a forked piece resembling in form the letter Y. Specifically: (a) One of the forked holders for supporting the telescope of a leveling instrument, or the axis of a theodolite; a wye. (b) A forked or bifurcated pipe fitting. (c) (Railroads) A portion of track consisting of two diverging tracks connected by a cross track.

Y level (Surv.), an instrument for measuring differences of level by means of a telescope resting in Y's. -- Y moth (Zoöl.), a handsome European noctuid moth Plusia gamma) which has a bright, silvery mark, shaped like the letter Y, on each of the fore wings. Its larva, which is green with five dorsal white species, feeds on the cabbage, turnip, bean, etc. Called also gamma moth, and silver Y.

Y (), pron. I. [Obs.] King Horn. Wyclif.

{ Y- (?), or I- }. [OE. y-, i-, AS. ge-, akin to D. & G. ge-, OHG. gi-, ga- , Goth. ga-, and perhaps to Latin con-; originally meaning, together. Cf. Com-, Aware, Enough, Handiwork, Ywis.] A prefix of obscure meaning, originally used with verbs, adverbs, adjectives, nouns, and pronouns. In the Middle English period, it was little employed except with verbs, being chiefly used with past participles, though occasionally with the infinitive Ycleped, or yclept, is perhaps the only word not entirely obsolete which shows this use.

That no wight mighte it see neither yheere.


Neither to ben yburied nor ybrent.


Some examples of Chaucer's use of this prefix are; ibe, ibeen, icaught, ycome, ydo, idoon, ygo, iproved, ywrought. It inough, enough, it is combined with an adjective. Other examples are in the Vocabulary.

Spenser and later writers frequently employed this prefix when affecting an archaic style, and sometimes used it incorrectly.

Ya (yä), adv. Yea. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Yac"a*re` (yk"*r`), n. [See Jacare.] (Zoöl.) A South American crocodilian (Jacare sclerops) resembling the alligator in size and habits. The eye orbits are connected together, and surrounded by prominent bony ridges. Called also spectacled alligator, and spectacled cayman. [Written also jacare.]

The name is also applied to allied species.

Yac"ca (yk"k), n. (Bot.) A West Indian name for two large timber trees (Podocarpus coriaceus, and P. Purdicanus) of the Yew family. The wood, which is much used, is pale brownish with darker streaks.

Yacht (yt), n. [D. jagt, jacht; perhaps properly, a chase, hunting, from. jagen to chase, hunt, akin to G. jagen, OHG. jagn, of uncertain origin; or perhaps akin to OHG. ghi quick, sudden (cf. Gay).] (Naut.) A light and elegantly furnished vessel, used either for private parties of pleasure, or as a vessel of state to convey distinguished persons from one place to another; a seagoing vessel used only for pleasure trips, racing, etc.

Yacht measurement. See the Note under Tonnage, 4.

Yacht, v. i. To manage a yacht; to voyage in a yacht.

Yacht"er (-r), n. One engaged in sailing a jacht.

Yacht"ing, n. Sailing for pleasure in a yacht.

Yacht"man (?), n. See Yachtsman.

Yachts"man (?), n.; pl. Yachtsmen (&?;). One who owns or sails a yacht; a yachter.

Yaf (?), obs. imp. of Give. [AS. geaf, imp. of giefan to give. See Give] Gave. See Give. Chaucer.

Yaf"fin*gale (?), n. [See Yaffle, and cf. Nightingale.] (Zoöl.) The yaffle. [Prov. Eng.]

Yaf"fle (?), n. [Probably imitative of its call or cry.] (Zoöl.) The European green woodpecker (Picus, or Genius, viridis). It is noted for its loud laughlike note. Called also eccle, hewhole, highhoe, laughing bird, popinjay, rain bird, yaffil, yaffler, yaffingale, yappingale, yackel, and woodhack.

Ya"ger (?; 277), n. [G. jäger a hunter, from jagen to chase, hunt.] (Mil.) In the German army, one belonging to a body of light infantry armed with rifles, resembling the chasseur of the French army. [Written also jager.]

Ya`gua*run"di (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Jaguarondi. [Written also yaguarondi, and yagouarondi.]

||Yaj"ur-Ve"da (yj"ûr-v`d or -v`d), n. [Skr. yajur- vda.] See Veda.

Yak (yk), n. [Thibetan gyag.] (Zoöl.) A bovine mammal (Poëphagus grunnies) native of the high plains of Central Asia. Its neck, the outer side of its legs, and its flanks, are covered with long, flowing, fine hair. Its tail is long and bushy, often white, and is valued as an ornament and for other purposes in India and China. There are several domesticated varieties, some of which lack the mane and the long hair on the flanks. Called also chauri gua, grunting cow, grunting ox, sarlac, sarlik, and sarluc.

Yak lace, a coarse pillow lace made from the silky hair of the yak.

Yak"a*milk (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Trumpeter, 3 (a).

Yak"a*re` (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Yacare.

Ya"kin (?), n. (Zoöl.) A large Asiatic antelope (Budorcas taxicolor) native of the higher parts of the Himalayas and other lofty mountains. Its head and neck resemble those of the ox, and its tail is like that of the goat. Called also budorcas.

Ya*koots" (?), n. pl.; sing. Yakoot (&?;). (Ethnol.) A nomadic Mongolian tribe native of Northern Siberia, and supposed to be of Turkish stock. They are mainly pastoral in their habits. [Written also Yakuts.]

||Yak"sha (?), n. [Skr.] (Hindoo Myth.) A kind of demigod attendant on Kuvera, the god of wealth.

Ya"lah (?), n. The oil of the mahwa tree.

Yam (ym), n. [Pg. inhame, probably from some native name.] (Bot.) A large, esculent, farinaceous tuber of various climbing plants of the genus Dioscorea; also, the plants themselves. Mostly natives of warm climates. The plants have netted-veined, petioled leaves, and pods with three broad wings. The commonest species is D. sativa, but several others are cultivated.

Chinese yam, a plant (Dioscorea Batatas) with a long and slender tuber, hardier than most of the other species. -- Wild yam. (a) A common plant (Dioscorea villosa) of the Eastern United States, having a hard and knotty rootstock. (b) An orchidaceous plant (Gastrodia sesamoides) of Australia and Tasmania.

||Ya"ma (?), n. [Skr. yama a twin.] (Hindoo Myth.) The king of the infernal regions, corresponding to the Greek Pluto, and also the judge of departed souls. In later times he is more exclusively considered the dire judge of all, and the tormentor of the wicked. He is represented as of a green color, with red garments, having a crown on his head, his eyes inflamed, and sitting on a buffalo, with a club and noose in his hands.

Yam"ma (?), n. [See Llama.] (Zoöl.) The llama.

Yamp (?), n. (Bot.) An umbelliferous plant (Carum Gairdneri); also, its small fleshy roots, which are eaten by the Indians from Idaho to California.

Yang (?), n. [Of imitative origin.] The cry of the wild goose; a honk.

Yang, v. i. To make the cry of the wild goose.

Yank (?), n. [Cf. Scot. yank a sudden and severe blow.] A jerk or twitch. [Colloq. U. S.]

Yank, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Yanked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yanking.] To twitch; to jerk. [Colloq. U. S.]

Yank, n. An abbreviation of Yankee. [Slang]

Yan"kee (?), n. [Commonly considered to be a corrupt pronunciation of the word English, or of the French word Anglais, by the native Indians of America. According to Thierry, a corruption of Jankin, a diminutive of John, and a nickname given to the English colonists of Connecticut by the Dutch settlers of New York. Dr. W. Gordon ("Hist. of the Amer. War," ed, 1789, vol. i., pp. 324, 325) says it was a favorite cant word in Cambridge, Mass., as early as 1713, and that it meant excellent; as, a yankee good horse, yankee good cider, etc. Cf. Scot yankie a sharp, clever, and rather bold woman, and Prov. E. bow-yankees a kind of leggins worn by agricultural laborers.] A nickname for a native or citizen of New England, especially one descended from old New England stock; by extension, an inhabitant of the Northern States as distinguished from a Southerner; also, applied sometimes by foreigners to any inhabitant of the United States.

From meanness first this Portsmouth Yankey rose,
And still to meanness all his conduct flows.

Oppression, A poem by an American (Boston, 1765).

Yan"kee, a. Of or pertaining to a Yankee; characteristic of the Yankees.

The alertness of the Yankee aspect.


Yankee clover. (Bot.) See Japan clover, under Japan.

Yan`kee-Doo"dle (?), n. 1. The name of a tune adopted popularly as one of the national airs of the United States.

2. Humorously, a Yankee.

We might have withheld our political noodles
From knocking their heads against hot Yankee- Doodles.


Yan"kee*ism (?), n. A Yankee idiom, word, custom, or the like. Lowell.

||Yaourt (?), n. [Turk. yoghurt.] A fermented drink, or milk beer, made by the Turks.

Yap (?), v. i. [Icel. gjlpa; akin to yelp. Cf. Yaup.] To bark; to yelp. L'Estrange.

Yap (?), n. A bark; a yelp.

Ya"pock (?; 277), n. [Probably from the river Oyapok, between French Guiana and Brazil.] (Zoöl.) A South American aquatic opossum (Chironectes variegatus) found in Guiana and Brazil. Its hind feet are webbed, and its fore feet do not have an opposable thumb for climbing. Called also water opossum. [Written also yapack.]

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Ya"pon (?; 277), n. (Bot.) Same as Yaupon.

Yar"age (?; 48), n. [See Yare, a.] (Naut.) The power of moving, or being managed, at sea; -- said with reference to a ship. Sir T. North.

Yard (?), n. [OE. yerd, AS. gierd, gyrd, a rod, stick, a measure, a yard; akin to OFries. ierde, OS. gerda, D. garde, G. gerte, OHG. gartia, gerta, gart, Icel. gaddr a goad, sting, Goth. gazds, and probably to L. hasta a spear. Cf. Gad, n., Gird, n., Gride, v. i., Hastate.]

1. A rod; a stick; a staff. [Obs.] P. Plowman.

If men smote it with a yerde.


2. A branch; a twig. [Obs.]

The bitter frosts with the sleet and rain
Destroyed hath the green in every yerd.


3. A long piece of timber, as a rafter, etc. [Obs.]

4. A measure of length, equaling three feet, or thirty-six inches, being the standard of English and American measure.

5. The penis.

6. (Naut.) A long piece of timber, nearly cylindrical, tapering toward the ends, and designed to support and extend a square sail. A yard is usually hung by the center to the mast. See Illust. of Ship.

Golden Yard, or Yard and Ell (Astron.), a popular name of the three stars in the belt of Orion. -- Under yard [i. e., under the rod], under contract. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Yard, n. [OE. yard, yerd, AS. geard; akin to OFries. garda garden, OS. gardo garden, gard yard, D. gaard garden, G. garten, OHG. garto garden, gari inclosure, Icel. garðr yard, house, Sw. gård, Dan. gaard, Goth. gards a house, garda sheepfold, L. hortus garden, Gr. cho`rtos an inclosure. Cf. Court, Garden, Garth, Horticulture, Orchard.]

1. An inclosure; usually, a small inclosed place in front of, or around, a house or barn; as, a courtyard; a cowyard; a barnyard.

A yard . . . inclosed all about with sticks
In which she had a cock, hight chanticleer.


2. An inclosure within which any work or business is carried on; as, a dockyard; a shipyard.

Liberty of the yard, a liberty, granted to persons imprisoned for debt, of walking in the yard, or within any other limits prescribed by law, on their giving bond not to go beyond those limits. -- Prison yard, an inclosure about a prison, or attached to it. -- Yard grass (Bot.), a low-growing grass (Eleusine Indica) having digitate spikes. It is common in dooryards, and like places, especially in the Southern United States. Called also crab grass. -- Yard of land. See Yardland.

Yard, v. t. To confine (cattle) to the yard; to shut up, or keep, in a yard; as, to yard cows.

Yard"arm` (?), n. (Naut.) Either half of a square-rigged vessel's yard, from the center or mast to the end.

Ships are said to be yardarm and yardarm when so near as to touch, or interlock yards.

Yard"ful (?), n.; pl. Yardfuls (&?;). As much as a yard will contain; enough to fill a yard.

Yard"land` (?), n. (O. Eng. Law) A measure of land of uncertain quantity, varying from fifteen to forty acres; a virgate. [Obs.]

Yard"stick` (?), n. A stick three feet, or a yard, in length, used as a measure of cloth, etc.

Yard"wand` (?), n. A yardstick. Tennyson.

Yare (?), a. [OE. yare, aru, AS. gearu; akin to OS. garu, OHG. garo, G. gar, Icel. gerr perfect, görva quite, G. gerben to tan, to curry, OHG. garawen, garwen, to make ready. Cf. Carouse, Garb clothing, Gear, n.] Ready; dexterous; eager; lively; quick to move. [Obs.] "Be yare in thy preparation." Shak.

The lesser [ship] will come and go, leave or take, and is yare; whereas the greater is slow.

Sir W. Raleigh.

Yare, adv. Soon. [Obs.] Cursor Mundi.

Yare"ly, adv. In a yare manner. [Obs.] Shak.

Yark (?), v. t. & i. To yerk. [Prov. Eng.]

Yar"ke (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Saki.

Yarn (?), n. [OE. yarn, arn, AS. gearn; akin to D. garen, G., OHG., Icel., Sw., & Dan. garn; of uncertain origin. Cf. Cord.]

1. Spun wool; woolen thread; also, thread of other material, as of cotton, flax, hemp, or silk; material spun and prepared for use in weaving, knitting, manufacturing sewing thread, or the like.

2. (Rope Making) One of the threads of which the strands of a rope are composed.

3. A story told by a sailor for the amusement of his companions; a story or tale; as, to spin a yarn. [Colloq.]

Yarn"en (?), a. Made of yarn; consisting of yarn. [Obs.] "A pair of yarnen stocks." Turbervile.

Yar"nut` (?), n. (Bot.) See Yernut.

Yarr (?), v. i. [OE. arren.] To growl or snarl as a dog. [Obs.] Ainsworth.

Yar"rish (?), a. [Prov. E. yar sour, yare brackish.] Having a rough, dry taste. [Prov. Eng.]

Yar"row (?), n. [OE. yarowe, yarwe, arowe, AS. gearwe; akin to D. gerw, OHG. garwa, garawa, G. garbe, schafgarbe, and perhaps to E. yare.] (Bot.) An American and European composite plant (Achillea Millefolium) with very finely dissected leaves and small white corymbed flowers. It has a strong, and somewhat aromatic, odor and taste, and is sometimes used in making beer, or is dried for smoking. Called also milfoil, and nosebleed.

Yar"whip` (?), n. [So called from its sharp cry uttered when taking wing.] (Zoöl.) The European bar-tailed godwit; -- called also yardkeep, and yarwhelp. See Godwit. [Prov. Eng.]

Yat"a*ghan (?), n. [Turk. ytghn.] A long knife, or short saber, common among Mohammedan nations, usually having a double curve, sometimes nearly straight. [Written also ataghan, attaghan.] Chaucer.

Yate (?), n. A gate. See 1st Gate. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Spenser.

Yaud (?), n. See Yawd. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

Yaul (?), n. (Naut.) See Yawl.

Yaulp (?), v. i. To yaup.

Yaup (?), v. i. [See Yap, and Yelp.] To cry out like a child; to yelp. [Scot. & Colloq. U. S.] [Written also yawp.]

Yaup, n. [Written also yawp.]

1. A cry of distress, rage, or the like, as the cry of a sickly bird, or of a child in pain. [Scot. & Colloq. U. S.]

2. (Zoöl.) The blue titmouse. [Prov. Eng.]

Yaup"er (?), n. One who, or that which, yaups.

Yau"pon (?), n. (Bot.) A shrub (Ilex Cassine) of the Holly family, native from Virginia to Florida. The smooth elliptical leaves are used as a substitute for tea, and were formerly used in preparing the black drink of the Indians of North Carolina. Called also South-Sea tea. [Written also yapon, youpon, and yupon.]

Yaw (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Yawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yawing.] [Cf. Yew, v. i.] To rise in blisters, breaking in white froth, as cane juice in the clarifiers in sugar works.

Yaw, v. i. & t. [Cf. Prov. G. gagen to rock, gageln to totter, shake, Norw. gaga to bend backward, Icel. gagr bent back, gaga to throw the neck back.] (Naut.) To steer wild, or out of the line of her course; to deviate from her course, as when struck by a heavy sea; -- said of a ship.

Just as he would lay the ship's course, all yawing being out of the question.


Yaw, n. (Naut.) A movement of a vessel by which she temporarily alters her course; a deviation from a straight course in steering.

Yawd (?), n. [Cf. Icel. jalda a mare, E. jade a nag.] A jade; an old horse or mare. [Written also yaud.] [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Grose.

Yawl (?), n. [D. jol; akin to LG. & Dan. jolle, Sw. julle. Cf. Jolly-boat.] (Naut.) A small ship's boat, usually rowed by four or six oars. [Written also yaul.]

Yawl, v. i. [OE. aulen, oulen, gaulen, goulen, Icel. gaula to low, bellow. Cf. Gowl.] To cry out like a dog or cat; to howl; to yell. Tennyson.

There howling Scyllas yawling round about.


Yawl"-rigged" (?), a. (Naut.) Having two masts with fore-and-aft sails, but differing from a schooner in that the after mast is very small, and stepped as far aft as possible. See Illustration in Appendix.

Yawn (yn), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Yawned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yawning.] [OE. yanien, anien, ganien, gonien, AS. gnian; akin to ginian to yawn, gnan to yawn, open wide, G. gähnen to yawn, OHG. ginn, geinn, Icel. gna to yawn, gin the mouth, OSlav. zijati to yawn, L. hiare to gape, yawn; and perhaps to E. begin, cf. Gr. cheia` a hole. √47b. Cf. Begin, Gin to begin, Hiatus.]

1. To open the mouth involuntarily through drowsiness, dullness, or fatigue; to gape; to oscitate. "The lazy, yawning drone." Shak.

And while above he spends his breath,
The yawning audience nod beneath.


2. To open wide; to gape, as if to allow the entrance or exit of anything.

't is now the very witching time of night,
When churchyards yawn.


3. To open the mouth, or to gape, through surprise or bewilderment. Shak.

4. To be eager; to desire to swallow anything; to express desire by yawning; as, to yawn for fat livings. "One long, yawning gaze." Landor.

Yawn, n. 1. An involuntary act, excited by drowsiness, etc., consisting of a deep and long inspiration following several successive attempts at inspiration, the mouth, fauces, etc., being wide open.

One person yawning in company will produce a spontaneous yawn in all present.

N. Chipman.

2. The act of opening wide, or of gaping. Addison.

3. A chasm, mouth, or passageway. [R.]

Now gape the graves, and trough their yawns let loose
Imprisoned spirits.


Yawn"ing*ly, adv. In a yawning manner.

Yawp (?), v. & n. See Yaup.

Yaws (?), n. [African yaw a raspberry.] (Med.) A disease, occurring in the Antilles and in Africa, characterized by yellowish or reddish tumors, of a contagious character, which, in shape and appearance, often resemble currants, strawberries, or raspberries. There are several varieties of this disease, variously known as frambœsia, pian, verrugas, and crab-yaws.

Yaw"-weed` (?), n. (Bot.) A low, shrubby, rubiaceous plant (Morinda Royoc) growing along the seacoast of the West Indies. It has small, white, odorous flowers.

Y*be" (?), obs. p. p. of Be. Been. Chaucer.

Y*cleped" (?), p. p. [AS. geclipod, p. p. of clipian, cleopian, cliopian, to call. See Clepe, and also the Note under Y-.] Called; named; -- obsolete, except in archaic or humorous writings. [Spelt also yclept.]

It is full fair to ben yclept madame.


But come, thou goddess fair and free.
In heaven ycleped Euphrosyne.


Those charming little missives ycleped valentines.


Y*do" (?), obs. p. p. of Do. Done. Chaucer.

Y*drad" (?), obs. p. p. of Dread. Dreaded.

Yet nothing did he dread, but ever was ydrad.


{Ye, Ye ()}, an old method of printing the article the (AS. þe), the "y" being used in place of the Anglo-Saxon thorn (þ). It is sometimes incorrectly pronounced y. See The, and Thorn, n., 4.

Y"ë ("e), n.; pl. Yën ("en). An eye. [Obs.]

From his yën ran the water down.


Ye (y), pron. [OE. ye, e, nom. pl., AS. ge, g; cf. OS. ge, g, OFries. g, , D. gij, Dan. & Sw. i, Icel. r, OHG. ir, G. ihr, Goth. jus, Lith. jus, Gr. "ymei^s, Skr. yuyam. √189.] The plural of the pronoun of the second person in the nominative case.

Ye ben to me right welcome heartily.


But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified.

1 Cor. vi. 11.

This would cost you your life in case ye were a man.


In Old English ye was used only as a nominative, and you only as a dative or objective. In the 16th century, however, ye and you became confused and were often used interchangeably, both as nominatives and objectives, and you has now superseded ye except in solemn or poetic use. See You, and also the first Note under Thou.

Vain pomp and glory of this world, I hate ye.


I come, kind gentlemen, strange news to tell ye.


Ye (y), adv. [See Yea.] Yea; yes. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Yea (y or y; 277), adv. [OE. ye, ya, e, a, AS. geá; akin to OFries. g, i, OS., D., OHG., G., Dan. & Sw. ja, Icel, j, Goth. ja, jai, and probably to Gr. "h^ truly, verily. √188. Cf. Yes.]

1. Yes; ay; a word expressing assent, or an affirmative, or an affirmative answer to a question, now superseded by yes. See Yes.

Let your communication be yea, yea; nay, nay.

Matt. v. 37.

2. More than this; not only so, but; -- used to mark the addition of a more specific or more emphatic clause. Cf. Nay, adv., 2.

I therein do rejoice, yea, and will rejoice.

Phil. i. 18.

Yea sometimes introduces a clause, with the sense of indeed, verily, truly. "Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?" Gen. iii. 1.

Yea, n. An affirmative vote; one who votes in the affirmative; as, a vote by yeas and nays.

In the Scriptures, yea is used as a sign of certainty or stability. "All the promises of God in him are yea, and in him Amen." 2 Cor. i. 20.

Yead (?), v. i. Properly, a variant of the defective imperfect yode, but sometimes mistaken for a present. See the Note under Yede. [Obs.]

Years yead away and faces fair deflower.


Yean (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Yeaned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yeaning.] [AS. eánian, or geeánian; perhaps akin to E. ewe, or perhaps to L. agnus, Gr. &?;. Cf. Ean.] To bring forth young, as a goat or a sheep; to ean. Shak.

Yean"ling (?), n. [Yean + - ling. Cf. Eanling.] A lamb or a kid; an eanling. Shak.

Year (?), n. [OE. yer, yeer, er, AS. geár; akin to OFries. i&?;r, g&?;r, D. jaar, OHG. jr, G. jahr, Icel. r, Dan. aar, Sw. år, Goth. j&?;r, Gr. &?; a season of the year, springtime, a part of the day, an hour, &?; a year, Zend yre year. √4, 279. Cf. Hour, Yore.]

1. The time of the apparent revolution of the sun trough the ecliptic; the period occupied by the earth in making its revolution around the sun, called the astronomical year; also, a period more or less nearly agreeing with this, adopted by various nations as a measure of time, and called the civil year; as, the common lunar year of 354 days, still in use among the Mohammedans; the year of 360 days, etc. In common usage, the year consists of 365 days, and every fourth year (called bissextile, or leap year) of 366 days, a day being added to February on that year, on account of the excess above 365 days (see Bissextile).

Of twenty year of age he was, I guess.


The civil, or legal, year, in England, formerly commenced on the 25th of March. This practice continued throughout the British dominions till the year 1752.

2. The time in which any planet completes a revolution about the sun; as, the year of Jupiter or of Saturn.

3. pl. Age, or old age; as, a man in years. Shak.

Anomalistic year, the time of the earth's revolution from perihelion to perihelion again, which is 365 days, 6 hours, 13 minutes, and 48 seconds. -- A year's mind (Eccl.), a commemoration of a deceased person, as by a Mass, a year after his death. Cf. A month's mind, under Month. -- Bissextile year. See Bissextile. -- Canicular year. See under Canicular. -- Civil year, the year adopted by any nation for the computation of time. -- Common lunar year, the period of 12 lunar months, or 354 days. -- Common year, each year of 365 days, as distinguished from leap year. -- Embolismic year, or Intercalary lunar year, the period of 13 lunar months, or 384 days. -- Fiscal year (Com.), the year by which accounts are reckoned, or the year between one annual time of settlement, or balancing of accounts, and another. -- Great year. See Platonic year, under Platonic. -- Gregorian year, Julian year. See under Gregorian, and Julian. -- Leap year. See Leap year, in the Vocabulary. -- Lunar astronomical year, the period of 12 lunar synodical months, or 354 days, 8 hours, 48 minutes, 36 seconds. - - Lunisolar year. See under Lunisolar. -- Periodical year. See Anomalistic year, above. -- Platonic year, Sabbatical year. See under Platonic, and Sabbatical. -- Sidereal year, the time in which the sun, departing from any fixed star, returns to the same. This is 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, and 9.3 seconds. -- Tropical year. See under Tropical. -- Year and a day (O. Eng. Law), a time to be allowed for an act or an event, in order that an entire year might be secured beyond all question. Abbott. -- Year of grace, any year of the Christian era; Anno Domini; A. D. or a. d.

Ye*a"ra (?), n. (Bot.) The California poison oak (Rhus diversiloba). See under Poison, a.

Year"book` (?), n. 1. A book published yearly; any annual report or summary of the statistics or facts of a year, designed to be used as a reference book; as, the Congregational Yearbook.

2. (Eng. Law) A book containing annual reports of cases adjudged in the courts of England.

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The Yearbooks are the oldest English reports extant, beginning with the reign of Edward II., and ending with the reign of Henry VIII. They were published annually, and derive their name from that fact. They consist of eleven parts, or volumes, are written in Law French, and extend over nearly two hundred years. There are, however, several hiatuses, or chasms, in the series. Kent. Bouvier.

Yeared (?), a. Containing years; having existed or continued many years; aged. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Year"ling (?), n. [Year + - ling.] An animal one year old, or in the second year of its age; -- applied chiefly to cattle, sheep, and horses.

Year"ling, a. Being a year old. "A yearling bullock to thy name small smoke." Pope.

Year"ly (?), a. [AS. geárlic.]

1. Happening, accruing, or coming every year; annual; as, a yearly income; a yearly feast.

2. Lasting a year; as, a yearly plant.

3. Accomplished in a year; as, the yearly circuit, or revolution, of the earth. Shak.

Year"ly, adv. [AS. geárlice.] Annually; once a year to year; as, blessings yearly bestowed.

Yearly will I do this rite.


Yearn (yrn), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Yearned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yearning.] [Also earn, ern; probably a corruption of OE. ermen to grieve, AS. ierman, yrman, or geierman, geyrman, fr. earm wretched, poor; akin to D. & G. arm, Icel. armr, Goth. arms. The y- in English is perhaps due to the AS. ge (see Y-).] To pain; to grieve; to vex. [Obs.] "She laments, sir, for it, that it would yearn your heart to see it." Shak.

It yearns me not if men my garments wear.


Yearn, v. i. To be pained or distressed; to grieve; to mourn. [Obs.] "Falstaff he is dead, and we must yearn therefore." Shak.

Yearn, v. i. & t. [See Yearnings.] To curdle, as milk. [Scot.]

Yearn, v. i. [OE. yernen, ernen, eornen, AS. geornian, gyrnan, fr. georn desirous, eager; akin to OS. gern desirous, girnean, gernean, to desire, D. gaarne gladly, willingly, G. gern, OHG. gerno, adv., gern, a., G. gier greed, OHG. gir greed, ger desirous, gern to desire, G. begehren, Icel. girna to desire, gjarn eager, Goth. faíhugaírns covetous, gaírnjan to desire, and perhaps to Gr. chai`rein to rejoice, be glad, Skr. hary to desire, to like. √33.] To be filled with longing desire; to be harassed or rendered uneasy with longing, or feeling the want of a thing; to strain with emotions of affection or tenderness; to long; to be eager.

Joseph made haste; for his bowels did yearn upon his brother; and he sought where to weep.

Gen. xliii. 30.

Your mother's heart yearns towards you.


Yearn"ful (?), a. [OE. eornful, AS. geornfull.] Desirous. [Obs.] Ormulum. P. Fletcher.

Yearn"ing*ly, adv. With yearning.

Yearn"ings (?), n. pl. [Cf. AS. geirnan, geyrnan, to rum. See 4th Earn.] The maws, or stomachs, of young calves, used as a rennet for curdling milk. [Scot.]

Yearth (?), n. The earth. [Obs.] "Is my son dead or hurt or on the yerthe felled?" Ld. Berners.

Yeast (?), n. [OE. eest, est, AS. gist; akin to D. gest, gist, G. gischt, gäscht, OHG. jesan, jerian, to ferment, G. gischen, gäschen, gähren, Gr. &?; boiled, zei^n to boil, Skr. yas. √111.]

1. The foam, or troth (top yeast), or the sediment (bottom yeast), of beer or other in fermentation, which contains the yeast plant or its spores, and under certain conditions produces fermentation in saccharine or farinaceous substances; a preparation used for raising dough for bread or cakes, and making it light and puffy; barm; ferment.

2. Spume, or foam, of water.

They melt thy yeast of waves, which mar
Alike the Armada's pride, or spoils of Trafalgar.


Yeast cake, a mealy cake impregnated with the live germs of the yeast plant, and used as a conveniently transportable substitute for yeast. -- Yeast plant (Bot.), the vegetable organism, or fungus, of which beer yeast consists. The yeast plant is composed of simple cells, or granules, about one three-thousandth of an inch in diameter, often united into filaments which reproduce by budding, and under certain circumstances by the formation of spores. The name is extended to other ferments of the same genus. See Saccharomyces. - - Yeast powder, a baling powder, -- used instead of yeast in leavening bread.

Yeast"-bit`ten (?), a. (Brewing) A term used of beer when the froth of the yeast has reëntered the body of the beer.

Yeast"i*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being yeasty, or frothy.

Yeast"y (?), a. Frothy; foamy; spumy, like yeast.

Yed"ding (?), n. [AS. geddung, gidding, giedding, from gieddian, giddian, to sing, speak.] The song of a minstrel; hence, any song. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Yede (?), obs. imp. Went. See Yode.

All as he bade fulfilled was indeed
This ilke servant anon right out yede.


Spenser and some later writers mistook this for a present of the defective imperfect yode. It is, however, only a variant of yode. See Yode, and cf. Yead.

[He] on foot was forced for to yeed.


Yeel (?), n. An eel. [Obs.] Holland.

Yeld"hall` (?), n. Guildhall. [Obs.] Chaucer.

{Yel"drin (?) or Yel"drine }, n. [Cf. Yellow.] (Zoöl.) The yellow-hammer; -- called also yeldrock, and yoldrin. [Prov. Eng.]

Yelk (?), n. Same as Yolk.

Yell (yl), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Yelled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yelling.] [OE. yellen, ellen, AS. giellan, gillan, gyllan; akin to D. gillen, OHG. gellan, G. gellen, Icel. gjalla, Sw. gälla to ring, resound, and to AS., OS., & OHG. galan to sing, Icel. gala. Cf. 1st Gale, and Nightingale.] To cry out, or shriek, with a hideous noise; to cry or scream as with agony or horror.

They yelleden as feendes doon in helle.


Nor the night raven, that still deadly yells.


Infernal ghosts and hellish furies round
Environed thee; some howled, some yelled.


Yell (?), v. t. To utter or declare with a yell; to proclaim in a loud tone. Shak.

Yell, n. A sharp, loud, hideous outcry.

Their hideous yells
Rend the dark welkin.

J. Philips.

Yel"low (?), a. [Compar. Yellower (?); superl. Yellowest.] [OE. yelow, yelwe, elow, eoluw, from AS. geolu; akin to D. geel, OS. & OHG. gelo, G. gelb, Icel. gulr, Sw. gul, Dan. guul, L. helvus light bay, Gr. &?; young verdure, &?; greenish yellow, Skr. hari tawny, yellowish. &?;&?;&?;. Cf. Chlorine, Gall a bitter liquid, Gold, Yolk.] Being of a bright saffronlike color; of the color of gold or brass; having the hue of that part of the rainbow, or of the solar spectrum, which is between the orange and the green.

Her yellow hair was browded [braided] in a tress.


A sweaty reaper from his tillage brought
First fruits, the green ear and the yellow sheaf.


The line of yellow light dies fast away.


Yellow atrophy (Med.), a fatal affection of the liver, in which it undergoes fatty degeneration, and becomes rapidly smaller and of a deep yellow tinge. The marked symptoms are black vomit, delirium, convulsions, coma, and jaundice. -- Yellow bark, calisaya bark. -- Yellow bass (Zoöl.), a North American fresh-water bass (Morone interrupta) native of the lower parts of the Mississippi and its tributaries. It is yellow, with several more or less broken black stripes or bars. Called also barfish. -- Yellow berry. (Bot.) Same as Persian berry, under Persian. -- Yellow boy, a gold coin, as a guinea. [Slang] Arbuthnot. -- Yellow brier. (Bot.) See under Brier. -- Yellow bugle (Bot.), a European labiate plant (Ajuga Chamæpitys). -- Yellow bunting (Zoöl.), the European yellow-hammer. -- Yellow cat (Zoöl.), a yellow catfish; especially, the bashaw. -- Yellow copperas (Min.), a hydrous sulphate of iron; -- called also copiapite. -- Yellow copper ore, a sulphide of copper and iron; copper pyrites. See Chalcopyrite. -- Yellow cress (Bot.), a yellow-flowered, cruciferous plant (Barbarea præcox), sometimes grown as a salad plant. -- Yellow dock. (Bot.) See the Note under Dock. -- Yellow earth, a yellowish clay, colored by iron, sometimes used as a yellow pigment. -- Yellow fever (Med.), a malignant, contagious, febrile disease of warm climates, attended with jaundice, producing a yellow color of the skin, and with the black vomit. See Black vomit, in the Vocabulary. -- Yellow flag, the quarantine flag. See under Quarantine, and 3d Flag. -- Yellow jack. (a) The yellow fever. See under 2d Jack. (b) The quarantine flag. See under Quarantine. -- Yellow jacket (Zoöl.), any one of several species of American social wasps of the genus Vespa, in which the color of the body is partly bright yellow. These wasps are noted for their irritability, and for their painful stings. -- Yellow lead ore (Min.), wulfenite. -- Yellow lemur (Zoöl.), the kinkajou. -- Yellow macauco (Zoöl.), the kinkajou. -- Yellow mackerel (Zoöl.), the jurel. -- Yellow metal. Same as Muntz metal, under Metal. -- Yellow ocher (Min.), an impure, earthy variety of brown iron ore, which is used as a pigment. -- Yellow oxeye (Bot.), a yellow-flowered plant (Chrysanthemum segetum) closely related to the oxeye daisy. -- Yellow perch (Zoöl.), the common American perch. See Perch. -- Yellow pike (Zoöl.), the wall-eye. -- Yellow pine (Bot.), any of several kinds of pine; also, their yellowish and generally durable timber. Among the most common are valuable species are Pinus mitis and P. palustris of the Eastern and Southern States, and P. ponderosa and P. Arizonica of the Rocky Mountains and Pacific States. -- Yellow plover (Zoöl.), the golden plover. -- Yellow precipitate (Med. Chem.), an oxide of mercury which is thrown down as an amorphous yellow powder on adding corrosive sublimate to limewater. -- Yellow puccoon. (Bot.) Same as Orangeroot. -- Yellow rail (Zoöl.), a small American rail (Porzana Noveboracensis) in which the lower parts are dull yellow, darkest on the breast. The back is streaked with brownish yellow and with black, and spotted with white. Called also yellow crake. - - Yellow rattle, Yellow rocket. (Bot.) See under Rattle, and Rocket. -- Yellow Sally (Zoöl.), a greenish or yellowish European stone fly of the genus Chloroperla; -- so called by anglers. -- Yellow sculpin (Zoöl.), the dragonet. -- Yellow snake (Zoöl.), a West Indian boa (Chilobothrus inornatus) common in Jamaica. It becomes from eight to ten long. The body is yellowish or yellowish green, mixed with black, and anteriorly with black lines. -- Yellow spot. (a) (Anat.) A small yellowish spot with a central pit, the fovea centralis, in the center of the retina where vision is most accurate. See Eye. (b) (Zoöl.) A small American butterfly (Polites Peckius) of the Skipper family. Its wings are brownish, with a large, irregular, bright yellow spot on each of the hind wings, most conspicuous beneath. Called also Peck's skipper. See Illust. under Skipper, n., 5. -- Yellow tit (Zoöl.), any one of several species of crested titmice of the genus Machlolophus, native of India. The predominating colors of the plumage are yellow and green. -- Yellow viper (Zoöl.), the fer-de-lance. -- Yellow warbler (Zoöl.), any one of several species of American warblers of the genus Dendroica in which the predominant color is yellow, especially D. æstiva, which is a very abundant and familiar species; -- called also garden warbler, golden warbler, summer yellowbird, summer warbler, and yellow-poll warbler. -- Yellow wash (Pharm.), yellow oxide of mercury suspended in water, -- a mixture prepared by adding corrosive sublimate to limewater. -- Yellow wren (Zoöl.) (a) The European willow warbler. (b) The European wood warbler.

Yel"low, n. 1. A bright golden color, reflecting more light than any other except white; the color of that part of the spectrum which is between the orange and green. "A long motley coat guarded with yellow." Shak.

2. A yellow pigment.

Cadmium yellow, Chrome yellow, Indigo yellow, King's yellow, etc. See under Cadmium, Chrome, etc. -- Naples yellow, a yellow amorphous pigment, used in oil, porcelain, and enamel painting, consisting of a basic lead metantimonate, obtained by fusing together tartar emetic lead nitrate, and common salt. -- Patent yellow (Old Chem.), a yellow pigment consisting essentially of a lead oxychloride; -- called also Turner's yellow.

Yel"low (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Yellowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yellowing.] To make yellow; to cause to have a yellow tinge or color; to dye yellow.

Yel"low, v. i. To become yellow or yellower.

Yel"low*am`mer (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Yellow-hammer.

Yel"low*bill` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The American scoter.

Yel"low*bird` (?), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The American goldfinch, or thistle bird. See Goldfinch. (b) The common yellow warbler; -- called also summer yellowbird. See Illust. of Yellow warbler, under Yellow, a.

Yel"low-cov`ered (?), a. Covered or bound in yellow paper.

Yellow-covered literature, cheap sensational novels and trashy magazines; -- formerly so called from the usual color of their covers. [Colloq. U. S.] Bartlett.

Yel"low-eyed` (?), a. Having yellow eyes.

Yellow-eyed grass (Bot.), any plant of the genus Xyris.

Yel"low*fin` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A large squeteague.

Yel"low*fish` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A rock trout (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) found on the coast of Alaska; -- called also striped fish, and Atka mackerel.

Yel"low-golds` (?), n. (Bot.) A certain plant, probably the yellow oxeye. B. Jonson.

Yel"low*ham`mer (?), n. [For yellow- ammer, where ammer is fr. AS. amore a kind of bird; akin to G. ammer a yellow-hammer, OHG. amero.] (Zoöl.) (a) A common European finch (Emberiza citrinella). The color of the male is bright yellow on the breast, neck, and sides of the head, with the back yellow and brown, and the top of the head and the tail quills blackish. Called also yellow bunting, scribbling lark, and writing lark. [Written also yellow-ammer.] (b) The flicker. [Local, U. S.]

Yel"low*ing, n. The act or process of making yellow.

Softened . . . by the yellowing which time has given.

G. Eliot.

Yel"low*ish, a. Somewhat yellow; as, amber is of a yellowish color. -- Yel"low*ish*ness, n.

Yel"low*legs` (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of long-legged sandpipers of the genus Totanus, in which the legs are bright yellow; -- called also stone snipe, tattler, telltale, yellowshanks; and yellowshins. See Tattler, 2.

Yel"low*ness, n. 1. The quality or state of being yellow; as, the yellowness of an orange.

2. Jealousy. [Obs.]

I will possess him with yellowness.


Yel"low*root` (?), n. (Bot.) Any one of several plants with yellow roots. Specifically: (a) See Xanthorhiza. (b) Same as Orangeroot.

Yel"lows (?), n. 1. (Far.) A disease of the bile in horses, cattle, and sheep, causing yellowness of the eyes; jaundice.

His horse . . . sped with spavins, rayed with the yellows.


2. (Bot.) A disease of plants, esp. of peach trees, in which the leaves turn to a yellowish color; jeterus.

3. (Zoöl.) A group of butterflies in which the predominating color is yellow. It includes the common small yellow butterflies. Called also redhorns, and sulphurs. See Sulphur.

Yel"low*seed` (?), n. (Bot.) A kind of pepper grass (Lepidium campestre).

{ Yel"low*shanks` (?), Yel"low*shins` (?), } n. (Zoöl.) See Yellolegs.

Yel"low*tail` (?), n. (Zoöl.) (a) Any one of several species of marine carangoid fishes of the genus Seriola; especially, the large California species (S. dorsalis) which sometimes weighs thirty or forty pounds, and is highly esteemed as a food fish; -- called also cavasina, and white salmon. (b) The mademoiselle, or silver perch. (c) The menhaden. (d) The runner, 12. (e) A California rockfish (Sebastodes flavidus). (f) The sailor's choice (Diplodus rhomboides).

Several other fishes are also locally called yellowtail.

Yel"low*throat` (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of American ground warblers of the genus Geothlypis, esp. the Maryland yellowthroat (G. trichas), which is a very common species.

Yel"low*top` (?), n. (Bot.) A kind of grass, perhaps a species of Agrostis.

Yel"low*wood` (?), n. (Bot.) The wood of any one of several different kinds of trees; also, any one of the trees themselves. Among the trees so called are the Cladrastis tinctoria, an American leguminous tree; the several species of prickly ash (Xanthoxylum); the Australian Flindersia Oxleyana, a tree related to the mahogany; certain South African species of Podocarpus, trees related to the yew; the East Indian Podocarpus latifolia; and the true satinwood (Chloroxylon Swietenia). All these Old World trees furnish valuable timber.

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Yel"low*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) A European yellow-flowered, gentianaceous (Chlora perfoliata). The whole plant is intensely bitter, and is sometimes used as a tonic, and also in dyeing yellow.

Yelp (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Yelped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yelping.] [OE. yelpen, elpen, to boast, boast noisily, AS. gielpan, gilpan, gylpan; akin to OHG. gelph arrogant: cf. Icel. gjlpa to yelp. Cf. Yap.]

1. To boast. [Obs.]

I keep [care] not of armes for to yelpe.


2. To utter a sharp, quick cry, as a hound; to bark shrilly with eagerness, pain, or fear; to yaup.

A little herd of England's timorous deer,
Mazed with a yelping kennel of French curs?


At the least flourish of a broomstick or ladle, he would fly to the door with a yelping precipitation.

W. Irving.

Yelp, n. A sharp, quick cry; a bark. Chaucer.

Yelp"er (?), n. An animal that yelps, or makes a yelping noise. Specifically: (Zoöl.) (a) The avocet; -- so called from its sharp, shrill cry. [Prov. Eng.] (b) The tattler. [Local, U. S.]

Ye"man (?), n. A yeoman. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Yen (?), n. The unit of value and account in Japan. Since Japan's adoption of the gold standard, in 1897, the value of the yen has been about 50 cents. The yen is equal to 100 sen.

Yend (?), v. t. To throw; to cast. [Prov. Eng.]

Ye"nite (?), n. [After Jena, in Germany.] (Min.) A silicate of iron and lime occurring in black prismatic crystals; -- also called ilvaite. [Spelt also jenite.]

Yeo"man (?), n.; pl. Yeomen (#). [OE. yoman, eman, oman; of uncertain origin; perhaps the first, syllable is akin to OFries. g district, region, G. gau, OHG. gewi, gouwi, Goth. gawi. √100.]

1. A common man, or one of the commonly of the first or most respectable class; a freeholder; a man free born.

A yeoman in England is considered as next in order to the gentry. The word is little used in the United States, unless as a title in law proceedings and instruments, designating occupation, and this only in particular States.

2. A servant; a retainer. [Obs.]

A yeman hadde he and servants no mo.


3. A yeoman of the guard; also, a member of the yeomanry cavalry. [Eng.]

4. (Naut.) An interior officer under the boatswain, gunner, or carpenters, charged with the stowage, account, and distribution of the stores.

Yeoman of the guard, one of the bodyguard of the English sovereign, consisting of the hundred yeomen, armed with partisans, and habited in the costume of the sixteenth century. They are members of the royal household.

Yeo"man*like` (?), a. Resembling, or suitable to, a yeoman; yeomanly.

Yeo"man*ly, a. Pertaining to a yeoman; becoming or suitable to, a yeoman; yeomanlike. B. Jonson.

Well could he dress his tackle yeomanly.


Yeo"man*ry (?), n. 1. The position or rank of a yeoman. [Obs.] "His estate of yeomanry." Chaucer.

2. The collective body of yeomen, or freeholders.

The enfranchised yeomanry began to feel an instinct for dominion.


3. The yeomanry cavalry. [Eng.]

Yeomanry cavalry, certain bodies of volunteer cavalry liable to service in Great Britain only. [Eng.]

Yeor"ling (?), n. [Cf. Yellow.] (Zoöl.) The European yellow-hammer.

Yer (?), prep. Ere; before. [Obs.] Sylvester.

||Yer"ba (?), n. [Sp.] (Bot.) An herb; a plant.

This word is much used in compound names of plants in Spanish; as, yerba buena [Sp., a good herb], a name applied in Spain to several kinds of mint (Mentha sativa, viridis, etc.), but in California universally applied to a common, sweet- scented labiate plant (Micromeria Douglasii).

Yerba dol osa. [Sp., herb of the she-bear.] A kind of buckthorn (Rhamnus Californica). -- Yerba mansa. [Sp., a mild herb, soft herb.] A plant (Anemopsis Californica) with a pungent, aromatic rootstock, used medicinally by the Mexicans and the Indians. -- Yerba reuma. [Cf. Sp. reuma rheum, rheumatism.] A low California undershrub (Frankenia grandifolia).

Yerd (?), n. See 1st & 2d Yard. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Yerk (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Yerked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yerking.] [See Yerk.]

1. To throw or thrust with a sudden, smart movement; to kick or strike suddenly; to jerk.

Their wounded steeds . . .
Yerk out their armed heels at their dead masters.


2. To strike or lash with a whip. [Obs. or Scot.]

Yerk, v. i. 1. To throw out the heels; to kick; to jerk.

They flirt, they yerk, they backward . . . fling.


2. To move a quick, jerking motion.

Yerk, n. A sudden or quick thrust or motion; a jerk.

Yern (?), v. i. See 3d Yearn. [Obs.]

Yern, a. [OE. ern, eorne, AS. georn desirous, eager. See Yearn to long.] Eager; brisk; quick; active. [Obs.] "Her song . . . loud and yern." Chaucer.

Yerne (?), adv. [OE. eorne. See Yern, a.] Eagerly; briskly; quickly. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

My hands and my tongue go so yerne.


Yer"nut` (?), n. [Cf. Dan. jordnöd, Sw. jordnöt, earthnut. Cf. Jarnut.] An earthnut, or groundnut. See Groundnut (d). [Written also yarnut.]

Yerst (?), adv. See Erst. [Obs.] Sylvester.

Yes (?), adv. [OE. yis, is, es, ise, AS. gese, gise; probably fr. geá yea + sw so. √188. See Yea, and So.] Ay; yea; -- a word which expresses affirmation or consent; -- opposed to no.

Yes is used, like yea, to enforce, by repetition or addition, something which precedes; as, you have done all this -- yes, you have done more. "Yes, you despise the man books confined." Pope.

"The fine distinction between ‘yea' and ‘yes,' ‘nay' and ‘no,' that once existed in English, has quite disappeared. ‘Yea' and ‘nay' in Wyclif's time, and a good deal later, were the answers to questions framed in the affirmative. ‘Will he come?' To this it would have been replied, ‘Yea' or ‘Nay', as the case might be. But, ‘Will he not come?' To this the answer would have been ‘Yes' or ‘No.' Sir Thomas More finds fault with Tyndale, that in his translation of the Bible he had not observed this distinction, which was evidently therefore going out even then, that is, in the reign of Henry VIII.; and shortly after it was quite forgotten." Trench.

Yest (?), n. See Yeast. Shak.

Yes"ter (?), a. [See Yesterday.] Last; last past; next before; of or pertaining to yesterday.

[An enemy] whom yester sun beheld
Mustering her charms.


This word is now seldom used except in a few compounds; as, yesterday, yesternight, etc.

Yes"ter*day (?), n. [OE. isterdai, AS. geostran dæg, from geostran, geostra, giestran, gistran, gystran, yesterday (akin to D. gisteren, G. gestern, OHG. gestaron, Icel. gær yesterday, to-morrow, Goth. gistradagis to-morrow, L. heri yesterday, Gr. &?;, Skr. hyas) + dæg day. Cf. Hestern. &?;&?;&?;&?;.]

1. The day last past; the day next before the present.

All our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death.


We are but of yesterday, and know nothing.

Job viii. 9.

2. Fig.: A recent time; time not long past.

The proudest royal houses are but of yesterday, when compared with the line of supreme pontiffs.


Yes"ter*day, adv. On the day last past; on the day preceding to-day; as, the affair took place yesterday.

{ Yes"ter*eve` (?), Yes"ter-e`ven*ing (?), } n. The evening of yesterday; the evening last past.

{ Yes"ter*morn` (?), Yes"ter-morn`ing, } n. The morning of yesterday. Coleridge.

Yes"tern (?), a. [See Yester.] Of or pertaining to yesterday; relating to the day last past.

Yes"ter*night` (?), n. The last night; the night last past.

Yes"ter*night`, adv. [AS. gystran niht. See Yesterday.] On the last night. B. Jonson.

Yes"ter*noon` (?), n. The noon of yesterday; the noon last past.

Yes"ter*week` (?), n. The week last past; last week.

Yes"ter*year` (?), n. The year last past; last year.

Yes`treen" (?), n. Yester-evening; yesternight; last night. [R. or Scot.]

Yestreen I did not know
How largely I could live.

Bp. Coxe.

Yest"y (?), a. See Yeasty. Shak.

Yet (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of large marine gastropods belonging to the genus Yetus, or Cymba; a boat shell.

Yet, adv. [OE. yet, et, it, AS. git, gyt, giet, gieta; akin to OFries. ieta, eta, ita, MHG. iezuo, ieze, now, G. jetzo, jetzt.]

1. In addition; further; besides; over and above; still. "A little longer; yet a little longer." Dryden.

This furnishes us with yet one more reason why our savior, lays such a particular stress acts of mercy.


The rapine is made yet blacker by the pretense of piety and justice.


2. At the same time; by continuance from a former state; still.

Facts they had heard while they were yet heathens.


3. Up to the present time; thus far; hitherto; until now; -- and with the negative, not yet, not up to the present time; not as soon as now; as, Is it time to go? Not yet. See As yet, under As, conj.

Ne never yet no villainy ne said.


4. Before some future time; before the end; eventually; in time. "He 'll be hanged yet." Shak.

5. Even; -- used emphatically.

Men may not too rashly believe the confessions of witches, nor yet the evidence against them.


Yet (?), conj. Nevertheless; notwithstanding; however.

Yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.

Matt. vi. 29.

Syn. -- See However.

Yeve (?), v. i. To give. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Yev"en (?), p. p. Given. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Yew (), v. i. See Yaw.

Yew, n. [OE. ew, AS. eów, w, eoh; akin to D. ijf, OHG. wa, ha, G. eibe, Icel. r; cf. Ir. iubhar, Gael. iubhar, iughar, W. yw, ywen, Lith. jëva the black alder tree.]

1. (Bot.) An evergreen tree (Taxus baccata) of Europe, allied to the pines, but having a peculiar berrylike fruit instead of a cone. It frequently grows in British churchyards.

2. The wood of the yew. It is light red in color, compact, fine-grained, and very elastic. It is preferred to all other kinds of wood for bows and whipstocks, the best for these purposes coming from Spain.

The American yew (Taxus baccata, var. Canadensis) is a low and straggling or prostrate bush, never forming an erect trunk. The California yew (Taxus brevifolia) is a good-sized tree, and its wood is used for bows, spear handles, paddles, and other similar implements. Another yew is found in Florida, and there are species in Japan and the Himalayas.

3. A bow for shooting, made of the yew.

Yew (), a. Of or pertaining to yew trees; made of the wood of a yew tree; as, a yew whipstock.

Yew"en (?), a. Made of yew; as, yewen bows.

Yex (?), v. i. [OE. exen, yesken, AS. giscian to sob.] To hiccough. [Written also yox, yux.] [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

He yexeth and he speaketh through the nose.


Yex, n. [AS. geocsa a sobbing, hiccough. Cf. Yex, v. i.] A hiccough. [Written also yox, and yux.] [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] "The excessive yex." Holland.

Yez`de*ger"di*an (?; 277), a. Of or pertaining to Yezdegerd, the last Sassanian monarch of Persia, who was overthrown by the Mohammedans; as, the Yezdegerdian era, which began on the 16th of June, a. d. 632. The era is still used by the Parsees.

Yez"di (yz"d), n. Same as Izedi. Tylor.

{ Yez"i*dee (?), Yez"i*di (?) }, n. Same as Izedi.

Y*fere" (?), adv. Together. See Ifere. [Obs.]

As friends do when they be met yfere.


Yg"dra*syl (?), n. (Scand. Myth.) See in the Dictionary of Noted Names in Fiction.

Y"ghe (?), n. Eye. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Y*go" (?), obs. p. p. of Go. Gone. Chaucer.

Y*ground" (?), obs. p. p. of Grind. Chaucer.

Y*hold"e (?), obs. p. p. of Hold. Chaucer.

Yield (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Yielded; obs. p. p. Yold (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yielding.] [OE. yelden, elden, ilden, AS. gieldan, gildan, to pay, give, restore, make an offering; akin to OFries. jelda, OS. geldan, D. gelden to cost, to be worth, G. gelten, OHG. geltan to pay, restore, make an offering, be worth, Icel. gjalda to pay, give up, Dan. gielde to be worth, Sw. gälla to be worth, gälda to pay, Goth. gildan in fragildan, usgildan. Cf. 1st Geld, Guild.]

1. To give in return for labor expended; to produce, as payment or interest on what is expended or invested; to pay; as, money at interest yields six or seven per cent.

To yelde Jesu Christ his proper rent.


When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength.

Gen. iv. 12.

2. To furnish; to afford; to render; to give forth. "Vines yield nectar." Milton.

[He] makes milch kine yield blood.


The wilderness yieldeth food for them and for their children.

Job xxiv. 5.

3. To give up, as something that is claimed or demanded; to make over to one who has a claim or right; to resign; to surrender; to relinquish; as a city, an opinion, etc.

And, force perforce, I'll make him yield the crown.


Shall yield up all their virtue, all their fame.


4. To admit to be true; to concede; to allow.

I yield it just, said Adam, and submit.


5. To permit; to grant; as, to yield passage.

6. To give a reward to; to bless. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Tend me to-night two hours, I ask no more,
And the gods yield you for 't.


God yield thee, and God thank ye.

Beau. & Fl.

To yield the breath, the ghost, or the life, to die; to expire; -- often followed by up.

One calmly yields his willing breath.


Yield, v. i. 1. To give up the contest; to submit; to surrender; to succumb.

He saw the fainting Grecians yield.


2. To comply with; to assent; as, I yielded to his request.

3. To give way; to cease opposition; to be no longer a hindrance or an obstacle; as, men readily yield to the current of opinion, or to customs; the door yielded.

Will ye relent,
And yield to mercy while 't is offered you?


4. To give place, as inferior in rank or excellence; as, they will yield to us in nothing.

Nay tell me first, in what more happy fields
The thistle springs, to which the lily yields?


Yield (?), n. Amount yielded; product; -- applied especially to products resulting from growth or cultivation. "A goodly yield of fruit doth bring." Bacon.

Yield"a*ble (?), a. Disposed to yield or comply. [R.] -- Yield"a*ble*ness, n. [R.] Bp. Hall.

Yield"ance (?), n. 1. The act of producing; yield; as, the yieldance of the earth. [R.] Bp. Hall.

2. The act of yielding; concession. [R.] South.

Yield"er (?), n. One who yields. Shak.

Yield"ing, a. Inclined to give way, or comply; flexible; compliant; accommodating; as, a yielding temper.

Yielding and paying (Law), the initial words of that clause in leases in which the rent to be paid by the lessee is mentioned and reserved. Burrill.

Syn. -- Obsequious; attentive. -- Yielding, Obsequious, Attentive. In many cases a man may be attentive or yielding in a high degree without any sacrifice of his dignity; but he who is obsequious seeks to gain favor by excessive and mean compliances for some selfish end.

-- Yield"ing*ly, adv. -- Yield"ing*ness, n.

Yield"less, a. Without yielding; unyielding. [Obs.]

Yift (?), n. Gift. [Obs.] "Great yiftes." Chaucer.

Yin (?), n. A Chinese weight of 2 pounds.

<! p. 1676 !>

Yis (?), adv. Yes. [Obs.]

"Yis, sir," quod he, "yis, host."


Yit (?), conj. Yet. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Yite (?), n. (Zoöl.) The European yellow-hammer.

Yive (?), v. t. & i. To give. [Obs.] Chaucer.

-yl (?). [Gr. &?; wood, material.] (Chem.) A suffix used as a characteristic termination of chemical radicals; as in ethyl, carbonyl, hydroxyl, etc.

-yl was first used in 1832 by Liebig and Wöhler in naming benzoyl, in the sense of stuff, or fundamental material, then in 1834 by Dumas and Peligot in naming methyl, in the sense of wood. After this - yl was generally used as in benzoyl, in the sense of stuff, characteristic ground, fundamental material.

Yle (?), n. Isle. [Obs.] "The barren yle." Chaucer.

Y" lev`el (?). (Surv.) See under Y, n.

{ Y*liche" (?), Y*like" (?) }, a. & adv. Like; alike. [Obs.] "All . . . yliche good." Chaucer.

Yl`lan*ra*ton" (?), n. [From the native name.] (Zoöl.) The agouara.

Y*mak"ed (?), obs. p. p. of Make. Made.

Y*mel" (?), prep. [OE. ymel, imelle, of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. milli, millum (properly, in the middle, fr. &?; in + mi&?;il, me&?;al, middle, akin to E. middle), Dan. imellem, Sw. emellan. See In, and Middle.] Among. [Obs.] "Ymel them all." Chaucer.

Y*nam"bu (?), n. (Zoöl.) A South American tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens); -- called also perdiz grande, and rufous tinamou. See Illust. of Tinamou.

{ Y*nough" (?), Y*now" (?) }, a. [See Enough.] Enough. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Yock"el (?), n. [Cf. Yokel.] (Zoöl.) The yaffle.

Yode (?), obs. imp. of Go. [OE. yode, yede, ede, eode, eode, AS. eóde, used as the imp. of gn to go; akin to Goth. iddja I, he, went, L. ire to go, Gr. 'ie`nai, Skr. i, y. √4. Cf. Issue.] Went; walked; proceeded. [Written also yede.] See Yede.

Quer [whether] they rade [rode] or yode.

Cursor Mundi.

Then into Cornhill anon I yode.


{ Yo"del (?), Yo"dle (?), } v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Yodeled, Yodled; p. pr. & vb. n. Yodeling, Yodling.] [G. jodeln.] To sing in a manner common among the Swiss and Tyrolese mountaineers, by suddenly changing from the head voice, or falsetto, to the chest voice, and the contrary; to warble.

{ Yo"del, Yo"dle }, n. A song sung by yodeling, as by the Swiss mountaineers.

Yo"dler (?), n. One who yodels.

||Yo"ga (?), n. [Skr. yga union.] A species of asceticism among the Hindoos, which consists in a complete abstraction from all worldly objects, by which the votary expects to obtain union with the universal spirit, and to acquire superhuman faculties.

Yo"gi (?), n. [Skr. ygin.] A follower of the yoga philosophy; an ascetic. [Spelt also yokin.] Whitworth.

Yo"icks (?), interj. (Hunting) A cry of encouragement to foxhounds.

Yoit (?), n. (Zoöl.) The European yellow-hammer. [Prov. Eng.]

||Yo"jan (?), n. [Skr. yjana.] A measure of distance, varying from four to ten miles, but usually about five. [India] [Written also yojana.]

Yoke (yk), n. [OE. yok, oc, AS. geoc; akin to D. juk, OHG. joh, G. joch, Icel. & Sw. ok, Dan. aag, Goth. juk, Lith. jungas, Russ. igo, L. jugum, Gr. zy`gon, Skr. yuga, and to L. jungere to join, Gr. &?;, Skr. yui. √109, 280. Cf. Join, Jougs, Joust, Jugular, Subjugate, Syzygy, Yuga, Zeugma.]

1. A bar or frame of wood by which two oxen are joined at the heads or necks for working together.

A yearling bullock to thy name shall smoke,
Untamed, unconscious of the galling yoke.


The modern yoke for oxen is usually a piece of timber hollowed, or made curving, near each end, and laid on the necks of the oxen, being secured in place by two bows, one inclosing each neck, and fastened through the timber. In some countries the yoke consists of a flat piece of wood fastened to the foreheads of the oxen by thongs about the horns.

2. A frame or piece resembling a yoke, as in use or shape. Specifically: (a) A frame of wood fitted to a person's shoulders for carrying pails, etc., suspended on each side; as, a milkmaid's yoke. (b) A frame worn on the neck of an animal, as a cow, a pig, a goose, to prevent passage through a fence. (c) A frame or convex piece by which a bell is hung for ringing it. See Illust. of Bell. (d) A crosspiece upon the head of a boat's rudder. To its ends lines are attached which lead forward so that the boat can be steered from amidships. (e) (Mach.) A bent crosspiece connecting two other parts. (f) (Arch.) A tie securing two timbers together, not used for part of a regular truss, but serving a temporary purpose, as to provide against unusual strain. (g) (Dressmaking) A band shaped to fit the shoulders or the hips, and joined to the upper full edge of the waist or the skirt.

3. Fig.: That which connects or binds; a chain; a link; a bond connection.

Boweth your neck under that blissful yoke . . .
Which that men clepeth spousal or wedlock.


This yoke of marriage from us both remove.


4. A mark of servitude; hence, servitude; slavery; bondage; service.

Our country sinks beneath the yoke.


My yoke is easy, and my burden is light.

Matt. xi. 30.

5. Two animals yoked together; a couple; a pair that work together.

I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to prove them.

Luke xiv. 19.

6. The quantity of land plowed in a day by a yoke of oxen. [Obs.] Gardner.

7. A portion of the working day; as, to work two yokes, that is, to work both portions of the day, or morning and afternoon. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Neck yoke, Pig yoke. See under Neck, and Pig. -- Yoke elm (Bot.), the European hornbeam (Carpinus Betulus), a small tree with tough white wood, often used for making yokes for cattle.

Yoke (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Yoked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yoking.]

1. To put a yoke on; to join in or with a yoke; as, to yoke oxen, or pair of oxen.

2. To couple; to join with another. "Be ye not unequally yoked with unbelievers." 2 Cor. vi. 14.

Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb.


3. To enslave; to bring into bondage; to restrain; to confine.

Then were they yoked with garrisons.


The words and promises that yoke
The conqueror are quickly broke.


Yoke, v. i. To be joined or associated; to be intimately connected; to consort closely; to mate.

We 'll yoke together, like a double shadow.


Yoke"age (?), n. See Rokeage. [Local, U. S.]

Yoke"fel`low (?), n. [Yoke + fellow.] An associate or companion in, or as in; a mate; a fellow; especially, a partner in marriage. Phil. iv. 3.

The two languages [English and French] became yokefellows in a still more intimate manner.


Those who have most distinguished themselves by railing at the sex, very often choose one of the most worthless for a companion and yokefellow.


Yo"kel (?), n. [Perhaps from an AS. word akin to E. gawk.] A country bumpkin. [Eng.] Dickens.

Yoke"let (?), n. A small farm; -- so called as requiring but one yoke of oxen to till it. [Prov. Eng.]

Yoke"mate` (?), n. Same as Yokefellow.

Yoke"-toed` (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having two toes in front and two behind, as the trogons and woodpeckers.

Yold (?), obs. p. p. of Yield. Yielded. Spenser.

Yold"en (?), obs. p. p. of Yield. Yielded.

Yolk (ylk or yk; 277), n. [OE. yolke, yelke, olke, elke, AS. geoloca, geoleca, fr. geolu yellow. See Yellow.] [Written also yelk.]

1. The yellow part of an egg; the vitellus.

2. (Zoöl.) An oily secretion which naturally covers the wool of sheep.

Yolk cord (Zoöl.), a slender cord or duct which connects the yolk glands with the egg chambers in certain insects, as in the aphids. -- Yolk gland (Zoöl.), a special organ which secretes the yolk of the eggs in many turbellarians, and in some other invertebrates. See Illust. of Hermaphrodite in Appendix. -- Yolk sack (Anat.), the umbilical vesicle. See under Unbilical.

Yoll (yl), v. i. To yell. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Yon (yn), a. [OE. yon, on, AS. geon; akin to G. jener, OHG. jenr, Icel. enn, inn; cf. Goth. jains. √188. Cf. Beyond, Yond, Yonder.] At a distance, but within view; yonder. [Poetic]

Read thy lot in yon celestial sign.


Though fast yon shower be fleeting.


Yon, adv. Yonder. [Obs. or Poetic]

But, first and chiefest, with thee bring
Him that yon soars on golden wing.


Yon"co*pin (?), n. [Perhaps corrupted from Illinois micoupena, Chippewa makopin, the American lotus.] (Bot.) A local name in parts of the Mississippi Valley for the American lotus (Nelumbo lutea).

Yond (?), a. [Cf. AS. anda, onda, anger, andian to be angry.] Furious; mad; angry; fierce. [Obs.] "Then wexeth wood and yond." Spenser.

Yond, adv. & a. [OE. yond, ond, eond, through, beyond, over, AS. geond, adv. & prep.; cf. Goth. jaind thither. √188. See Yon, a.] Yonder. [Obs.] "Yond in the garden." Chaucer.

Yon"der (?), adv. [OE. yonder, onder; cf. OD. ginder, Goth. jaindr&?; there. &?;&?;&?;&?;. See Yond, adv.] At a distance, but within view.

Yonder are two apple women scolding.


Yon"der, a. Being at a distance within view, or conceived of as within view; that or those there; yon. "Yon flowery arbors, yonder alleys green." Milton. "Yonder sea of light." Keble.

Yonder men are too many for an embassage.


||Yo"ni (?), n. [Skr. y&?;ni.] (Hindoo Myth.) The symbol under which Sakti, or the personification of the female power in nature, is worshiped. Cf. Lingam.

Yon"ker (?), n. [See Younker.] A young fellow; a younker. [Obs. or Colloq.] Sir W. Scott.

Yore (yr), adv. [OE. ore, yare, are, AS. geára;akin to geár a year, E. year. √204. See Year.] In time long past; in old time; long since. [Obs. or Poetic]

As it hath been of olde times yore.


Which though he hath polluted oft and yore,
Yet I to them for judgment just do fly.


Of yore, of old time; long ago; as, in times or days of yore. "But Satan now is wiser than of yore." Pope.

Where Abraham fed his flock of yore.


York"er (?), n. (Cricket) A tice.

York"shire (?), n. A county in the north of England.

Yorkshire grit, a kind of stone used for polishing marble, and copperplates for engravers. Simmonds. -- Yorkshire pudding, a batter pudding baked under meat.

York" use` (?). (Eccl.) The one of the three printed uses of England which was followed in the north. It was based on the Sarum use. See Use, n., 6. Shipley.

Yot (?), v. t. To unite closely. [Prov. Eng.]

Yote (yt), v. t. [OE. eoten, eten, to pour, AS. geótan. See Found to cast.] To pour water on; to soak in, or mix with, water. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Grose.

My fowls, which well enough,
I, as before, found feeding at their trough
Their yoted wheat.


You (), pron. [Possess. Your (r) or Yours (rz); dat. & obj. You.] [OE. you, eou, eow, dat. & acc., AS. eów, used as dat. & acc. of ge, g, ye; akin to OFries. iu, io, D. u, G. euch, OHG. iu, dat., iuwih, acc., Icel. yðr, dat. & acc., Goth. izwis; of uncertain origin. √189. Cf. Your.] The pronoun of the second person, in the nominative, dative, and objective case, indicating the person or persons addressed. See the Note under Ye.

Ye go to Canterbury; God you speed.


Good sir, I do in friendship counsel you
To leave this place.


In vain you tell your parting lover
You wish fair winds may waft him over.


Though you is properly a plural, it is in all ordinary discourse used also in addressing a single person, yet properly always with a plural verb. "Are you he that hangs the verses on the trees, wherein Rosalind is so admired ?" Shak. You and your are sometimes used indefinitely, like we, they, one, to express persons not specified. "The looks at a distance like a new-plowed land; but as you come near it, you see nothing but a long heap of heavy, disjointed clods." Addison. "Your medalist and critic are much nearer related than the world imagine." Addison. "It is always pleasant to be forced to do what you wish to do, but what, until pressed, you dare not attempt." Hook. You is often used reflexively for yourself of yourselves. "Your highness shall repose you at the tower." Shak.

Youl (?), v. i. To yell; to yowl. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Young (yng), a. [Compar. Younger (y"gr); superl. Youngest (-gst).] [OE. yung, yong, ong, ung, AS. geong; akin to OFries. iung, iong, D. joing, OS., OHG., & G. jung, Icel. ungr, Sw. & Dan. ung, Goth. juggs, Lith. jaunas, Russ. iunuii, L. juvencus, juvenis, Skr. juvaça, juvan. √281. Cf. Junior, Juniper, Juvenile, Younker, Youth.]

1. Not long born; still in the first part of life; not yet arrived at adolescence, maturity, or age; not old; juvenile; -- said of animals; as, a young child; a young man; a young fawn.

For he so young and tender was of age.


"Whom the gods love, die young," has been too long carelessly said; . . . whom the gods love, live young forever.

Mrs. H. H. Jackson.

2. Being in the first part, pr period, of growth; as, a young plant; a young tree.

While the fears of the people were young.

De Foe.

3. Having little experience; inexperienced; unpracticed; ignorant; weak.

Come, come, elder brother, you are too young in this.


Young, n. The offspring of animals, either a single animal or offspring collectively.

[The egg] bursting with kindly rupture, forth disclosed
Their callow young.


With young, with child; pregnant.

Young"ger (?), n. One who is younger; an inferior in age; a junior. "The elder shall serve the younger." Rom. ix. 12.

Young"ish (?), a. Somewhat young. Tatler.

Young"ling (?), n. [AS. geongling.] A young person; a youth; also, any animal in its early life. "More dear . . . than younglings to their dam." Spenser.

He will not be so willing, I think, to join with you as with us younglings.


Young"ling, a. Young; youthful. Wordsworth.

Young"ly, a. [AS. geonglic.] Like a young person or thing; young; youthful. [Obs.] Shak.

Young"ly, adv. 1. In a young manner; in the period of youth; early in life. [Obs.] Shak.

2. Ignorantly; weakly. [R.]

Young"ness, n. The quality or state of being young.

Young"ster (?), n. A young person; a youngling; a lad. [Colloq.] "He felt himself quite a youngster, with a long life before him." G. Eliot.

Youngth (?), n. Youth. [Obs.]

Youngth is a bubble blown up with breath.


Youngth"ly, a. Pertaining to, or resembling, youth; youthful. [Obs.] Spenser.

Youn"ker (?), n. [D. jonker, jonkeer; jong young + heer a lord, sir, gentleman. See Young, a.] A young person; a stripling; a yonker. [Obs. or Colloq.]

That same younker soon was overthrown.


You"pon (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Yaupon.

Your (r), pron. & a. [OE. your, our, eowr, eower, AS. eówer, originally used as the gen. of ge, g, ye; akin to OFries. iuwer your, OS. iuwar, D. uw, OHG. iuwr, G. euer, Icel. yðar, Goth. izwara, izwar, and E. you. √189. See You.] The form of the possessive case of the personal pronoun you.

The possessive takes the form yours when the noun to which it refers is not expressed, but implied; as, this book is yours. "An old fellow of yours." Chaucer.

Yours (ürz), pron. See the Note under Your.

Your*self" (?), pron.; pl. Yourselves (#). [Your + self.] An emphasized or reflexive form of the pronoun of the second person; -- used as a subject commonly with you; as, you yourself shall see it; also, alone in the predicate, either in the nominative or objective case; as, you have injured yourself.

Of which right now ye han yourselve heard.


If yourselves are old, make it your cause.


Why should you be so cruel to yourself ?


The religious movement which you yourself, as well as I, so faithfully followed from first to last.

J. H. Newman.

Youth (th), n.; pl. Youths (ths; 264) or collectively Youth. [OE. youthe, youhþe, uheðe, uweðe, eoeðe, AS. geoguð, geogoð; akin to OS. jugð, D. jeugd, OHG. jugund, G. jugend, Goth. junda. √281. See Young.]

1. The quality or state of being young; youthfulness; juvenility. "In my flower of youth." Milton.

Such as in his face
Youth smiled celestial.


2. The part of life that succeeds to childhood; the period of existence preceding maturity or age; the whole early part of life, from childhood, or, sometimes, from infancy, to manhood.

He wondered that your lordship
Would suffer him to spend his youth at home.


Those who pass their youth in vice are justly condemned to spend their age in folly.


3. A young person; especially, a young man.

Seven youths from Athens yearly sent.


4. Young persons, collectively.

It is fit to read the best authors to youth first.

B. Jonson.

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Youth"ful (?), a. 1. Not yet mature or aged; young. "Two youthful knights." Dryden. Also used figuratively. "The youthful season of the year." Shak.

2. Of or pertaining to the early part of life; suitable to early life; as, youthful days; youthful sports. "Warm, youthful blood." Shak. "Youthful thoughts." Milton.

3. Fresh; vigorous, as in youth.

After millions of millions of ages . . . still youthful and flourishing.


Syn. -- Puerile; juvenile. -- Youthful, Puerile, Juvenile. Puerile is always used in a bad sense, or at least in the sense of what is suitable to a boy only; as, puerile objections, puerile amusements, etc. Juvenile is sometimes taken in a bad sense, as when speaking of youth in contrast with manhood; as, juvenile tricks; a juvenile performance. Youthful is commonly employed in a good sense; as, youthful aspirations; or at least by way of extenuating; as, youthful indiscretions. "Some men, imagining themselves possessed with a divine fury, often fall into toys and trifles, which are only puerilities." Dryden. "Raw, juvenile writers imagine that, by pouring forth figures often, they render their compositions warm and animated." Blair.

-- Youth"ful*ly, adv. -- Youth"ful*ness, n.

Youth"hood (?), n. [AS. geoguðhd. See Youth, and -hood.] The quality or state of being a youth; the period of youth. Cheyne.

Youth"ly, a. [AS. geoguðlic.] Young; youthful. [Obs.] "All my youthly days." Spenser.

Youth"some (?), a. Youthful. [Obs.] Pepys.

Youth"y (?), a. Young. [Obs.] Spectator.

Youze (?), n. [From a native East Indian name.] (Zoöl.) The cheetah.

Yow (?), pron. You. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Yowe (?), n. [See Ewe.] (Zoöl.) A ewe. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] G. Eliot.

Yowl (?), v. i. [See Yawl, v. i.] To utter a loud, long, and mournful cry, as a dog; to howl; to yell.

Yowl, n. A loud, protracted, and mournful cry, as that of a dog; a howl.

Yow"ley (?), n. [Cf. Yellow.] (Zoöl.) The European yellow-hammer. [Prov. Eng.]

Yox (?), v. i. See Yex. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Y*pight" (?), obs. p. p. of Pitch. See Pight.

Yp"o*cras (?), n. Hippocras. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Y"pres lace` (?). Fine bobbin lace made at Ypres in Belgium, usually exactly like Valenciennes lace.

Yp*sil"i*form (?), a. [Gr. &?; &?; the name of the letter &?; + -form.] (Biol.) Resembling the &?; in appearance; -- said of the germinal spot in the ripe egg at one of the stages of fecundation.

Yp"si*loid (?), a. (Anat.) In the form of the letter Y; Y-shaped.

Y*raft" (?), obs. p. p. of Reave. Bereft. Chaucer.

Yr"en (?), n. Iron. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Y*ron"ne (?), obs. p. p. of Run. Run. Chaucer.

Y*same" (?), adv. [See Same.] Together. [Obs.] "And in a bag all sorts of seeds ysame." Spenser.

{ Yt, Yt (t) }, an old method of printing that (AS. þæt, ðæt) the "y" taking the place of the old letter "thorn" (þ). Cf. Ye, the.

Y*throwe" (?), obs. p. p. of Throw. Chaucer.

Yt*ter"bic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, ytterbium; containing ytterbium.

Yt*ter"bi*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Ytterby, in Sweden. See Erbium.] (Chem.) A rare element of the boron group, sometimes associated with yttrium or other related elements, as in euxenite and gadolinite. Symbol Yb; provisional atomic weight 173.2. Cf. Yttrium.

Ytterbium is associated with other rare elements, and probably has not been prepared in a pure state.

Yt"tri*a (?), n. [NL. See Yttrium.] (Chem.) The oxide, Y2O3, or earth, of yttrium.

Yt"tric (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, yttrium.

Yt*trif"er*ous (?), a. Bearing or containing yttrium or the allied elements; as, gadolinite is one of the yttriferous minerals.

Yt"tri*ous (?), a. (Chem.) Same as Yttric.

Yt"tri*um (?), n. [NL., from Ytterby, in Sweden. See Erbium.] (Chem.) A rare metallic element of the boron-aluminium group, found in gadolinite and other rare minerals, and extracted as a dark gray powder. Symbol Y. Atomic weight, 89. [Written also ittrium.]

Associated with yttrium are certain rare elements, as erbium, ytterbium, samarium, etc., which are separated in a pure state with great difficulty. They are studied by means of their spark or phosphorescent spectra. Yttrium is now regarded as probably not a simple element, but as a mixture of several substances.

Yt`tro-ce"rite (?), n. (Min.) A mineral of a violet-blue color, inclining to gray and white. It is a hydrous fluoride of cerium, yttrium, and calcium.

{ Yt`tro-co*lum"bite (?), Yt`tro-tan"ta*lite (?), } n. (Min.) A tantalate of uranium, yttrium, and calcium, of a brown or black color.

||Yu (?), n. [Chin.] (Min.) Jade.

Yuc"ca (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Flicker, n., 2.

||Yuc"ca (?), n. [NL., from Yuca, its name in St. Domingo.] (Bot.) A genus of American liliaceous, sometimes arborescent, plants having long, pointed, and often rigid, leaves at the top of a more or less woody stem, and bearing a large panicle of showy white blossoms.

The species with more rigid leaves (as Yucca aloifolia, Y. Treculiana, and Y. baccata) are called Spanish bayonet, and one with softer leaves (Y. filamentosa) is called bear grass, and Adam's needle.

Yucca moth (Zoöl.), a small silvery moth (Pronuba yuccasella) whose larvæ feed on plants of the genus Yucca.

Yuck (?), v. i. [Cf. G. jucken, D. yeuken, joken. See Itch.] To itch. [Prov. Eng.] Grose.

Yuck, v. t. To scratch. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.

Yuck"el (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Yockel.

Yu"en (?), n. (Zoöl.) The crowned gibbon (Hylobates pileatus), native of Siam, Southern China, and the Island of Hainan. It is entirely arboreal in its habits, and has very long arms. the males are dark brown or blackish, with a caplike mass of long dark hair, and usually with a white band around the face. The females are yellowish white, with a dark spot on the breast and another on the crown. Called also wooyen, and wooyen ape.

Yufts (?), n. [Russ. iufte.] Russia leather.

{ Yug (?), ||Yu"ga (?), } n. [Skr. yuga an age, a yoke. See Yoke.] (Hindoo Cosmog.) Any one of the four ages, Krita, or Satya, Treta, Dwapara, and Kali, into which the Hindoos divide the duration or existence of the world.

Yuke (?), v. i. & t. Same as Yuck. [Prov. Eng.]

Yu"lan (?), n. (Bot.) A species of Magnolia (M. conspicua) with large white blossoms that open before the leaves. See the Note under Magnolia.

Yule (?), n. [OE. yol, ol, AS. geól; akin to geóla December or January, Icel. jl Yule, Ylir the name of a winter month, Sw. jul Christmas, Dan. juul, Goth. jiuleis November or December. Cf. Jolly.] Christmas or Christmastide; the feast of the Nativity of our Savior.

And at each pause they kiss; was never seen such rule
In any place but here, at bonfire, or at Yule.


Yule block, or Yule log, a large log of wood formerly put on the hearth of Christmas eve, as the foundation of the fire. It was brought in with much ceremony. -- Yule clog, the yule log. Halliwell. W. Irving.

Yule"tide` (?), n. Christmas time; Christmastide; the season of Christmas.

Yu"mas (?), n. pl.; sing. Yuma (&?;). (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians native of Arizona and the adjacent parts of Mexico and California. They are agricultural, and cultivate corn, wheat, barley, melons, etc.

The a wider sense, the term sometimes includes the Mohaves and other allied tribes.

||Yunx (yks), n. [NL., fr. Gr. 'i`ygx the wryneck.] (Zoöl.) A genus of birds comprising the wrynecks.

Yu"pon (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Yaupon.

Yux (?), n. & v. See Yex, n. [Obs.]

Y"vel (?), a. & adv. Evil; ill. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Y*war" (?), a. [See Aware.] Aware; wary. [Obs.] "Be ywar, and his way shun." Piers Plowman.

Y*wis" (?), adv. [OE. ywis, iwis, AS. gewis certain; akin to D. gewis, G. gewiss, and E. wit to know. See Wit to know, and Y-.] Certainly; most likely; truly; probably. [Obs. or Archaic]

"Ywis," quod he, "it is full dear, I say."


She answered me, "I-wisse, all their sport in the park is but a shadow to that pleasure that I find in Plato."


A right good knight, and true of word ywis.


The common form iwis was often written with the prefix apart from the rest of the word and capitalized, as, I wis, I wisse, etc. The prefix was mistaken for the pronoun, I and wis, wisse, for a form of the verb wit to know. See Wis, and cf. Wit, to know.

Our ship, I wis,
Shall be of another form than this.



Z (z; in England commonly, and in America sometimes, zd; formerly, also, z"zrd) Z, the twenty-sixth and last letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. It is taken from the Latin letter Z, which came from the Greek alphabet, this having it from a Semitic source. The ultimate origin is probably Egyptian. Etymologically, it is most closely related to s, y, and j; as in glass, glaze; E. yoke, Gr. &?;, L. yugum; E. zealous, jealous. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 273, 274.

Za (?), n. (Min.) An old solfeggio name for B flat; the seventh harmonic, as heard in the or æolian string; -- so called by Tartini. It was long considered a false, but is the true note of the chord of the flat seventh. H. W. Poole.

{ Za"ba*ism (?), Za"bism (?) }, n. See Sabianism.

Za"bi*an (?), a. & n. See Sabian.

Zac"co (?), n. (Arch.) See Zocco.

||Za*chun" (?), n. (Bot.) An oil pressed by the Arabs from the fruit of a small thorny tree (Balanites Ægyptiaca), and sold to piligrims for a healing ointment. J. Smith (Dict. Econ. Plants).

||Zaer"the (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Zärthe.

Zaf"fer (?), n. [F. zafre, safre; cf. Sp. zafra, safra, It. saffera, G. zaffer; all probably of Arabic origin. Cf. Zaphara.] A pigment obtained, usually by roasting cobalt glance with sand or quartz, as a dark earthy powder. It consists of crude cobalt oxide, or of an impure cobalt arseniate. It is used in porcelain painting, and in enameling pottery, to produce a blue color, and is often confounded with smalt, from which, however, it is distinct, as it contains no potash. The name is often loosely applied to mixtures of zaffer proper with silica, or oxides of iron, manganese, etc. [Written also zaffre, and formerly zaffree, zaffar, zaffir.]

||Zaim (?; 277), n. [Turk. & Ar. za'm.] A Turkish chief who supports a mounted militia bearing the same name. Smart.

||Zaim"et (?; 277), n. [Turk. & Ar. za'met.] A district from which a Zaim draws his revenue. Smart.

Zain (?), n. A horse of a dark color, neither gray nor white, and having no spots. Smart.

Za*lamb"do*dont (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to a tribe (Zalambdodonta) of Insectivora in which the molar teeth have but one V-shaped ridge.

Za*lamb"do*dont, n. One of the Zalambdodonta. The tenrec, solenodon, and golden moles are examples.

||Za*mang" (?), n. (Bot.) An immense leguminous tree (Pithecolobium Saman) of Venezuela. Its branches form a hemispherical mass, often one hundred and eighty feet across. The sweet pulpy pods are used commonly for feeding cattle. Also called rain tree. J. Smith (Dict. Econ. Plants).

Zam"bo (?), n.; pl. Zambos (#). [See Sambo.] The child of a mulatto and a negro; also, the child of an Indian and a negro; colloquially or humorously, a negro; a sambo.

||Za"mi*a (?), n. [L. zamia a kind of fir cone, from Gr. &?;, &?;, hurt, damage. See Plin. xvi. 44.] (Bot.) A genus of cycadaceous plants, having the appearance of low palms, but with exogenous wood. See Coontie, and Illust. of Strobile.

Zam`in*dar" (?), n. [Hind. zemndr, zamndr, a landholder, Per. zamndr; zamn land dr holding.] A landowner; also, a collector of land revenue; now, usually, a kind of feudatory recognized as an actual proprietor so long as he pays to the government a certain fixed revenue. [Written also zemindar.] [India]

{ Zam"in*da*ry (?), Zam"in*da*ri (?) }, n. The jurisdiction of a zamindar; the land possessed by a zamindar. [Written also zemindary, zemindari.]

Za"mite (?), n. (Paleon.) A fossil cycad of the genus Zamia.

Za*mouse" (?), n. [From a native name.] (Zoöl.) A West African buffalo (Bubalus brachyceros) having short horns depressed at the base, and large ears fringed internally with three rows of long hairs. It is destitute of a dewlap. Called also short-horned buffalo, and bush cow.

||Zam*po"gna (?), n. [It.] (Mus.) A sort of bagpipe formerly in use among Italian peasants. It is now almost obsolete. [Written also zampugna.]

Zan"der (?), n. [Cf. D. zand sand.] (Zoöl.) A European pike perch (Stizostedion lucioperca) allied to the wall-eye; -- called also sandari, sander, sannat, schill, and zant.

Zand"mole` (?), n. [Cf. D. zand sand. See Sand, and Mole the animal.] (Zoöl.) The sand mole.

Zan"te (?), n. (Bot.) See Zantewood.

Zan"te cur"rant (?). A kind of seedless grape or raisin; -- so called from Zante, one of the Ionian Islands.

Zan"te*wood` (?), n. (Bot.) (a) A yellow dyewood; fustet; -- called also zante, and zante fustic. See Fustet, and the Note under Fustic. (b) Satinwood (Chloroxylon Swietenia).

Zan"ti*ot (?), n. A native or inhabitant of Zante, one of the Ionian Islands.

Za"ny (?), n.; pl. Zanies (#). [It. zanni a buffoon, merry- andrew, orig. same as Giovanni John, i. e., merry John, L. Ioannes, Gr. &?;, Heb. Ykhnn, prop., the Lord graciously gave: cf. F. zani, fr. the Italian. Cf. Jenneting.] A merry-andrew; a buffoon.

Then write that I may follow, and so be
Thy echo, thy debtor, thy foil, thy zany.


Preacher at once, and zany of thy age.


<! p. 1678 !>

Za"ny (?), v. t. To mimic. [Obs.]

Your part is acted; give me leave at distance
To zany it.


Za"ny*ism (?), n. State or character of a zany; buffoonery. Coleridge. H. Morley.

Zaph"a*ra (?), n. Zaffer.

||Za*phren"tis (?), n. [NL.] (Paleon.) An extinct genus of cyathophylloid corals common in the Paleozoic formations. It is cup-shaped with numerous septa, and with a deep pit in one side of the cup.

Zap`o*til"la (?), n. (Bot.) See Sapodilla.

Zap"ti*ah (?), n. A Turkish policeman. [Written also zaptieh.]

{ Zar`a*thus"tri*an (?), Zar`a*thus"tric (?) }, a. Of or pertaining to Zarathustra, or Zoroaster; Zoroastrian. Tylor.

Zar`a*thus"trism (?), n. See Zoroastrianism.

Zar"a*tite (?), n. (Min.) [Named after Gen. Zarata of Spain.] A hydrous carbonate of nickel occurring as an emerald-green incrustation on chromite; -- called also emerald nickel.

||Za*re"ba (?), n. (Mil.) An improvised stockade; especially, one made of thorn bushes, etc. [Written also zareeba, and zeriba.] [Egypt]

"Ah," he moralizes, "what wonderful instinct on the part of this little creature to surround itself with a zareba like the troops after Osman Digma."

R. Jefferies.

Zar"nich (?), n. [F., fr. Ar. az- zernkh, fr. Gr. &?;. See Arsenic.] (Min.) Native sulphide of arsenic, including sandarach, or realgar, and orpiment.

||Zär"the (?), n. (Zoöl.) A European bream (Abramis vimba). [Written also zaerthe.]

||Za"ti (?), n. (Zoöl.) A species of macaque (Macacus pileatus) native of India and Ceylon. It has a crown of long erect hair, and tuft of radiating hairs on the back of the head. Called also capped macaque.

||Zau*schne"ri*a (?), n. [NL., named for M. Zauschner, a Bohemian botanist.] (Bot.) A genus of flowering plants. Zauschneria Californica is a suffrutescent perennial, with showy red flowers much resembling those of the garden fuchsia.

Zax (zks), n. A tool for trimming and puncturing roofing slates. [Written also sax.]

||Za"yat (?; 277), n. A public shed, or portico, for travelers, worshipers, etc. [Burmah]

||Ze"a (z"), n. [L., a kind of grain, fr. Gr. ze`a, zeia`; cf. Skr. yava barley.] (Bot.) A genus of large grasses of which the Indian corn (Zea Mays) is the only species known. Its origin is not yet ascertained. See Maize.

Zeal (zl), n. [F. zèle; cf. Pg. & It. zelo, Sp. zelo, celo; from L. zelus, Gr. &?;, probably akin to &?; to boil. Cf. Yeast, Jealous.]

1. Passionate ardor in the pursuit of anything; eagerness in favor of a person or cause; ardent and active interest; engagedness; enthusiasm; fervor. "Ambition varnished o'er with zeal." Milton. "Zeal, the blind conductor of the will." Dryden. "Zeal's never-dying fire." Keble.

I bear them record that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.

Rom. x. 2.

A zeal for liberty is sometimes an eagerness to subvert with little care what shall be established.


2. A zealot. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Zeal, v. i. To be zealous. [Obs. & R.] Bacon.

Zeal"ant (?), n. One who is zealous; a zealot; an enthusiast. [Obs.]

To certain zealants, all speech of pacification is odious.


Zealed (?), a. Full of zeal; characterized by zeal. [Obs.] "Zealed religion." Beau. & Fl.

Zeal"ful (?), a. Full of zeal. [R.] Sylvester.

Zeal"less (?), a. Wanting zeal. Hammond.

Zeal"ot (?), n. [F. zélote, L. zelotes, Gr. &?;. See Zeal.] One who is zealous; one who engages warmly in any cause, and pursues his object with earnestness and ardor; especially, one who is overzealous, or carried away by his zeal; one absorbed in devotion to anything; an enthusiast; a fanatical partisan.

Zealots for the one [tradition] were in hostile array against zealots for the other.

Sir J. Stephen.

In Ayrshire, Clydesdale, Nithisdale, Annandale, every parish was visited by these turbulent zealots.


Zea*lot"ic*al (?), a. Like, or suitable to, a zealot; ardently zealous. [R.] Strype.

Zeal"ot*ism (?), n. The character or conduct of a zealot; zealotry.

Zeal"ot*ist, n. A zealot. [Obs.] Howell.

Zeal"ot*ry (?), n. The character and behavior of a zealot; excess of zeal; fanatical devotion to a cause.

Enthusiasm, visionariness, seems the tendency of the German; zeal, zealotry, of the English; fanaticism, of the French.


Zeal"ous (?; 277), a. [LL. zelosus. See Zeal.]

1. Filled with, or characterized by, zeal; warmly engaged, or ardent, in behalf of an object.

He may be zealous in the salvation of souls.


2. Filled with religious zeal. [Obs.] Shak.

-- Zeal"ous*ly, adv. -- Zeal"ous*ness, n.

Ze"bec (?), n. (Naut.) See Xebec.

Ze"bra (?), n. [Pg. zebra; cf. Sp. cebra; probably from a native African name.] (Zoöl.) Either one of two species of South African wild horses remarkable for having the body white or yellowish white, and conspicuously marked with dark brown or brackish bands.

The true or mountain zebra (Equus, or Asinus, zebra) is nearly white, and the bands which cover the body and legs are glossy black. Its tail has a tuft of black hair at the tip. It inhabits the mountains of Central and Southern Africa, and is noted for its wariness and wildness, as well as for its swiftness. The second species (Equus, or Asinus, Burchellii), known as Burchell's zebra, and dauw, inhabits the grassy plains of South Africa, and differs from the preceding in not having dark bands on the legs, while those on the body are more irregular. It has a long tail, covered with long white flowing hair.

Zebra caterpillar, the larva of an American noctuid moth (Mamestra picta). It is light yellow, with a broad black stripe on the back and one on each side; the lateral stripes are crossed with withe lines. It feeds on cabbages, beets, clover, and other cultivated plants. -- Zebra opossum, the zebra wolf. See under Wolf. -- Zebra parrakeet, an Australian grass parrakeet, often kept as a cage bird. Its upper parts are mostly pale greenish yellow, transversely barred with brownish black crescents; the under parts, rump, and upper tail coverts, are bright green; two central tail feathers and the cheek patches are blue. Called also canary parrot, scallop parrot, shell parrot, and undulated parrot. -- Zebra poison (Bot.), a poisonous tree (Euphorbia arborea) of the Spurge family, found in South Africa. Its milky juice is so poisonous that zebras have been killed by drinking water in which its branches had been placed, and it is also used as an arrow poison. J. Smith (Dict. Econ. Plants). -- Zebra shark. Same as Tiger shark, under Tiger. -- Zebra spider, a hunting spider. -- Zebra swallowtail, a very large North American swallow-tailed butterfly (Iphiclides ajax), in which the wings are yellow, barred with black; -- called also ajax. -- Zebra wolf. See under Wolf.

Ze"bra*wood` (?), n. (a) A kind of cabinet wood having beautiful black, brown, and whitish stripes, the timber of a tropical American tree (Connarus Guianensis). (b) The wood of a small West Indian myrtaceous tree (Eugenia fragrans). (c) The wood of an East Indian tree of the genus Guettarda.

Ze"brine (?), a. (Zoöl.) Pertaining to, or resembling, the zebra.

Ze"bu (?), n. [&?;. zébu; of uncertain origin.] (Zoöl.) A bovine mammal (Ros Indicus) extensively domesticated in India, China, the East Indies, and East Africa. It usually has short horns, large pendulous ears, slender legs, a large dewlap, and a large, prominent hump over the shoulders; but these characters vary in different domestic breeds, which range in size from that of the common ox to that of a large mastiff.

Some of the varieties are used as beasts of burden, and some fore for riding, while others are raised for their milk and flesh. The Brahmin bull, regarded as sacred by the Hindoos, also belongs to this species. The male is called also Indian bull, Indian ox, Madras ox, and sacred bull.

Ze"bub (?), n. (Zoöl.) A large noxious fly of Abyssinia, which like the tsetse fly, is destructive to cattle.

Ze"chin (?; 277), n. See Sequin.

||Zech"stein` (?), n. [Gr., fr. zeche a mine + stein a stone.] (Geol.) The upper division of the Permian (Dyas) of Europe. The prevailing rock is a magnesian limestone.

Zed (?), n. [F., probably through It. zeta, fr. L. zeta. See Zeta.] The letter Z; -- called also zee, and formerly izzard. "Zed, thou unnecessary letter!" Shak.

Zed"o*a*ry (?), n. [F. zédoaire, LL. zedoaria; cf. It. zedoaria, zettovario, Pg. zedoaria, Sp. zedoaria, cedoaria; all fr. Ar. & Per. zedw&?;r.] (Med.) A medicinal substance obtained in the East Indies, having a fragrant smell, and a warm, bitter, aromatic taste. It is used in medicine as a stimulant.

It is the rhizome of different species of Curcuma, esp. C. zedoaria, and comes in short, firm pieces, externally of a wrinkled gray, ash-colored appearance, but within of a brownish red color. There are two kinds, round zedoary, and long zedoary.

||Zee"koe (?), n. [D., sea cow, lake cow.] (Zoöl.) A hippopotamus.

||Zeh"ner (?), n. [G.] An Austrian silver coin equal to ten kreutzers, or about five cents.

Ze"in (?), n. [Cf. F. zéïne. See Zea.] (Chem.) A nitrogenous substance of the nature of gluten, obtained from the seeds of Indian corn (Zea) as a soft, yellowish, amorphous substance. [Formerly written zeine.]

Zem`in*dar" (?), n. Same as Zamindar.

{ Zem"in*da*ry (?), ||Zem"in*da*ri (?) }, n. Same as Zamindary.

Zem"ni (?), n. (Zoöl.) The blind mole rat (Spalax typhlus), native of Eastern Europe and Asia. Its eyes and ears are rudimentary, and its fur is soft and brownish, more or less tinged with gray. It constructs extensive burrows.

||Ze*na"na (?), n. [Hind. zenna, zanna, fr. Per. zanna, fr. zan woman; akin to E. queen.] The part of a dwelling appropriated to women. [India]

Zend (?), n. [See Zend-Avesta.] Properly, the translation and exposition in the Huzvâresh, or literary Pehlevi, language, of the Avesta, the Zoroastrian sacred writings; as commonly used, the language (an ancient Persian dialect) in which the Avesta is written.

||Zend`-A*ves"ta (?), n. [Properly, the Avesta, or sacred text, and its zend, or interpretation, in a more modern and intelligible language. W. D. Whitney.] The sacred writings of the ancient Persian religion, attributed to Zoroaster, but chiefly of a later date.

||Zen"dik (?), n. [Ar. zandk.] An atheist or unbeliever; -- name given in the East to those charged with disbelief of any revealed religion, or accused of magical heresies.

Ze"nick (?), n. (Zoöl.) A South African burrowing mammal (Suricata tetradactyla), allied to the civets. It is grayish brown, with yellowish transverse stripes on the back. Called also suricat.

Ze"nik (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Zenick.

Ze"nith (?; 277), n. [OE. senyth, OF. cenith, F. zénith, Sp. zenit, cenit, abbrev. fr. Ar. samt-urras way of the head, vertical place; samt way, path + al the + ras head. Cf. Azimuth.]

1. That point in the visible celestial hemisphere which is vertical to the spectator; the point of the heavens directly overhead; -- opposed to nadir.

From morn
To noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve,
A summer's day; and with the setting sun
Dropped from the zenith, like a falling star.


2. hence, figuratively, the point of culmination; the greatest height; the height of success or prosperity.

I find my zenith doth depend upon
A most auspicious star.


This dead of midnight is the noon of thought,
And wisdom mounts her zenith with the stars.

Mrs. Barbauld.

It was during those civil troubles . . . this aspiring family reached the zenith.


Zenith distance. (Astron.) See under Distance. -- Zenith sector. (Astron.) See Sector, 3. -- Zenith telescope (Geodesy), a telescope specially designed for determining the latitude by means of any two stars which pass the meridian about the same time, and at nearly equal distances from the zenith, but on opposite sides of it. It turns both on a vertical and a horizontal axis, is provided with a graduated vertical semicircle, and a level for setting it to a given zenith distance, and with a micrometer for measuring the difference of the zenith distances of the two stars.

Ze"nith*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to the zenith. "The deep zenithal blue." Tyndall.

Ze"o*lite (?), n. [Gr. &?; to boil + -lite: cf. F. zéolithe.] (Min.) A term now used to designate any one of a family of minerals, hydrous silicates of alumina, with lime, soda, potash, or rarely baryta. Here are included natrolite, stilbite, analcime, chabazite, thomsonite, heulandite, and others. These species occur of secondary origin in the cavities of amygdaloid, basalt, and lava, also, less frequently, in granite and gneiss. So called because many of these species intumesce before the blowpipe.

Needle zeolite, needlestone; natrolite.

Ze`o*lit"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a zeolite; consisting of, or resembling, a zeolite.

Ze`o*lit"i*form (?), a. Having the form of a zeolite.

Zeph"yr (?), n. [L. zephyrus, Gr. &?;, akin to &?; darkness, the dark side, west: cf. F. zéphyr.] The west wind; poetically, any soft, gentle breeze. "Soft the zephyr blows." Gray.

As gentle
As zephyrs blowing below the violet.


Zephyr cloth, a thin kind of cassimere made in Belgium; also, a waterproof fabric of wool. -- Zephyr shawl, a kind of thin, light, embroidered shawl made of worsted and cotton. -- Zephyr yarn, or worsted, a fine, soft kind of yarn or worsted, - - used for knitting and embroidery.

||Zeph"y*rus (?), n. [L. See Zephyr.] The west wind, or zephyr; -- usually personified, and made the most mild and gentle of all the sylvan deities.

Mild as when Zephyrus on Flora breathes.


Ze"quin (?), n. See Sequin.

||Zer"da (?), n. [Of African origin.] (Zoöl.) The fennec.

||Ze*ri"ba (?), n. (Mil.) Same as Zareba.

Ze"ro (?), n.; pl. Zeros (#) or Zeroes. [F. zéro, from Ar. çafrun, çifrun, empty, a cipher. Cf. Cipher.]

1. (Arith.) A cipher; nothing; naught.

2. The point from which the graduation of a scale, as of a thermometer, commences.

Zero in the Centigrade, or Celsius thermometer, and in the Réaumur thermometer, is at the point at which water congeals. The zero of the Fahrenheit thermometer is fixed at the point at which the mercury stands when immersed in a mixture of snow and common salt. In Wedgwood's pyrometer, the zero corresponds with 1077° on the Fahrenheit scale. See Illust. of Thermometer.

3. Fig.: The lowest point; the point of exhaustion; as, his patience had nearly reached zero.

Absolute zero. See under Absolute. -- Zero method (Physics), a method of comparing, or measuring, forces, electric currents, etc., by so opposing them that the pointer of an indicating apparatus, or the needle of a galvanometer, remains at, or is brought to, zero, as contrasted with methods in which the deflection is observed directly; -- called also null method. -- Zero point, the point indicating zero, or the commencement of a scale or reckoning.

<! p. 1679 !>

Zest (?), n. [F. zeste, probably fr. L. schistos split, cleft, divided, Gr. &?;, from &?; to split, cleave. Cf. Schism.]

1. A piece of orange or lemon peel, or the aromatic oil which may be squeezed from such peel, used to give flavor to liquor, etc.

2. Hence, something that gives or enhances a pleasant taste, or the taste itself; an appetizer; also, keen enjoyment; relish; gusto.

Almighty Vanity! to thee they owe
Their zest of pleasure, and their balm of woe.


Liberality of disposition and conduct gives the highest zest and relish to social intercourse.


3. The woody, thick skin inclosing the kernel of a walnut. [Obs.]

Zest, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Zested; p. pr. & vb. n. Zesting.]

1. To cut into thin slips, as the peel of an orange, lemon, etc.; to squeeze, as peel, over the surface of anything.

2. To give a relish or flavor to; to heighten the taste or relish of; as, to zest wine. Gibber.

||Ze"ta (?), n. [L., from Gr. &?;. Cf. Zed.] A Greek letter [ζ] corresponding to our z.

Ze*tet"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to seek: cf. F. zététique.] Seeking; proceeding by inquiry.

Zetetic method (Math.), the method used for finding the value of unknown quantities by direct search, in investigation, or in the solution of problems. [R.] Hutton.

Ze*tet"ic, n. A seeker; -- a name adopted by some of the Pyrrhonists.

Ze*tet"ics (?), n. [See Zetetic, a.] (Math.) A branch of algebra which relates to the direct search for unknown quantities. [R.]

Zeu"glo*don (?), n. [Gr. &?; the strap or loop of a yoke + &?;, &?;, tooth.] (Paleon.) A genus of extinct Eocene whales, remains of which have been found in the Gulf States. The species had very long and slender bodies and broad serrated teeth. See Phocodontia.

Zeu"glo*dont (?), (Zoöl.) Any species of Zeuglodonta.

||Zeu`glo*don"ta (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) Same as Phocodontia.

Zeug"ma (?), n. [L., from Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to yoke, join. See Yoke.] (Gram.) A figure by which an adjective or verb, which agrees with a nearer word, is, by way of supplement, referred also to another more remote; as, "hic illius arma, hic currus fuit;" where fuit, which agrees directly with currus, is referred also to arma.

Zeug*mat"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to zeugma; characterized by zeugma.

||Zeu`go*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; to yoke + &?; a gill.] (Zoöl.) Same as Zygobranchia.

Zeus (?), n. (Gr. Myth.) The chief deity of the Greeks, and ruler of the upper world (cf. Hades). He was identified with Jupiter.

Zeu*ze"ri*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of a group of bombycid moths of which the genus Zeuzera is the type. Some of these moths are of large size. The goat moth is an example.

Zey"lan*ite (?), n. (Min.) See Ceylanite.

{ Zib"et, Zib"eth } (?), n. [Cf. It. zibetto. See Civet.] (Zoöl.) A carnivorous mammal (Viverra zibetha) closely allied to the civet, from which it differs in having the spots on the body less distinct, the throat whiter, and the black rings on the tail more numerous.

It inhabits India, Southern China, and the East Indies. It yields a perfume similar to that of the civet. It is often domesticated by the natives, and then serves the same purposes as the domestic cat. Called also Asiatic, or Indian, civet.

Zie"ga (?), n. Curd produced from milk by adding acetic acid, after rennet has ceased to cause coagulation. Brande & C.

Zie`tri*si"kite (?), n. (Min.) A mineral wax, vert similar to ozocerite. It is found at Zietrisika, Moldavia, whence its name.

||Zif (?), n. [Heb. ziv.] The second month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, corresponding to our May.

{ Zig"ger, Zig"hyr } (?), v. i. (Mining) Same as Sicker. [Prov. Eng.] Raymond.

Zig"zag` (?), n. [F. zigzag, G. zickzack, from zacke, zacken, a dentil, tooth. Cf. Tack a small nail.]

1. Something that has short turns or angles.

The fanatics going straight forward and openly, the politicians by the surer mode of zigzag.


2. (Arch.) A molding running in a zigzag line; a chevron, or series of chevrons. See Illust. of Chevron, 3.

3. (Fort.) See Boyau.

Zig"zag` (?), a. Having short, sharp turns; running this way and that in an onward course.

Zig"zag`, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Zigzagged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Zigzagging.] To form with short turns.

Zig"zag`, v. i. To move in a zigzag manner; also, to have a zigzag shape. R. Browning.

Zig"zag`ger*y (?), n. The quality or state of being zigzag; crookedness. [R.]

The . . . zigzaggery of my father's approaches.


Zig"zag`gy, a. Having sharp turns. Barham.

Zil"la (?), n. (Bot.) A low, thorny, suffrutescent, crucifeous plant (Zilla myagroides) found in the deserts of Egypt. Its leaves are boiled in water, and eaten, by the Arabs.

||Zil"lah (?), n. [Ar. zila.] A district or local division, as of a province. [India]

||Zimb (?), n. (Zoöl.) A large, venomous, two-winged fly, native of Abyssinia. It is allied to the tsetse fly, and, like the latter, is destructive to cattle.

Zim"ent-wa`ter (?), n. [G. cement- wasser. See Cement.] A kind of water found in copper mines; water impregnated with copper.

Zinc (zk), n. [G. zink, probably akin to zinn tin: cf. F. zinc, from the German. Cf. Tin.] (Chem.) An abundant element of the magnesium-cadmium group, extracted principally from the minerals zinc blende, smithsonite, calamine, and franklinite, as an easily fusible bluish white metal, which is malleable, especially when heated. It is not easily oxidized in moist air, and hence is used for sheeting, coating galvanized iron, etc. It is used in making brass, britannia, and other alloys, and is also largely consumed in electric batteries. Symbol Zn. Atomic weight 64.9. [Formerly written also zink.]

Butter of zinc (Old Chem.), zinc chloride, ZnCl2, a deliquescent white waxy or oily substance. -- Oxide of zinc. (Chem.) See Zinc oxide, below. -- Zinc amine (Chem.), a white amorphous substance, Zn(NH2)2, obtained by the action of ammonia on zinc ethyl; -- called also zinc amide. -- Zinc amyle (Chem.), a colorless, transparent liquid, composed of zinc and amyle, which, when exposed to the atmosphere, emits fumes, and absorbs oxygen with rapidity. -- Zinc blende [cf. G. zinkblende] (Min.), a native zinc sulphide. See Blende, n. (a). -- Zinc bloom [cf. G. zinkblumen flowers of zinc, oxide of zinc] (Min.), hydrous carbonate of zinc, usually occurring in white earthy incrustations; -- called also hydrozincite. -- Zinc ethyl (Chem.), a colorless, transparent, poisonous liquid, composed of zinc and ethyl, which takes fire spontaneously on exposure to the atmosphere. -- Zinc green, a green pigment consisting of zinc and cobalt oxides; -- called also Rinmann's green. -- Zinc methyl (Chem.), a colorless mobile liquid Zn(CH3)2, produced by the action of methyl iodide on a zinc sodium alloy. It has a disagreeable odor, and is spontaneously inflammable in the air. It has been of great importance in the synthesis of organic compounds, and is the type of a large series of similar compounds, as zinc ethyl, zinc amyle, etc. -- Zinc oxide (Chem.), the oxide of zinc, ZnO, forming a light fluffy sublimate when zinc is burned; -- called also flowers of zinc, philosopher's wool, nihil album, etc. The impure oxide produced by burning the metal, roasting its ores, or in melting brass, is called also pompholyx, and tutty. -- Zinc spinel (Min.), a mineral, related to spinel, consisting essentially of the oxides of zinc and aluminium; gahnite. -- Zinc vitriol (Chem.), zinc sulphate. See White vitriol, under Vitriol. -- Zinc white, a white powder consisting of zinc oxide, used as a pigment.

Zinc, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Zincked or Zinced (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Zincking or Zincing (&?;).] To coat with zinc; to galvanize.

Zinc"ane (?), n. (Chem.) Zinc chloride. [Obs.]

Zinc"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, containing, or resembling, zinc; zincous.

Zinc"ide (?), n. A binary compound of zinc. [R.]

Zinc*if"er*ous (?), a. [Zinc + -ferous.] Containing or affording zinc.

Zinc`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. The act or process of applying zinc; the condition of being zincified, or covered with zinc; galvanization.

Zinc"i*fy (?), v. t. [Zinc + - fy.] (Metal.) To coat or impregnate with zinc.

Zinc"ite (?), n. (Min.) Native zinc oxide; a brittle, translucent mineral, of an orange- red color; -- called also red zinc ore, and red oxide of zinc.

{Zinck"ing, or Zinc"ing (?) }, n. (Metal.) The act or process of applying zinc; galvanization.

Zinck"y (?), a. Pertaining to zinc, or having its appearance. [Written also zinky.]

Zin"co- (?). A combining form from zinc; in chemistry, designating zinc as an element of certain double compounds. Also used adjectively.

Zinc"ode (?), n. [Zinc + - ode, as in electrode.] (Elec.) The positive electrode of an electrolytic cell; anode. [R.] Miller.

Zin*cog"ra*pher (?), n. An engraver on zinc.

{ Zin`co*graph"ic (?), Zin`co*graph"ic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to zincography; as, zincographic processes.

Zin*cog"ra*phy (?), n. [Zinco- + -graphy.] The art or process of engraving or etching on zinc, in which the design is left in relief in the style of a wood cut, the rest of the ground being eaten away by acid.

Zinc"oid (?), a. [Zinc + - oid.] Pertaining to, or resembling, zinc; -- said of the electricity of the zincous plate in connection with a copper plate in a voltaic circle; also, designating the positive pole. [Obs.]

Zin`co-po"lar (?), a. [Zinco- + polar.] (Elec.) Electrically polarized like the surface of the zinc presented to the acid in a battery, which has zincous affinity. [Obs.]

Zinc"ous (?), a. 1. (Chem.) (a) Of, pertaining to, or containing, zinc; zincic; as, zincous salts. (b) Hence, formerly, basic, basylous, as opposed to chlorous.

2. (Physics) Of or pertaining to the positive pole of a galvanic battery; electro-positive.

||Zin"ga*ro (?), n.; pl. Zingari (#). [It.] A gypsy.

Zing"el (zng"el), n. (Zoöl.) A small, edible, freshwater European perch (Aspro zingel), having a round, elongated body and prominent snout.

Zin`gi*ber*a"ceous (zn`j*br*"shs), a. [L. zingiber ginger. See Ginger.] (Bot.) Of or pertaining to ginger, or to a tribe (Zingibereæ) of endogenous plants of the order Scitamineæ. See Scitamineous.

Zink (zk), n. (Chem.) See Zinc. [Obs.]

Zink"en*ite (-en*t), n. [From Zinken, director at one time of the Hanoverian mines.] (Min.) A steel-gray metallic mineral, a sulphide of antimony and lead.

Zink"y (?), a. See Zincky. Kirwan.

||Zin"ni*a (?), n. [NL. So called after Professor Zinn, of Göttingen.] (Bot.) Any plant of the composite genus Zinnia, Mexican herbs with opposite leaves and large gay-colored blossoms. Zinnia elegans is the commonest species in cultivation.

Zinn"wald*ite (?), n. [So called after Zinnwald, in Bohemia, where it occurs.] (Min.) A kind of mica containing lithium, often associated with tin ore.

Zin"sang (?), n. (Zoöl.) The delundung.

Zin`zi*ber*a"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Same as Zingiberaceous.

Zi"on (?), n. [Heb. tsy&?;n, originally, a hill.]

1. (Jewish Antiq.) A hill in Jerusalem, which, after the capture of that city by the Israelites, became the royal residence of David and his successors.

2. Hence, the theocracy, or church of God.

3. The heavenly Jerusalem; heaven.

Ziph"i*oid (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Xiphioid.

Zir"co- (?). (Chem.) A combining form (also used adjectively) designating zirconium as an element of certain double compounds; zircono-; as in zircofluoric acid, sodium zircofluoride.

Zir`co*flu"or*ide (?), n. (Chem.) A double fluoride of zirconium and hydrogen, or some other positive element or radical; as, zircofluoride of sodium.

Zir"con (?), n. [F., the same word as jargon. See Jargon a variety of zircon.] (Min.) A mineral occurring in tetragonal crystals, usually of a brown or gray color. It consists of silica and zirconia. A red variety, used as a gem, is called hyacinth. Colorless, pale-yellow or smoky- brown varieties from Ceylon are called jargon.

Zircon syenite, a coarse-grained syenite containing zircon crystals and often also elæolite. It is largely developed in Southern Norway.

Zir"co*na (?), n. [NL.] (Chem.) Zirconia.

Zir"con*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of zirconic acid.

Zir*co"ni*a (?), n. [NL.] (Chem.) The oxide of zirconium, obtained as a white powder, and possessing both acid and basic properties. On account of its infusibility, and brilliant luminosity when incandescent, it is used as an ingredient of sticks for the Drummomd light.

Zir*con"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, containing, or resembling, zirconium; as, zirconic oxide; zirconic compounds.

Zirconic acid, an acid of zirconium analogous to carbonic and silicic acids, known only in its salts.

Zir*co"ni*um (?), n. [NL.] (Chem.) A rare element of the carbon-silicon group, intermediate between the metals and nonmetals, obtained from the mineral zircon as a dark sooty powder, or as a gray metallic crystalline substance. Symbol Zr. Atomic weight, 90.4.

Zir"co*no (?). See Zirco-.

Zir"con*oid (?), n. [Zircon + oid.] (Crystallog.) A double eight-sided pyramid, a form common with tetragonal crystals; -- so called because this form often occurs in crystals of zircon.

Zith"er (?), n. [G. zither. See Cittern.] (Mus.) An instrument of music used in Austria and Germany. It has from thirty to forty wires strung across a shallow sounding-board, which lies horizontally on a table before the performer, who uses both hands in playing on it. [Not to be confounded with the old lute-shaped cittern, or cithern.]

Zit"tern (?), n. (Min.) See Cittern.

||Zi*za"ni*a (?), n. [NL., from L. zizanium darnel, cockle, Gr. &?;.] (Bot.) A genus of grasses including Indian rice. See Indian rice, under Rice.

Ziz"el (?), n. [G. ziesel.] (Zoöl.) The suslik. [Written also zisel.]

||Zo`an*tha"ce*a (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. zw^,on an animal + &?; flower.] (Zoöl.) A suborder of Actinaria, including Zoanthus and allied genera, which are permanently attached by their bases.

||Zo`an*tha"ri*a (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) Same as Anthozoa.

Zo`an*tha"ri*an (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Zoantharia. -- n. One of the Anthozoa.

Zo*an"tho*deme (?), n. [See Zoantharia, and Deme.] (Zoöl.) The zooids of a compound anthozoan, collectively.

Zo*an"thoid (?), a. [See Zoantharia, and -oid.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Zoanthacea.

Zo*an"thro*py (?), n. [Gr. &?; animal + &?; man.] (Med.) A kind of monomania in which the patient believes himself transformed into one of the lower animals.

||Zo*an"thus (?), n. [NL. See Zoantharia.] (Zoöl.) A genus of Actinaria, including numerous species, found mostly in tropical seas. The zooids or polyps resemble small, elongated actinias united together at their bases by fleshy stolons, and thus forming extensive groups. The tentacles are small and bright colored.

<! p. 1680 !>

||Zo"bo (?), n. [Native name.] (Zoöl.) A kind of domestic cattle reared in Asia for its flesh and milk. It is supposed to be a hybrid between the zebu and the yak.

{ Zoc"co (?), Zoc"co*lo (?), } n. [It. fr. L. socculus. See Socle, and cf. Zacco.] (Arch.) Same as Socle.

Zo"cle (?; 277), n. (Arch.) Same as Socle.

Zo"di*ac (?), n. [F. zodiaque (cf. It. zodiaco), fr. L. zodiacus, Gr. &?; (sc. &?;), fr. &?;, dim. of zw^,on an animal, akin to &?; living, &?; to live.]

1. (Astron.) (a) An imaginary belt in the heavens, 16° or 18° broad, in the middle of which is the ecliptic, or sun's path. It comprises the twelve constellations, which one constituted, and from which were named, the twelve signs of the zodiac. (b) A figure representing the signs, symbols, and constellations of the zodiac.

2. A girdle; a belt. [Poetic & R.]

By his side,
As in a glistering zodiac, hung the sword.


Zo*di"a*cal (?), a. [Cf. F. zodiacal.] (Astron.) Of or pertaining to the zodiac; situated within the zodiac; as, the zodiacal planets.

Zodiacal light, a luminous tract of the sky, of an elongated, triangular figure, lying near the ecliptic, its base being on the horizon, and its apex at varying altitudes. It is to be seen only in the evening, after twilight, and in the morning before dawn. It is supposed to be due to sunlight reflected from multitudes of meteoroids revolving about the sun nearly in the plane of the ecliptic.

||Zo"ë*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; life.] (Zoöl.) A peculiar larval stage of certain decapod Crustacea, especially of crabs and certain Anomura. [Written also zoæa.]

In this stage the anterior part of the body is relatively large, and usually bears three or four long spines. The years are conspicuous, and the antennæ and jaws are long, fringed organs used in swimming. The thoracic legs are undeveloped or rudimentary, the abdomen long, slender, and often without appendages. The zoëa, after casting its shell, changes to a megalops.

Zo"e*trope (?), n. [Gr. &?; life + &?; turning, from &?; to turn.] An optical toy, in which figures made to revolve on the inside of a cylinder, and viewed through slits in its circumference, appear like a single figure passing through a series of natural motions as if animated or mechanically moved.

||Zo"har (?), n. [Heb. zhar candor, splendor.] A Jewish cabalistic book attributed by tradition to Rabbi Simon ben Yochi, who lived about the end of the 1st century, a. d. Modern critics believe it to be a compilation of the 13th century. Encyc. Brit.

Zo"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to animals, or animal life.

Zo"ide (?), n. (Biol.) See Meride.

Zo*il"e*an (?), a. Having the characteristic of Zoilus, a bitter, envious, unjust critic, who lived about 270 years before Christ.

Zo"i*lism (?), n. Resemblance to Zoilus in style or manner; carping criticism; detraction.

Bring candid eyes the perusal of men's works, and let not Zoilism or detraction blast well-intended labors.

Sir T. Browne.

Zois"ite (?), n. [After its discoverer, Von Zois, an Austrian mineralogist.] (Min.) A grayish or whitish mineral occurring in orthorhombic, prismatic crystals, also in columnar masses. It is a silicate of alumina and lime, and is allied to epidote.

||Zo"kor (?), n. (Zoöl.) An Asiatic burrowing rodent (Siphneus aspalax) resembling the mole rat. It is native of the Altai Mountains.

||Zoll"ve*rein` (?), n. [G., from zoll duty + verein union.] Literally, a customs union; specifically, applied to the several customs unions successively formed under the leadership of Prussia among certain German states for establishing liberty of commerce among themselves and common tariff on imports, exports, and transit.

In 1834 a zollverein was established which included most of the principal German states except Austria. This was terminated by the events of 1866, and in 1867 a more closely organized union was formed, the administration of which was ultimately merged in that of the new German empire, with which it nearly corresponds territorially.

Zom"bo*ruk (?), n. (Mil.) See Zumbooruk.

||Zo"na (?), n.; pl. Zonæ (#). [L., a girdle. See Zone.] A zone or band; a layer.

Zona pellucida. [NL.] (Biol.) (a) The outer transparent layer, or envelope, of the ovum. It is a more or less elastic membrane with radiating striæ, and corresponds to the cell wall of an ordinary cell. See Ovum, and Illust. of Microscope. (b) The zona radiata. -- Zona radiata [NL.] (Biol.), a radiately striated membrane situated next the yolk of an ovum, or separated from it by a very delicate membrane only.

Zon"al (?), a. [L. zonalis.] Of or pertaining to a zone; having the form of a zone or zones.

Zonal equation (Crystallog.), the mathematical relation which belongs to all the planes of a zone, and expresses their common position with reference to the axes. -- Zonal structure (Crystallog.), a structure characterized by the arrangements of color, inclusions, etc., of a crystal in parallel or concentric layers, which usually follow the outline of the crystal, and mark the changes that have taken place during its growth. -- Zonal symmetry. (Biol.) See the Note under Symmetry.

Zo"nar (?), n. [Mod. Gr. &?; a girdle, fr. Gr. &?;, dim. of &?; a girdle. See Zone.] A belt or girdle which the Christians and Jews of the Levant were obliged to wear to distinguish them from Mohammedans. [Written also zonnar.]

||Zo*na"ri*a (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) A division of Mammalia in which the placenta is zonelike.

Zon"ate (?), a. (Bot.) Divided by parallel planes; as, zonate tetraspores, found in certain red algæ.

Zone (zn), n. [F. zone, L. zona, Gr. zw`nh; akin to zwnny`nai to gird, Lith. jsta a girdle, jsti to gird, Zend yh.] 1. A girdle; a cincture. [Poetic]

An embroidered zone surrounds her waist.


Loose were her tresses seen, her zone unbound.


2. (Geog.) One of the five great divisions of the earth, with respect to latitude and temperature.

The zones are five: the torrid zone, extending from tropic to tropic 46° 56, or 23° 28 on each side of the equator; two temperate or variable zones, situated between the tropics and the polar circles; and two frigid zones, situated between the polar circles and the poles.

Commerce . . . defies every wind, outrides every tempest, and invades.


3. (Math.) The portion of the surface of a sphere included between two parallel planes; the portion of a surface of revolution included between two planes perpendicular to the axis. Davies & Peck (Math. Dict.)

4. (Nat. Hist.) (a) A band or stripe extending around a body. (b) A band or area of growth encircling anything; as, a zone of evergreens on a mountain; the zone of animal or vegetable life in the ocean around an island or a continent; the Alpine zone, that part of mountains which is above the limit of tree growth.

5. (Crystallog.) A series of planes having mutually parallel intersections.

6. Circuit; circumference. [R.] Milton.

Abyssal zone. (Phys. Geog.) See under Abyssal. -- Zone axis (Crystallog.), a straight line passing through the center of a crystal, to which all the planes of a given zone are parallel.

Zone, v. t. To girdle; to encircle. [R.] Keats.

Zoned (?), a. 1. Wearing a zone, or girdle. Pope.

2. Having zones, or concentric bands; striped.

3. (Bot.) Zonate.

Zone"less (?), a. Not having a zone; ungirded.

The reeling goddess with the zoneless waist.


In careless folds, loose fell her zoneless vest.


Zon"nar (?), n. See Zonar.

Zon"u*lar (?), a. Of or pertaining to a zone; zone-shaped. "The zonular type of a placenta." Dana.

Zon"ule (?), n. A little zone, or girdle.

Zon"u*let (?), n. A zonule. Herrick.

Zon"ure (?), n. [Zone + Gr. &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) Any one of several of South African lizards of the genus Zonura, common in rocky situations.

Zo"ö- (?). A combining form from Gr. zwo^,n an animal, as in zoögenic, zoölogy, etc.

Zo`ö*chem"ic*al (?), a. Pertaining to zoöchemistry.

Zo`ö*chem"is*try (?), n. [Zoö- + chemistry.] Animal chemistry; particularly, the description of the chemical compounds entering into the composition of the animal body, in distinction from biochemistry.

Zo*öch"e*my (?), n. [Zoö- + Gr. &?; alchemy.] Animal chemistry; zoöchemistry. Dunglison.

||Zo`ö*chlo*rel"la (?), n. [NL., dim. from Gr. zw^,on an animal + &?; green.] (Zoöl.) One of the small green granulelike bodies found in the interior of certain stentors, hydras, and other invertebrates.

Zo"ö*cyst (?), n. [Zoö- + cyst.] (Biol.) A cyst formed by certain Protozoa and unicellular plants which the contents divide into a large number of granules, each of which becomes a germ.

||Zo`ö*cy"ti*um (?), n.; pl. Zoöcytia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. zw^,on an animal + &?; a hollow vessel.] (Zoöl.) The common support, often branched, of certain species of social Infusoria.

||Zo`ö*den"dri*um (?), n.; pl. Zoödendria (#). [NL., fr. Gr. zw^,on an animal + &?; a tree.] (Zoöl.) The branched, and often treelike, support of the colonies of certain Infusoria.

||Zo*œ"ci*um (?), n.; pl. Zoœcia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. zw^,on an animal + &?; house.] (Zoöl.) One of the cells or tubes which inclose the feeling zooids of Bryozoa. See Illust. of Sea Moss.

Zo`ö*e*ryth"rine (?), n. [Zoö- + Gr. &?; red.] (Zoöl.) A peculiar organic red coloring matter found in the feathers of various birds.

Zo*ög"a*mous (?), a. [Zoö- + Gr. &?; marriage.] (Biol.) Of or pertaining zoögamy.

Zo*ög"a*my (?), n. (Biol.) The sexual reproduction of animals.

Zo`ö*gen"ic (?), a. [Zoö- + -gen + -ic: cf. Gr. &?; born of an animal.] (Biol.) Of or pertaining to zoögeny, animal production.

{ Zo*ög"e*ny (?), Zo*ög"o*ny (?), } n. [Zoö- + root of Gr. &?; to be born, &?; offspring.] The doctrine of the formation of living beings.

Zo`ö*ge`o*graph"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to zoögraphy.

Zo`ö*ge*og"ra*phy (?), n. [Zoö- + geography.] The study or description of the geographical distribution of animals.

||Zo`ö*glœ"a (?), n. [NL., from Gr. zw^,on an animal + &?; any glutinous substance.] (Biol.) A colony or mass of bacteria imbedded in a viscous gelatinous substance. The zoöglœa is characteristic of a transitory stage through which rapidly multiplying bacteria pass in the course of their evolution. Also used adjectively.

Zo*ög"ra*pher (?), n. One who describes animals, their forms and habits.

{ Zo`ö*graph"ic (?), Zo`ö*graph"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. zoographique.] Of or pertaining to the description of animals.

Zo*ög"ra*phist (?), n. A zoögrapher.

Zo*ög"ra*phy (?), n. [Zoö- + -graphy: cf. F. zoographie.] A description of animals, their forms and habits.

Zo"oid (?), a. [Zoö- + - oid.] (Biol.) Pertaining to, or resembling, an animal.

Zo"oid, n. 1. (Biol.) An organic body or cell having locomotion, as a spermatic cell or spermatozooid.

2. (Zoöl.) (a) An animal in one of its inferior stages of development, as one of the intermediate forms in alternate generation. (b) One of the individual animals in a composite group, as of Anthozoa, Hydroidea, and Bryozoa; -- sometimes restricted to those individuals in which the mouth and digestive organs are not developed.

Zo*oid"al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a zooid; as, a zooidal form.

Zo*öl"a*try (?), n. [Zoö- + Gr. &?; worship.] The worship of animals.

Zo*öl"o*ger (?), n. A zoölogist. Boyle.

Zo`ö*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. zoologique.] Of or pertaining to zoölogy, or the science of animals.

Zo`ö*log"ic*al*ly, adv. In a zoölogical manner; according to the principles of zoölogy.

Zo*öl"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. zoologiste.] One who is well versed in zoölogy.

Zo*öl"o*gy (?), n.; pl. Zoölogies (#). [Zoö- + - logy: cf. F. zoologie. See Zodiac.]

1. That part of biology which relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct.

2. A treatise on this science.

Zo`ö*mel"a*nin (?), n. [Zoö- + melanin.] (Physiol. Chem.) A pigment giving the black color to the feathers of many birds.

Zo`ö*mor"phic (?), a. [Zoö- + Gr. &?; form.] Of or pertaining to zoömorphism.

Zo`ö*mor"phism (?), n. 1. The transformation of men into beasts. [R.] Smart.

2. The quality of representing or using animal forms; as, zoömorphism in ornament.

3. The representation of God, or of gods, in the form, or with the attributes, of the lower animals.

To avoid the error of anthropomorphism, we fall into the vastly greater, and more absurd, error of zoömorphism.


||Zo"ön (?), n.; pl. Zoa (#). [NL., fr. Gr. zw^,on an animal.] (Zoöl.) (a) An animal which is the sole product of a single egg; -- opposed to zooid. H. Spencer. (b) Any one of the perfectly developed individuals of a compound animal.

Zo*ön"ic (?), a. [Gr. zw^,on an animal: cf. F. zoonique.] Of or pertaining to animals; obtained from animal substances.

Zo"ö*nite (?), n. (Zoöl.) (a) One of the segments of the body of an articulate animal. (b) One of the theoretic transverse divisions of any segmented animal.

Zo*ön"o*my (?), n. [Zoö- + Gr. &?; a law: cf. F. zoonomie.] The laws of animal life, or the science which treats of the phenomena of animal life, their causes and relations.

Zo"ö*nule (?), n. [Dim. fr. Gr. zw^,on an animal.] (Zoöl.) Same as Zoönite.

Zo`ö*pa*thol"o*gy (?), n. [Zoö- + pathology.] Animal pathology.

<! p. 1681 !>

||Zo*öph"a*ga (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; animal + &?; to eat.] (Zoöl.) An artificial group comprising various carnivorous and insectivorous animals.

Zo*öph"a*gan (?), n. (Zoöl.) A animal that feeds on animal food.

Zo*öph"a*gous (?), a. [Gr. &?;; zw^,on an animal + &?; to eat.] Feeding on animals.

This is a more general term than either sarcophagous or carnivorous.

Zo*öph"i*list (?), n. [Zoö- + Gr. &?; to love.] A lover of animals. Southey.

Zo*öph"i*ly (?), n. Love of animals.

Zo"ö*phite (?), n. A zoöphyte. [R.]

Zo`ö*phor"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;; zw^,on an animal + &?; to bear; cf. F. zoophorique.] Bearing or supporting the figure of an animal; as, a zoöphoric column.

||Zo*öph"o*rous (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;. See Zoöphoric.] (Anc. Arch.) The part between the architrave and cornice; the frieze; -- so called from the figures of animals carved upon it.

||Zo*öph"y*ta (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. zw^,on an animal + fyto`n a plant.] (Zoöl.) An extensive artificial and heterogeneous group of animals, formerly adopted by many zoölogists. It included the cœlenterates, echinoderms, sponges, Bryozoa, Protozoa, etc.

Sometimes the name is restricted to the Cœlentera, or to the Anthozoa.

Zo"ö*phyte (?), n. [F. zoophyte, Gr. &?;; zw^,on an animal + &?; plant, akin to &?; to be born, to be. See Zodiac, and Be, v. i.] (Zoöl.) (a) Any one of numerous species of invertebrate animals which more or less resemble plants in appearance, or mode of growth, as the corals, gorgonians, sea anemones, hydroids, bryozoans, sponges, etc., especially any of those that form compound colonies having a branched or treelike form, as many corals and hydroids. (b) Any one of the Zoöphyta.

{ Zo`ö*phyt"ic (?), Zo`ö*phyt"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. zoophytique.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to zoöphytes.

Zo*öph"y*toid (?), a. [Zoöphyte + -oid.] (Zoöl.) Pertaining to, or resembling, a zoöphyte.

Zo`ö*phyt`o*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. zoophytologique.] Of or pertaining to zoöphytology; as, zoöphytological observations.

Zo*öph`y*tol"o*gy (?; 277), n. [Zoöphyte + -logy: cf. F. zoophytologie.] The natural history zoöphytes.

Zo`ö*prax"i*scope (?), n. [Zoö- + Gr. &?; a doing, an acting (from &?; to do) + - scope.] An instrument similar to, or the same as, the, the phenakistoscope, by means of which pictures projected upon a screen are made to exhibit the natural movements of animals, and the like.

Zo`ö*psy*chol"o*gy (?), n. [Zoö- + psychology.] Animal psychology.

Zo"ö*sperm (?), n. [Zoö- + sperm.] (Biol.) One of the spermatic particles; spermatozoid.

||Zo`ö*spo*ran"gi*um (?), n.; pl. -sporangia (#). [NL. See Zoö- , and Sporangium.] (Bot.) A spore, or conceptacle containing zoöspores.

Zo"ö*spore (?), n. [Zoö- + spore.]

1. (Bot.) A spore provided with one or more slender cilia, by the vibration of which it swims in the water. Zoöspores are produced by many green, and by some olive-brown, algæ. In certain species they are divided into the larger macrozoöspores and the smaller microzoöspores. Called also sporozoid, and swarmspore.

2. (Zoöl.) See Swarmspore.

Zo`ö*spor"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to zoöspores; of the nature of zoöspores.

Zo*öt"ic (?), a. [Gr. zw^,on an animal.] Containing the remains of organized bodies; -- said of rock or soil.

Zo`ö*tom"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. zootomique.] Of or pertaining to zoötomy.

Zo*öt"o*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. zootomiste.] One who dissects animals, or is skilled in zoötomy.

Zo*öt"o*my (?), n. [Zoö- + Gr. &?; to cut: cf. F. zootomie.] The dissection or the anatomy of animals; -- distinguished from androtomy.

Zo`ö*troph"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;. See Zoö-, and Trophic.] (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to the nourishment of animals.

Zoo"zoo` (?), n. [Of imitative origin.] (Zoöl.) The wood pigeon. [Prov. Eng.]

Zope (?), n. [G.] (Zoöl.) A European fresh-water bream (Abramis ballerus).

Zo"pi*lote (?), n. [Sp.] (Zoöl.) The urubu, or American black vulture.

Zor"il (?), n. (Zoöl.) Same as Zorilla.

Zo*ril"la (?), n. [Sp. zorilla, zorillo, dim. of zorra, zorro, a fox: cf. F. zorille.] (Zoöl.) Either one of two species of small African carnivores of the genus Ictonyx allied to the weasels and skunks. [Written also zoril, and zorille.]

The best-known species (Ictonyx zorilla) has black shiny fur with white bands and spots. It has anal glands which produce a very offensive secretion, similar to that of the skunk. It feeds upon birds and their eggs and upon small mammals, and is often very destructive to poultry. It is sometimes tamed by the natives, and kept to destroy rats and mice. Called also mariput, Cape polecat, and African polecat. The name is sometimes erroneously applied to the American skunk.

Zo`ro*as"tri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Zoroaster, or his religious system.

Zo`ro*as"tri*an (?), n. A follower of Zoroaster; one who accepts Zoroastrianism.

Zo`ro*as"tri*an*ism (?), n. The religious system of Zoroaster, the legislator and prophet of the ancient Persians, which was the national faith of Persia; mazdeism. The system presupposes a good spirit (Ormuzd) and an opposing evil spirit (Ahriman). Cf. Fire worship, under Fire, and Parsee.

Zo`ro*as"trism (?), n. Same as Zoroastrianism. Tylor.

||Zos"ter (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?; girdle, zoster. See Zone.] (Med.) Shingles.

||Zos"te*ra (?), n. [NL.] (Bot.) A genus of plants of the Naiadaceæ, or Pondweed family. Zostera marina is commonly known as sea wrack, and eelgrass.

||Zos"ter*ops (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; girdle + &?;, &?;, the eye.] (Zoöl.) A genus of birds that comprises the white-eyes. See White-eye.

Zouave (?; 277), n. [F., fr. Ar. Zouaoua a tribe of Kabyles living among the Jurjura mountains in Algeria.] (Mil.) (a) One of an active and hardy body of soldiers in the French service, originally Arabs, but now composed of Frenchmen who wear the Arab dress. (b) Hence, one of a body of soldiers who adopt the dress and drill of the Zouaves, as was done by a number of volunteer regiments in the army of the United States in the Civil War, 1861-65.

Zounds (?), interj. [Contracted from God's wounds.] An exclamation formerly used as an oath, and an expression of anger or wonder.

Zoutch (?; 277), v. t. (Cookery) To stew, as flounders, eels, etc., with just enough or liquid to cover them. Smart.

Zubr (zbr), n. [Polish ubr.] (Zoöl.) The aurochs.

Zuche (zch), n. A stump of a tree. Cowell.

Zu*chet"to (?), n. [It. zucchetto.] (R. C. Ch.) A skullcap covering the tonsure, worn under the berretta. The pope's is white; a cardinal's red; a bishop's purple; a priest's black.

||Zu"fo*lo (?; 277), n. [It.] (Mus.) A little flute or flageolet, especially that which is used to teach birds. [Written also zuffolo.]

Zui"sin (?), n. (Zoöl.) The American widgeon. [Local, U. S.]

Zu"lus (z"lz), n. pl.; sing. Zulu (-l). (Ethnol.) The most important tribe belonging to the Kaffir race. They inhabit a region on the southeast coast of Africa, but formerly occupied a much more extensive country. They are noted for their warlike disposition, courage, and military skill.

Zum*boo"ruk (?), n. [Turk. & Ar. zambrak, fr. Ar. zambr a hornet.] (Mil.) A small cannon supported by a swiveled rest on the back of a camel, whence it is fired, -- used in the East.

Zu"mic (?), a., Zu`mo*log"ic*al (&?;), a., Zu*mol"o*gy (&?;), n., Zu*mom"e*ter (&?;), n., etc. See Zymic, Zymological, etc.

Zu"ñis (?), n. pl.; sing. Zuñi (&?;). (Ethnol.) A tribe of Pueblo Indians occupying a village in New Mexico, on the Zuñi River.

Zun"yite (?), n. (Min.) A fluosilicate of alumina occurring in tetrahedral crystals at the Zuñi mine in Colorado.

||Zwan"zi*ger (tsvän"ts*gr), n. [G.] An Austrian silver coin equivalent to 20 kreutzers, or about 10 cents.

||Zy*gan"trum (?), n.; pl. Zygantra (#). [Gr. zygo`n a yoke + &?; a cave, hole.] (Anat.) See under Zygosphene.

Zyg`a*poph"y*sis (?), n.; pl. Zygapophyses (#). [Gr. zygo`n a yoke + E. apophysis.] (Anat.) One of the articular processes of a vertebra, of which there are usually four, two anterior and two posterior. See under Vertebra. -- Zyg`ap*o*phys"i*al (#), a.

Zyg"e*nid (?), n. [Cf. Gr. &?;, probably the hammer-headed shark.] (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of moths of the family Zygænidæ, most of which are bright colored. The wood nymph and the vine forester are examples. Also used adjectively.

||Zyg`o*bran"chi*a (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. zygo`n a yoke + &?; a gill.] (Zoöl.) A division of marine gastropods in which the gills are developed on both sides of the body and the renal organs are also paired. The abalone (Haliotis) and the keyhole limpet (Fissurella) are examples.

Zyg`o*bran"chi*ate (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Zygobranchia.

{ Zyg`o*dac"tyl, Zyg`o*dac"tyle } (?), n. [See Zygodactylic.] (Zoöl.) Any zygodactylous bird.

||Zyg`o*dac"ty*læ (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) The zygodactylous birds. In a restricted sense applied to a division of birds which includes the barbets, toucans, honey guides, and other related birds.

||Zyg`o*dac"ty*li (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) Same as Scansores.

{ Zyg`o*dac"ty*lic (?), Zyg`o*dac"tyl*ous (?; 277), } a. [Gr. zygo`n a yoke, pair + &?; finger, toe: cf. F. zygodactyle.] (Zoöl.) Yoke-footed; having the toes disposed in pairs; -- applied to birds which have two toes before and two behind, as the parrot, cuckoo, woodpecker, etc.

||Zy*go"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to yoke, zygo`n a yoke.] (Anat.) (a) The jugal, malar, or cheek bone. (b) The zygomatic process of the temporal bone. (c) The whole zygomatic arch.

Zyg`o*mat"ic (?; 277), a. [Cf. F. zygomatique.] (Anat.) Of, pertaining to, or in the region of, the zygoma.

Zygomatic arch, the arch of bone beneath the orbit, formed in most mammals by the union of the malar, or jugal, with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone. In the lower vertebrates other bones may help to form it, and there may be two arches on each side of the skull, as in some reptiles. -- Zygomatic process, a process of the temporal or squamosal bone helping to form the zygomatic arch.

{ Zyg`o*mor"phic (?), Zyg`o*mor"phous (?), } a. [Gr. zygo`n a yoke + &?; form.] (Biol.) Symmetrical bilaterally; -- said of organisms, or parts of organisms, capable of division into two symmetrical halves only in a single plane.

Zyg"o*phyte (?), n. [Gr. zygo`n a yoke + fyto`n a plant.] (Bot.) Any plant of a proposed class or grand division (Zygophytes, Zygophyta, or Zygosporeæ), in which reproduction consists in the union of two similar cells. Cf. Oöphyte.

||Zy*go"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; balancing, fr. zygo`n yoke.] (Biol.) Same as Conjugation.

Zyg"o*sperm (?), n. [Gr. zygo`n a yoke + E. sperm.] (Bot.) A spore formed by the union of the contents of two similar cells, either of the same or of distinct individual plants. Zygosperms are found in certain orders of algæ and fungi.

Zyg"o*sphene (?), n. [Gr. zygo`n a yoke + &?; a wedge.] (Anat.) A median process on the front part of the neural arch of the vertebræ of most snakes and some lizards, which fits into a fossa, called the zygantrum, on the back part of the arch in front.

Zyg"o*spore (?), n. [Gr. zygo`n a yoke + E. spore.] (Bot.) (a) Same as Zygosperm. (b) A spore formed by the union of several zoöspores; -- called also zygozoöspore.

Zy"lon*ite (?), n. [Gr. &?; wood.] Celluloid.

Zym"ase (?), n. [From Zyme.] (Physiol. Chem.) A soluble ferment, or enzyme. See Enzyme.

Zyme (?), n. [Gr. &?; leaven.]

1. A ferment.

2. (Med.) The morbific principle of a zymotic disease. Quain.

Zym"ic (?), a. (Old Chem.) Pertaining to, or produced by, fermentation; -- formerly, by confusion, used to designate lactic acid.

Zym"o*gen (?), n. [Zyme + - gen.] (Physiol. Chem.) A mother substance, or antecedent, of an enzyme or chemical ferment; -- applied to such substances as, not being themselves actual ferments, may by internal changes give rise to a ferment.

The pancreas contains but little ready-made ferment, though there is present in it a body, zymogen, which gives birth to the ferment.


Zym"o*gene (?), n. [Zyme + root of Gr. &?; to be born.] (Biol.) One of a physiological group of globular bacteria which produces fermentations of diverse nature; -- distinguished from pathogene.

Zym`o*gen"ic (?), a. (Biol.) (a) Pertaining to, or formed by, a zymogene. (b) Capable of producing a definite zymogen or ferment.

Zymogenic organism (Biol.), a microörganism, such as the yeast plant of the Bacterium lactis, which sets up certain fermentative processes by which definite chemical products are formed; -- distinguished from a pathogenic organism. Cf. Micrococcus.

{ Zy`mo*log"ic (?), Zy`mo*log"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. zymologique.] Of or pertaining to zymology.

Zy*mol"o*gist (?), n. One who is skilled in zymology, or in the fermentation of liquors.

Zy*mol"o*gy (?), n. [Zyme + - logy: cf. F. zymologie.] A treatise on the fermentation of liquors, or the doctrine of fermentation. [Written also zumology.]

Zy"mome (?), n. [Gr. &?; a fermented mixture.] (Old Chem.) A glutinous substance, insoluble in alcohol, resembling legumin; -- now called vegetable fibrin, vegetable albumin, or gluten casein.

{ Zy*mom"e*ter (?), Zy`mo*sim"e*ter (?), } n. [Gr. &?; ferment, or &?; fermentation + - meter: cf. F. zymosimètre.] An instrument for ascertaining the degree of fermentation occasioned by the mixture of different liquids, and the degree of heat which they acquire in fermentation.

Zym"o*phyte (?), n. [Zyme + Gr. fyto`n a plant.] (Physiol. Chem.) A bacteroid ferment.

Zy*mose" (?), n. (Chem.) Invertin.

||Zy*mo"sis, n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; fermentation, fr. &?; ferment.] (Med.) (a) A fermentation; hence, an analogous process by which an infectious disease is believed to be developed. (b) A zymotic disease. [R.]

Zy*mot"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; causing to ferment, fr. &?; to ferment, &?; ferment, leaven.]

1. Of, pertaining to, or caused by, fermentation.

2. (Med.) Designating, or pertaining to, a certain class of diseases. See Zymotic disease, below.

Zymotic disease (Med.), any epidemic, endemic, contagious, or sporadic affection which is produced by some morbific principle or organism acting on the system like a ferment.

Zy"them (?), n. See Zythum.

Zy*thep"sa*ry (?), n. [Gr. &?; a kind of beer + &?; to boil.] A brewery. [R.]

||Zy"thum (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?; a kind of beer; -- so called by the Egyptians.] A kind of ancient malt beverage; a liquor made from malt and wheat. [Written also zythem.]

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||A*ba"si*a (?), n. [NL.; Gr. &?;- not + &?; a step.] (Med.) Inability to coördinate muscular actions properly in walking. -- A*ba"sic (#), a.

||Ab"ge*ord`ne*ten*haus` (?), n. [G.] See Legislature, Austria, Prussia.

||A"bra (?), n. [Sp., a bay, valley, fissure.] A narrow pass or defile; a break in a mesa; the mouth of a cañon. [Southwestern U. S.]

Ab`re*ac"tion (?), n. [Pref. ab- + reaction, after G. Abreagirung.] (Psychotherapy) See Catharsis, below.

Ac`cla*ma"tion, n. In parliamentary usage, the act or method of voting orally and by groups rather than by ballot, esp. in elections; specif. (R. C. Ch.), the election of a pope or other ecclesiastic by unanimous consent of the electors, without a ballot.

Ace, n. A single point won by a stroke, as in handball, rackets, etc.; in tennis, frequently, a point won by a service stroke.

A*ce"qui*a (?), n. [Sp.] A canal or trench for irrigating land. [Sp. Amer.]

Ac"e*tol (?), n. [Acetic + - ol as in alcohol.] (Chem.) Methyl ketol; also, any of various homologues of the same.

||Ac`e*to*næ"mi*a, -ne"mi*a (&?;), n. [NL. See Acetone; Hæma-.] (Med.) A morbid condition characterized by the presence of acetone in the blood, as in diabetes.

||Ac`e*to*nu"ri*a (?), n. [NL. See Acetone; Urine.] (Med.) Excess of acetone in the urine, as in starvation or diabetes.

Ac`e*to*phe"none (?), n. [Acetic + phenyl + one.] (Chem.) A crystalline ketone, CH3COC6H5, which may be obtained by the dry distillation of a mixture of the calcium salts of acetic and benzoic acids. It is used as a hypnotic under the name of hypnone.

||A` che*val" (?). [F., lit., on horseback.] Astride; with a part on each side; -- used specif. in designating the position of an army with the wings separated by some line of demarcation, as a river or road.

A position à cheval on a river is not one which a general willingly assumes.


A*chro"ma*tous (?), a. [See Ahromatic.] Lacking, or deficient in, color; as, achromatous blood.

A*chro"mic (?), a. [Gr. &?; colorless; &?; priv. + &?; color.] Free from color; colorless; as, in Physiol. Chem., the achromic point of a starch solution acted upon by an amylolytic enzyme is the point at which it fails to give any color with iodine.

Ac"id proc"ess. (Iron Metal.) That variety of either the Bessemer or the open-hearth process in which the converter or hearth is lined with acid, that is, highly siliceous, material. Opposed to basic process.

Ac`o*nit"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pert. to or designating a crystalline tribasic acid, &?;, obtained from aconite and other plants. It is a carboxyl derivative of itaconic acid.

Ac*tin"o*gram (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, ray + -gram.] A record made by the actinograph.

||Ac`ti*no*my*co"sis (?), n. [NL.] (Med.) A chronic infectious disease of cattle and man due to the presence of Actinomyces bovis. It causes local suppurating tumors, esp. about the jaw. Called also lumpy jaw or big jaw. -- Ac`ti*no*my*cot"ic (#), a.

Ac*tin"o*phone (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, ray + &?; voice.] (Physics) An apparatus for the production of sound by the action of the actinic, or ultraviolet, rays.

Ac*tin`o*phon"ic (?), a. (Physics) Pertaining to, or causing the production of, sound by means of the actinic, or ultraviolet, rays; as, actinophonic phenomena.

Ac`u*tor"sion (?), n. [L. acus needle + torsion.] (Med.) The twisting of an artery with a needle to arrest hemorrhage.

A*cyc"lic (?), a. [Pref. a- not + cyclic.] Not cyclic; not disposed in cycles or whorls; as: (a) (Bot.) Of a flower, having its parts inserted spirally on the receptacle. (b) (Org. Chem.) Having an open-chain structure; aliphatic.

Ac"yl (?), n. [Acid + - yl.] (Org. Chem.) An acid radical, as acetyl, malonyl, or benzoyl.

Ad*dress", v. t. -- To address the ball (Golf), to take aim at the ball, adjusting the grip on the club, the attitude of the body, etc., to a convenient position.

Ad"e*noid (?), n. (Med.) A swelling produced by overgrowth of the adenoid tissue in the roof of the pharynx; -- usually in pl.

||Ad`e*no"ma (?), n.; L. pl. -mata (#). [NL.; adeno- + -oma.] (Med.) A benign tumor of a glandlike structure; morbid enlargement of a gland. -- Ad`e*nom"a*tous (&?;), a.

Ad"e*nop"a*thy (?), n. [Adeno- + Gr. &?; suffering, &?; to suffer.] (Med.) Disease of a gland.

||Ad"e*no*scle*ro"sis (?), n. [NL.; adeno- + sclerosis.] (Med.) The hardening of a gland.

A"den ul"cer (?). [So named after Aden, a seaport in Southern Arabia, where it occurs.] (Med.) A disease endemic in various parts of tropical Asia, due to a specific microörganism which produces chronic ulcers on the limbs. It is often fatal. Called also Cochin China ulcer, Persian ulcer, tropical ulcer, etc.

||A`dios" (?), interj. [Sp., fr. L. ad to + deus god. Cf. Adieu.] Adieu; farewell; good-by; -- chiefly used among Spanish-speaking people.

This word is often pronounced å*d"s, but the Spanish accent, though weak, is on the final syllable.

Ad`i*pog"e*nous (?), a. [See Adipose; -genous.] (Med.) Producing fat.

||Ad`i*pol"y*sis (?), n. [NL.; L. adeps, adipis, fat + Gr. &?; a loosing.] (Physiol.) The digestion of fats.

Ad`i*po*lyt"ic (?), a. [L. adeps, adipis, fat + Gr. &?; to loose.] (Chem.) Hydrolyzing fats; converting neutral fats into glycerin and free fatty acids, esp. by the action of an enzyme; as, adipolytic action.

||Ad`i*po"ma (?), n.; L. pl. -mata (#). [NL. See Adipose; -oma.] (Med.) A mass of fat found internally; also, a fatty tumor. -- Ad`i*pom"a*tous (&?;), a.

Ad"i*pose` (?), n. (Physiol.) The fat present in the cells of adipose tissue, composed mainly of varying mixtures of tripalmitin, tristearin, and triolein. It solidifies after death.

{ Adjusting plane or surface. } (Aëronautics) A small plane or surface, usually capable of adjustment but not of manipulation, for preserving lateral balance in an aëroplane or flying machine.

Ad*mit"tance, n. (Elec.) The reciprocal of impedance.

||A*do"be (?), n. 1. Earth from which unburnt bricks are made. [Western U. S.]

2. (Geol.) Alluvial and playa clays of desert and arid regions, differing from ordinary clays of humid regions in containing carbonates and other soluble minerals.

||Ad`o*na"i (?), n. [Heb. adni, lit., my lord.] A Hebrew name for God, usually translated in the Old Testament by the word "Lord".

The later Jews used its vowel points to fill out the tetragrammaton Yhvh, or Ihvh, "the incommunicable name," and in reading substituted "Adonai".

Ad*re"nal*ine (?), n. Also Ad*re"nal*in (&?;). (Physiol. Chem.) A crystalline substance, C9H13O3N, obtained from suprarenal extract, of which it is regarded as the active principle. It is used in medicine as a stimulant and hemostatic.

Ad*su"ki bean (?). [Jap. adzuki.] A cultivated variety of the Asiatic gram, now introduced into the United States.

Ad"u*rol (?), n. (Photog.) Either of two compounds, a chlorine derivative and bromine derivative, of hydroquinone, used as developers.

Ad*van"cing edge. (Aëronautics) The front edge (in direction of motion) of a supporting surface; -- contr. with following edge, which is the rear edge.

Ad*van"cing sur"face. (Aëronautics) The first of two or more surfaces arranged in tandem; -- contr. with following surface, which is the rear surface.

Æ*ol"ic, a. [L. Aeolus, Gr. &?;, name of the god of the winds.] (Phys. Geog.) Pertaining to, caused by, or designating, the action of the wind in modifying the earth's surface; as, æolic erosion; æolic sand. [Written also eolic.]

A"ër*a`tor (?), n. That which supplies with air or gas; specif.: (a) An apparatus used for charging mineral waters with gas and in making soda water. (b) A fumigator used to bleach grain, destroying fungi and insects.

{ A"ër*en`chym (?), ||A`ër*en"chy*ma (?) }, n. [NL. aërenchyma. See Aëro-; Enchyma.] (Bot.) A secondary respiratory tissue or modified periderm, found in many aquatic plants and distinguished by the large intercellular spaces.

A*ë`ri*al rail"way`. (a) A stretched wire or rope elevated above the ground and forming a way along which a trolley may travel, for conveying a load suspended from the trolley. (b) An elevated cableway.

A*ë"ri*al sick"ness. A sickness felt by aëronauts due to high speed of flights and rapidity in changing altitudes, combining some symptoms of mountain sickness and some of seasickness.

A"ër*o (?), n. An aëroplane, airship, or the like. [Colloq.]

A`ër*o"bic (?), a. (Biol.) Growing or thriving only in the presence of oxygen; also, pertaining to, or induced by, aërobies; as, aërobic fermentation. -- A`ër*o"bic*al*ly (#), adv.

A"ër*o*boat` (?), n. [Aëro- + boat.] A form of hydro- aëroplane; a flying boat.

A"ër*o*bus` (?), n. [Aëro- + bus.] An aëroplane or airship designed to carry passengers.

A"ër*o*club` (?), n. [Aëro- + club.] A club or association of persons interested in aëronautics.

A"ër*o*curve` (?), n. [Aëro- + curve.] (Aëronautics) A modification of the aëroplane, having curved surfaces, the advantages of which were first demonstrated by Lilienthal.

A`ë*ro*do*net"ics (?), n. [Aëro- + Gr. &?; shaken, &?; to shake.] (Aëronautics) The science of gliding and soaring flight.

A"ë*ro*drome` (?), n. [Aëro- + Gr. &?; a running.] (Aëronautics) (a) A shed for housing an airship or aëroplane. (b) A ground or field, esp. one equipped with housing and other facilities, used for flying purposes. -- A`ër*o*drom"ic (#), a.

A"ër*o*foil` (?), n. [Aëro- + foil.] A plane or arched surface for sustaining bodies by its movement through the air; a spread wing, as of a bird.

A"ër*o*gun` (?), n. [Aëro- + gun.] A cannon capable of being trained at very high angles for use against aircraft.

A`ër*o*me*chan"ic (?), n. A mechanic or mechanician expert in the art and practice of aëronautics.

{ A`ër*o*me*chan"ic (?), A`ër*o*me*chan"ical (?) }, a. Of or pert. to aëromechanics.

A`ër*o*me*chan"ics (?), n. The science of equilibrium and motion of air or an aëriform fluid, including aërodynamics and aërostatics.

A"ër*o*nat` (?), n. [F. aéronat. See Aëro-; Natation.] A dirigible balloon.

A"ër*o*nef` (?), n. [F. aéronef.] A power-driven, heavier-than-air flying machine.

A"ër*o*phone` (?), n. [Aëro- + Gr. &?; voice.] (a) A form of combined speaking and ear trumpet. (b) An instrument, proposed by Edison, for greatly intensifying speech. It consists of a phonograph diaphragm so arranged that its action opens and closes valves, producing synchronous air blasts sufficient to operate a larger diaphragm with greater amplitude of vibration.

A"ër*o*plane` (?), n. [Aëro- + plane.] (Aëronautics) A light rigid plane used in aërial navigation to oppose sudden upward or downward movement in the air, as in gliding machines; specif., such a plane slightly inclined and driven forward as a lifting device in some flying machines; hence, a flying machine using such a device. These machines are called monoplanes, biplanes, triplanes, or quadruplanes, according to the number of main supporting planes used in their constraction. Being heavier than air they depend for their levitation on motion imparted by one or more propellers actuated by a gasoline engine. They start from the ground by a run on small wheels or runners, and are guided by a steering apparatus consisting of horizontal and vertical movable planes. There are many varieties of form and construction, which in some cases are known by the names of their inventors.

A"ër*o*plan`ist (?), n. One who flies in an aëroplane.

A"ër*o*stat (?), n. (Aëronautics) A passive balloon; a balloon without motive power.

A`ër*o*sta"tion (?), n. That part of aëronautics that deals with passive balloons.

||A"ër*o*tax`is (?), n. [NL. See Aëro-; Taxis.] (Bacteriology) The positive or negative stimulus exerted by oxygen on aërobic and anaërobic bacteria. -- A`ër*o*tac"tic (#), a.

A`ër*o*ther`a*pen"tics (?), n. [Aëro- + therapeutics.] (Med.) Treatment of disease by the use of air or other gases.

A"ër*o*yacht` (?), n. [Aëro- + yacht.] A form of hydro- aëroplane; a flying boat.

||Æ"sir (?), n. pl. [Icel., pl. of ss god.] In the old Norse mythology, the gods Odin, Thor, Loki, Balder, Frigg, and the others. Their home was called Asgard.

Af*fect" (?), n. (Psychotherapy) The emotional complex associated with an idea or mental state. In hysteria, the affect is sometimes entirely dissociated, sometimes transferred to another than the original idea.

||Af`fiche" (?), n. [F., fr. afficher to affix.] A written or printed notice to be posted, as on a wall; a poster; a placard.

Af"fri*cate (?), n. [L. affricatus, p. p. of affricare to rub against; af- = ad- + fricare to rub.] (Phon.) A combination of a stop, or explosive, with an immediately following fricative or spirant of corresponding organic position, as pf in german Pfeffer, pepper, z (= ts) in German Zeit, time.

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A*float", adv. & a. Covered with water bearing floating articles; flooded; as, the decks are afloat.

A. F. of L. (Abbrev.) American Federation of Labor.

Aft"er*sen*sa`tion (?), n. (Psychol.) A sensation or sense impression following the removal of a stimulus producing a primary sensation, and reproducing the primary sensation in positive, negative, or complementary form. The aftersensation may be continuous with the primary sensation or follow it after an interval.

A`gar-a"gar (?), n. A gelatinlike substance, or a solution of it, prepared from certain seaweeds containing gelose, and used in the artificial cultivation of bacteria; -- often called agar, by abbreviation.

Age, n. In poker, the right belonging to the player to the left of the dealer to pass the first round in betting, and then to come in last or stay out; also, the player holding this position; the eldest hand.

Ag*grade" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aggraded; p. pr. & vb. n. Aggrading.] (Phys. Geog.) To bring, or tend to bring, to a uniform grade, or slope, by addition of material; as, streams aggrade their beds by depositing sediment.

||Ag"nus Scyth"i*cus (?). [L., Scythian lamb.] (Bot.) The Scythian lamb, a kind of woolly-skinned rootstock. See Barometz.

Ag"ro*tech`ny (?), n. [Gr. &?; field, land + &?; an art.] That branch of agriculture dealing with the methods of conversion of agricultural products into manufactured articles; agricultural technology.

Ai"le*ron (?), n. [F., dim. of aile wing.] 1. A half gable, as at the end of a penthouse or of the aisle of a church.

2. (Aëronautics) A small plane or surface capable of being manipulated by the pilot of a flying machine to preserve or destroy lateral balance; a hinged wing tip; a lateral stabilizing or balancing plane.

Air brush. A kind of atomizer for applying liquid coloring matter in a spray by compressed air.

Air cooling. In gasoline-engine motor vehicles, the cooling of the cylinder by increasing its radiating surface by means of ribs or radiators, and placing it so that it is exposed to a current of air. Cf. Water cooling. -- Air"- cooled`, a.

Air"craft` (?), n. sing. & pl. Any device, as a balloon, aëroplane, etc., for floating in, or flying through, the air.

Air gap. (Physics) An air-filled gap in a magnetic or electric circuit; specif., in a dynamo or motor, the space between the field-magnet poles and the armature; clearance.

Air hole. (Aëronautics) A local region in the atmosphere having a downward movement and offering less than normal support for the sustaining surfaces of a flying machine.

Air line. A path through the air made easy for aërial navigation by steady winds.

Air"man (?), n. A man who ascends or flies in an aircraft; a flying machine pilot.

Air"man*ship (?), n. Art, skill, or ability in the practice of aërial navigation.

Air"ol (?), n. (Pharm.) A grayish green antiseptic powder, consisting of a basic iodide and gallate of bismuth, sometimes used in place of iodoform. [A Trademark]

Air`sick` (?), a. Affected with aërial sickness. -- Air"sick`ness, n.

Air"wom`an (?), n. A woman who ascends or flies in an aircraft.

||Aj"a*va (?), n. (Bot.) See Ajouan.

{ ||Aj"ou*an ||Aj"ow*an } (?), n. [Written also ajwain.] [Prob. native name.] (Bot.) The fruit of Ammi Copticum, syn. Carum Ajowan, used both as a medicine and as a condiment. An oil containing thymol is extracted from it. Called also Javanee seed, Javanese seed, and ajava.

||A*la"li*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; priv. + &?; a talking; cf. &?; speechless.] (Med.) Inability to utter articulate sounds, due either to paralysis of the larynx or to that form of aphasia, called motor, or ataxis, aphasia, due to loss of control of the muscles of speech.

Al"bert ware. A soft ornamental terra-cotta pottery, sold in the biscuit state for decorating.

Alb Sunday. (Eccl.) The first Sunday after Easter Sunday, properly Albless Sunday, because in the early church those who had been baptized on Easter eve laid aside on the following Saturday their white albs which had been put on after baptism.

||Al*bu`mi*no"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. E. albumin.] (Med.) A morbid condition due to excessive increase of albuminous elements in the blood.

Al*cade" (?), n. Var. of Alcaid.

||Al`cal*di"a (?), n. [Sp. Alcaldía.] The jurisdiction or office of an alcalde; also, the building or chamber in which he conducts the business of his office.

||Al`cor*no"que (?), n. [Sp., cork tree.] The bark of several trees, esp. of Bowdichia virgilioides of Brazil, used as a remedy for consumption; of Byrsonima crassifolia, used in tanning; of Alchornea latifolia, used medicinally; or of Quercus ilex, the cork tree.

Al"der fly. 1. Any of numerous neuropterous insects of the genus Sialis or allied genera. They have aquatic larvæ, which are used for bait.

2. (Angling) An artificial fly with brown mottled wings, body of peacock harl, and black legs.

Al"dol (?), n. [Aldehyde + - ol as in alcohol.] (Chem.) A colorless liquid, C4H8O2, obtained by condensation of two molecules of acetaldehyde: CH3CHO + CH3CHO = H3CH(OH)CH2CO; also, any of various derivatives of this. The same reaction has been applied, under the name of aldol condensation, to the production of many compounds.

||Al"em (?), n. [Turk. 'alem, fr. Ar. 'alam.] (Mil.) The imperial standard of the Turkish Empire.

{ A*lep"po boil, button, or evil }. (Med.) A chronic skin affection terminating in an ulcer, most commonly of the face. It is endemic along the Mediterranean, and is probably due to a specific bacillus. Called also Aleppo ulcer, Biskara boil, Delhi boil, Oriental sore, etc.

Aleppo grass. (Bot.) One of the cultivated forms of Andropogon Halepensis (syn. Sorghum Halepense). See Andropogon, below.

A*leu"ro*nat (?), n. [See Aleurone.] Flour made of aleurone, used as a substitute for ordinary flour in preparing bread for diabetic persons.

||A*lex"i*a (?), n. [NL.; a- not + Gr. &?; speech, fr. &?; to speak, confused with L. legere to read.] (Med.) (a) As used by some, inability to read aloud, due to brain disease. (b) More commonly, inability, due to brain disease, to understand written or printed symbols although they can be seen, as in case of word blindness.

{ ||Al*fil`e*ri"a , ||Al*fil`e*ril"la } (?), n. [Mex. Sp., fr. Sp. alfiler pin.] Same as Alfilaria.

||Al*for"ja (?), n. [Also alfarga, alforge.] [Sp.] A saddlebag. [Sp. Amer.]

Al"gin (?), n. (Chem.) A nitrogenous substance resembling gelatin, obtained from certain algæ.

Al*gom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; pain + -meter.] (Psychol.) An instrument for measuring sensations of pain due to pressure. It has a piston rod with a blunted tip which is pressed against the skin. -- Al*gom"e*try (#), n. -- Al`go*met"ric (#), *met"ric*al (#), a. -- Al`go*met"ric*al*ly, adv.

Al*gon"ki*an (?), a. 1. Var. of Algonquian.

2. (Geol.) Pertaining to or designating a period or era recognized by the United States Geological Survey and some other authorities, between the Archæan and the Paleozoic, from both of which it is generally separated in the record by unconformities. Algonkian rocks are both sedimentary and igneous. Although fossils are rare, life certainly existed in this period. -- n. The Algonkian period or era, or system or group of systems.

Al*gon"qui*an (?), a. Pertaining to or designating the most extensive of the linguistic families of North American Indians, their territory formerly including practically all of Canada east of the 115th meridian and south of Hudson's Bay and the part of the United States east of the Mississippi and north of Tennessee and Virginia, with the exception of the territory occupied by the northern Iroquoian tribes. There are nearly 100,000 Indians of the Algonquian tribes, of which the strongest are the Ojibwas (Chippewas), Ottawas, Crees, Algonquins, Micmacs, and Blackfeet. -- n. An Algonquian Indian.

Al`i*phat"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;, &?;, oil, fat.] (Org. Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, fat; fatty; -- applied to compounds having an openc-hain structure. The aliphatic compounds thus include not only the fatty acids and other derivatives of the paraffin hydrocarbons, but also unsaturated compounds, as the ethylene and acetylene series.

Al"ka*li (?), n. Soluble mineral matter, other than common salt, contained in soils of natural waters. [Western U. S.]

Alkali flat. A sterile plain, containing an excess of alkali, at the bottom of an undrained basin in an arid region; a playa.

Alkali soil. Any one of various soils found in arid and semiarid regions, containing an unusual amount of soluble mineral salts which effloresce in the form of a powder or crust (usually white) in dry weather following rains or irrigation. The basis of these salts is mainly soda with a smaller amount of potash, and usually a little lime and magnesia. Two main classes of alkali are commonly distinguished: black alkali, which may be any alkaline carbonate, but which practically consists of sodium carbonate (sal soda), which is highly corrosive and destructive to vegetation; and white alkali, characterized by the presence of sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt), which is less injurious to vegetation. Black alkali is so called because water containing it dissolves humus, forming a dark-colored solution which, when it collects in puddles and evaporates, produces characteristic black spots.

Alkali waste. Waste material from the manufacture of alkali; specif., soda waste.

Al`le*ghe"ni*an (?), a. Also Al`le*gha"ni*an. (Biogeography) Pertaining to or designating the humid division of the Transition zone extending across the northern United States from New England to eastern Dakota, and including also most of Pennsylvania and the mountainous region as far south as northern Georgia.

Al"le*ghe`ny (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to the Allegheny Mountains, or the region where they are situated. Also Al"le*gha`ny.

2. [From the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania.] (Geol.) Pertaining to or designating a subdivision of the Pennsylvanian coal measure.

Al*le"lo*morph (?), n. [Gr. &?; of one another + Gr. &?; form.] (Biol.) One of the pure unit characters commonly existing singly or in pairs in the germ cells of Mendelian hybrids, and exhibited in varying proportion among the organisms themselves. Allelomorphs which under certain circumstances are themselves compound are called hypallelomorphs. See Mendel's law. -- Al*le`lo*mor"phic (#), a.

As we know that the several unit characters are of such a nature that any one of them is capable of independently displacing or being displaced by one or more alternative characters taken singly, we may recognize this fact by naming such characters allelomorphs.


Al"li*ga`tor wrench. (Mech.) A kind of pipe wrench having a flaring jaw with teeth on one side.

Al`lo*troph"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; other + trophic.] (a) (Physiol.) Changed or modified in nutritive power by the process of digestion. (b) (Plant Physiol.) Dependent upon other organisms for nutrition; heterotrophic; -- said of plants unable to perform photosynthesis, as all saprophytes; -- opposed to autotrophic.

Al"loy steel. Any steel containing a notable quantity of some other metal alloyed with the iron, usually chromium, nickel, manganese, tungsten, or vanadium.

Al*lu"vi*al (?), n. Alluvial soil; specif., in Australia, gold-bearing alluvial soil.

Al"pen*glow` (?), n. A reddish glow seen near sunset or sunrise on the summits of mountains; specif., a reillumination sometimes observed after the summits have passed into shadow, supposed to be due to a curving downward (refraction) of the light rays from the west resulting from the cooling of the air.

{ Al"pen*horn` (?), Alp"horn` }, n. [G. Alpenhorn.] A curved wooden horn about three feet long, with a cupped mouthpiece and a bell, used by the Swiss to sound the ranz des vaches and other melodies. Its notes are open harmonics of the tube.

Al*pes"trine (?), a. (Bot.) Growing on the elevated parts of mountains, but not above the timbe&?; line; subalpine.

Al"pha pa"per. (Photog.) A sensitized paper for obtaining positives by artificial light. It is coated with gelatin containing silver bromide and chloride. [Eng.]

Alpha rays. (Physics & Chem.) Rays of relatively low penetrating power emitted by radium and other radioactive substances, and shown to consist of positively charged particles (perhaps particles of helium) having enormous velocities but small masses. They are slightly deflected by a strong magnetic or electric field.

Al"phol (?), n. [Alpha- + - ol as in alcohol.] (Pharm.) A crystalline derivative of salicylic acid, used as an antiseptic and antirheumatic.

||Al`ter`nat" (?), n. [F.] A usage, among diplomats, of rotation in precedence among representatives of equal rank, sometimes determined by lot and at other times in regular order. The practice obtains in the signing of treaties and conventions between nations.

Al"ter*nat`ing cur"rent. (Elec.) A current which periodically changes or reverses its direction of flow.

Al"ter*na`tor (?), n. (Elec.) An electric generator or dynamo for producing alternating currents.

||Al"thing (?), n. [Icel. (modern) alping, earlier alpingi; allr all + ping assembly. See All, and Thing.] The national assembly or parliament of Iceland. See Thing, n., 8.

Al`to-cu"mu*lus (?), n. [L. altus high + L. & E. cumulus.] (Meteor.) A fleecy cloud formation consisting of large whitish or grayish globular cloudlets with shaded portions, often grouped in flocks or rows.

Al`to-stra"tus (?), n. [L. altus high + L. & E. stratus.] (Meteor.) A cloud formation similar to cirro-stratus, but heavier and at a lower level.

A*lu`mi*nog"ra*phy (?), n. [Alumin-ium + -graphy.] Art or process of producing, and printing from, aluminium plates, after the manner of ordinary lithography. -- A*lu`mi*no*graph"ic (#), a.

Al"ve*o*lar (?), a. (Phon.) Articulated with the tip of the tongue pressing against the alveolar processes of the upper front teeth.

||Am`a*ni"ta (?), n. [NL. See Amanitine.] (Bot.) A genus of poisonous fungi of the family Agaricaceæ, characterized by having a volva, an annulus, and white spores. The species resemble edible mushrooms, and are frequently mistaken for them. Amanita muscaria, syn. Agaricus muscarius, is the fly amanita, or fly agaric; and A. phalloides is the death cup.

{ Am*ba"ry (?), n., or Ambary hemp }. [Hind. ambr, ambr.] A valuable East Indian fiber plant (Hibiscus cannabinus), or its fiber, which is used throughout India for making ropes, cordage, and a coarse canvas and sackcloth; -- called also brown Indian hemp.

Am*boy"na but"ton. (Med.) A chronic contagious affection of the skin, prevalent in the tropics.

Amboyna pine. (Bot.) The resiniferous tree Agathis Dammara, of the Moluccas.

Am*bro"sia (?), n. (Zoöl.) The food of certain small bark beetles, family Scolytidæ believed to be fungi cultivated by the beetles in their burrows.

Ambrosia beetle. (Zoöl.) A bark beetle that feeds on ambrosia.

A*mer"i*can plan. In hotels, aplan upon which guests pay for both room and board by the day, week, or other convenient period; -- contrasted with European plan.

A*mer"i*can Pro*tect"ive As*so`ci*a"tion. A secret organization in the United States, formed in Iowa in 1887, ostensibly for the protection of American institutions by keeping Roman Catholics out of public office. Abbrev. commonly to A. P .A.

Am"i*dol (?), n. [Amide + - ol as in alcohol.] (Photog. & Chem.) A salt of a diamino phenol, C6H3(OH)(NH2)2, used as a developer.

||A*mi"go (?), n.; pl. Amigos (#). [Sp., fr. L. amicus.] A friend; -- a Spanish term applied in the Philippine Islands to friendly natives.

Am"i*nol (?), n. [From amine.] (Pharm.) A colorless liquid prepared from herring brine and containing amines, used as a local antiseptic.

Am"ish (?), n. pl. [Written also Omish.] (Eccl. Hist.) The Amish Mennonites.

Am"ish, a. [Written also Omish.] (Eccl. Hist.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, the followers of Jacob Amman, a strict Mennonite of the 17th century, who even proscribed the use of buttons and shaving as "worldly conformity". There are several branches of Amish Mennonites in the United States.

||Am`i*to"sis (?), n. [NL. See A- not, and Mitosis.] (Biol.) Cell division in which there is first a simple cleavage of the nucleus without change in its structure (such as the formation of chromosomes), followed by the division of the cytoplasm; direct cell division; -- opposed to mitosis. It is not the usual mode of division, and is believed by many to occur chiefly in highly specialized cells which are incapable of long-continued multiplication, in transitory structures, and in those in early stages of degeneration.

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Am`i*tot"ic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to amitosis; karyostenotic; -- opposed to mitotic.

Am"mo*nal` (?), n. [Ammonium + aluminium.] An explosive consisting of a mixture of powdered aluminium and nitrate of ammonium.

Am`mo*ni"a*cal fer`men*ta"tion. Any fermentation process by which ammonia is formed, as that by which urea is converted into ammonium carbonate when urine is exposed to the air.

||A*mo"le (?), n. [Mex.] (Bot.) Any detergent plant, or the part of it used as a detergent, as the roots of Agave Americana, Chlorogalum pomeridianum, etc. [Sp. Amer. & Mex.]

||Am`pe*lop"sis (m`p*lp"ss), n. [NL., fr. Gr. 'a`mpelos vine + 'o`psis appearance.] (Bot.) A genus formerly including the Virginia creeper.

Am*per"age (?), n. (Elec.) The strength of a current of electricity carried by a conductor or generated by a machine, measured in ampères.

Am`père" foot. (Elec.) A unit, employed in calculating fall of pressure in distributing mains, equivalent to a current of one ampère flowing through one foot of conductor.

Ampère hour. (Elec.) The quantity of electricity delivered in one hour by a current whose average strength is one ampère. It is used as a unit of quantity, and is equal to 3600 coulombs. The terms Ampère minute and Ampère second are sometimes similarly used.

Ampère turn. (Elec.) A unit equal to the product of one complete convolution (of a coiled conductor) into one ampère of current; thus, a conductor having five convolutions and carrying a current of half an ampère is said to have 2½ ampère turns. The magnetizing effect of a coil is proportional to the number of its ampère turns.

||Amt (?), n.; pl. Amter (#), E. Amts (#). [Dan. & Norw., fr. G.] An administrative territorial division in Denmark and Norway.

Each of the provinces [of Denmark] is divided into several amts, answering . . . to the English hundreds.

Encyc. Brit.

Am"vis (?), n. [Ammonium (nitrate) + L. vis strength, force.] An explosive consisting of ammonium nitrate, a derivative of nitrobenzene, chlorated napthalene, and wood meal.

||A*myg"da*la (*mg"d*l), n.; pl. -læ (-l). [L., an almond, fr. Gr. 'amygda`lh. See Almond.] 1. An almond.

2. (Anat.) (a) One of the tonsils of the pharynx. (b) One of the rounded prominences of the lower surface of the lateral hemispheres of the cerebellum, each side of the vallecula.

Am"yl al"co*hol. (Org. Chem.) Any of eight isomeric liquid compounds, C5H11OH; ordinarily, a mixture of two of these forming a colorless liquid with a peculiar cough-exciting odor and burning taste, the chief constituent of fusel oil. It is used as a source of amyl compounds, such as amyl acetate, amyl nitrite, etc.

Amyl nitrite. A yellowish oily volatile liquid, C5H11NO2, used in medicine as a heart stimulant and a vasodilator. The inhalation of its vapor instantly produces flushing of the face.

A*myl"o*gen (?), n. [Amylum + -gen.] (Chem.) That part of the starch granule or granulose which is soluble in water.

Am`y*lo*gen"e*sis (?), n. [Amylum + genesis.] The formation of starch.

Am`y*lo*gen"ic (?), a. 1. Of or pert. to amylogen.

2. Forming starch; -- applied specif. to leucoplasts.

Am`y*lol"y*sis (?), n. [Amylum + Gr. &?; a loosing.] (Chem.) The conversion of starch into soluble products, as dextrins and sugar, esp. by the action of enzymes. -- Am`y*lo*lyt"ic (#), a.

Am`y*lom"e*ter (?), n. [Amylum + -meter.] Instrument for determining the amount of starch in a substance.

Am`y*lo*plas"tic (?), a. [Amylum + -plastic.] Starch-forming; amylogenic.

Am`y*lop"sin (?), n. [Amylum + Gr. &?; appearance.] (Physiol. Chem.) The diastase of the pancreatic juice.

An"a*branch (?), n. [Anastomosing + branch.] A branch of a river that reënters, or anastomoses with, the main stream; also, less properly, a branch which loses itself in sandy soil. [Australia]

Such branches of a river as after separation reunite, I would term anastomosing branches; or, if a word might be coined, anabranches, and the islands they form branch islands.

Col. Jackson.

{ ||An*a`ër*o"bi*a (?), An*a"ër*obes (?) }, n. pl. [NL. anaerobia; an-not + aëro- + Gr.&?; life.] (Bacteriol.) Anaërobic bacteria. They are called facultative anaërobia when able to live either in the presence or absence of free oxygen; obligate, or obligatory, anaërobia when they thrive only in its absence.

An*a`ë*rob"ic (?), a. [Pref. an- not + aërobic.] (Biol.) Not requiring air or oxygen for life; -- applied especially to those microbes to which free oxygen is unnecessary; anaërobiotic; -- opposed to aërobic.

{ An*al"gen (?), An*al"gene (?) }, n.} [Gr. &?; painless.] A crystalline compound used as an antipyretic and analgesic, employed chiefly in rheumatism and neuralgia. It is a complex derivative of quinoline.

An`a*mor"pho*scope (?), n. [Anamorphosis + -scope.] An instrument for restoring a picture or image distorted by anamorphosis to its normal proportions. It usually consists of a cylindrical mirror.

An`a*seis"mic (?), a. [Cf. Gr. &?; a shaking up and down.] Moving up and down; -- said of earthquake shocks.

An*as`tig*mat"ic (?), a. [Pref. an- not + astigmatic.] (Optics) Not astigmatic; -- said esp. of a lens system which consists of a converging lens and a diverging lens of equal and opposite astigmatism but different focal lengths, and sensibly free from astigmatism.

A*nas"to*mose (?), v. i. Of any channels or lines, to meet and unite or run into each other, as rivers; to coalesce; to interjoin.

An"chor es*cape"ment. (Horol.) (a) The common recoil escapement. (b) A variety of the lever escapement with a wide impulse pin.

Anchor light. (Naut.) The lantern shown at night by a vessel at anchor. International rules of the road require vessels at anchor to carry from sunset to sunrise a single white light forward if under 150 feet in length, and if longer, two such lights, one near the stern and one forward.

Anchor shot. (Billiards) A shot made with the object balls in an anchor space.

Anchor space. (Billiards) In the balk-line game, any of eight spaces, 7 inches by 3½, lying along a cushion and bisected transversely by a balk line. Object balls in an anchor space are treated as in balk.

Anchor watch. (Naut.) A detail of one or more men who keep watch on deck at night when a vessel is at anchor.

An"cil*la*ry ad*min`is*tra"tion. (Law) An administration subordinate to, and in aid of, the primary or principal administration of an estate.

An`dro*ceph"a*lous (?), a. [Gr. &?;, &?;, man + &?; head.] Having a human head (upon an animal's body), as the Egyptian sphinx.

{ An`dro*di*œ"cious, -di*e"cious (?) }, a. [Gr. &?;, &?;, man + E. diœcious.] (Bot.) Having perfect and staminate flowers on different plants. -- An`dro*di*œ"cism, -di*e"cism (#), n.

{ An"dro*mede (?), An"dro*med (?) }, n.} (Astron.) A meteor appearing to radiate from a point in the constellation Andromeda, -- whence the name.

A shower of these meteors takes place every year on November 27th or 28th. The Andromedes are also called Bielids, as they are connected with Biela's comet and move in its orbit.

||An`dro*po"gon (?), n. [NL.; Gr. 'anh`r, 'andro`s, man + pw`gwn the beard.] (Bot.) A very large and important genus of grasses, found in nearly all parts of the world. It includes the lemon grass of Ceylon and the beard grass, or broom sedge, of the United States. The principal subgenus is Sorghum, including A. sorghum and A. halepensis, from which have been derived the Chinese sugar cane, the Johnson grass, the Aleppo grass, the broom corn, and the durra, or Indian millet. Several East Indian species, as A. nardus and A. schœnanthus, yield fragrant oils, used in perfumery.

||An`e*mo"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr.&?; wind.] A condition in the wood of some trees in which the rings are separated, as some suppose, by the action of high winds upon the trunk; wind shake.

{ ||An*er"gi*a , An"er*gy (?), } n. [NL. anergia, fr. Gr. &?;- not + &?; work.] Lack of energy; inactivity. -- An*er"gic (#), a.

||An`gi*o"ma (?), n.; L. pl. -omata (#). [NL.; angio- + -oma.] (Med.) A tumor composed chiefly of dilated blood or lymph vessels. -- An`gi*om"a*tous (#), a.

||An`gi*o*neu*ro"sis (?), n. [NL.; angio- + neurosis.] (Med.) Any disorder of the vasomotor system; neurosis of a blood vessel. -- An`gi*o*neu*rot"ic (#), a.

An`gi*op"a*thy (?), n. [Angio- + Gr. &?; disease.] (Med.) Disease of the vessels, esp. the blood vessels.

An"gle of en"try. (Aëronautics) The angle between the tangent to the advancing edge (of an aërocurve) and the line of motion; -- contrasted with angle of trail, which is the angle between the tangent to the following edge and the line of motion.

Angle of incidence. (Aëronautics) The angle between the chord of an aërocurve and the relative direction of the undisturbed air current.

An"glo-Ca*thol"i*cism (?), n. The belief of those in the Church of England who accept many doctrines and practices which they maintain were those of the primitive, or true, Catholic Church, of which they consider the Church of England to be the lineal descendant.

An*gus"ti*clave (n*gs"t*klv), n. [L. angustus narrow + clavus a nail, a stripe.] (Rom. Antiq.) A narrow stripe of purple worn by the equites on each side of the tunic as a sign of rank.

An"i*lin*ism (?), n. [Aniline + -ism.] (Med.) A disease due to inhaling the poisonous fumes present in the manufacture of aniline.

An`i*mal"cu*lism (?), n. (Biol.) The theory that the spermatozoön and not the ovum contains the whole of the embryo; spermatism; -- opposed to ovism.

||An`i*so*co"ri*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; + &?; pupil.] (Med.) Inequality of the pupils of the eye.

An"i*sol (?), n. [Anisic + - ol.] (Chem.) Methyl phenyl ether, C6H5OCH3, got by distilling anisic acid or by the action of methide on potassium phenolate.

||An`i*so*me*tro"pi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; + &?; measure + &?;, &?;, eye.] Unequal refractive power in the two eyes.

An"i*so*spore` (?), n. [Gr. &?; priv. + isospore.] (Biol.) A sexual spore in which the sexes differ in size; -- opposed to isospore.

An"i*syl (?), n. (Org. Chem.) (a) The univalent radical, CH3OC6H4, of which anisol is the hydride. (b) The univalent radical CH3OC6H4CH2; as, anisyl alcohol. (c) The univalent radical CH3OC6H4CO, of anisic acid.

||A*ni"to (?), n.; pl. - tos (#). [Sp.] In Guam and the Philippines, an idol, fetich, or spirit.

Ankh (?), n. [Egypt.] (Egypt. Archæol.) A tau cross with a loop at the top, used as an attribute or sacred emblem, symbolizing generation or enduring life. Called also crux ansata.

||An"kus (?), n. [Hind., fr. Skr. akuça.] An elephant goad with a sharp spike and hook, resembling a short-handled boat hook. [India] Kipling.

||An`ky*los*to*mi"a*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Ankylostoma, var. of Agchylostoma, generic name of one genus of the parasitic nematodes.] (Med.) A disease due to the presence of the parasites Agchylostoma duodenale, Uncinaria (subgenus Necator) americana, or allied nematodes, in the small intestine. When present in large numbers they produce a severe anæmia by sucking the blood from the intestinal walls. Called also miner's anæmia, tunnel disease, brickmaker's anæmia, Egyptian chlorosis.

||An"laut` (?), n. [G.; an on + laut sound.] (Phon.) An initial sound, as of a word or syllable.

-- Im anlaut, initially; when initial; -- used of sounds.

An*nun`ci*a"tion lil"y (?). (Bot.) The common white lily (Lilium candidum). So called because it is usually introduced by painters in pictures of the Annunciation.

An`o*et"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; unthinkable; &?; priv. + &?; perceptible, thinkable.] 1. Unthinkable. [Rare]

2. (Psychol.) Not subject to conscious attention; having an indefinite, relatively passive, conscious being; characteristic of the "fringe" or "margin" of consciousness.

Presentation considered as having an existence relatively independent of thought, may be called sentience, or anoetic consciousness. Thought and sentience are fundamentally distinct mental functions.

G. F. Stout.

||A*noph"e*les (*nf"*lz), n. [NL., fr. Gr. 'anwfelh`s useless, hurtful.] (Zoöl.) A genus of mosquitoes which are secondary hosts of the malaria parasites, and whose bite is the usual, if not the only, means of infecting human beings with malaria. Several species are found in the United States. They may be distinguished from the ordinary mosquitoes of the genus Culex by the long slender palpi, nearly equaling the beak in length, while those of the female Culex are very short. They also assume different positions when resting, Culex usually holding the body parallel to the surface on which it rests and keeping the head and beak bent at an angle, while Anopheles holds the body at an angle with the surface and the head and beak in line with it. Unless they become themselves infected by previously biting a subject affected with malaria, the insects cannot transmit the disease.

A*nor"tho*clase (?), n. [Gr. &?; priv. + orthoclase.] (Min.) A feldspar closely related to orthoclase, but triclinic. It is chiefly a silicate of sodium, potassium, and aluminium. Sp. gr., 2.57 -- 2.60.

||An`or*tho"pi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; priv. + ortho- + Gr. &?;, &?;, the eye.] (Med.) Distorted vision, in which straight lines appear bent.

A*nor"tho*site (?), n. [F. anorthose triclinic feldspar (fr. Gr. &?; priv. + &?; straight) + -ite.] (Petrol.) A granular igneous rock composed almost exclusively of a soda-lime feldspar, usually labradorite.

||An`ox*æ"mi*a, -e"mi*a (&?;), n. [NL.; Gr. &?; priv. + oxygen + Gr. &?; blood.] (Med.) An abnormal condition due to deficient aëration of the blood, as in balloon sickness, mountain sickness. -- An`ox*æ"mic, *e"mic (#), a.

Ant cow. (Zoöl.) Any aphid from which ants obtain honeydew.

An"te*choir` (?), n. (Arch.) (a) A space inclosed or reserved at the entrance to the choir, for the clergy and choristers. (b) Where a choir is divided, as in some Spanish churches, that division of it which is the farther from the sanctuary.

||An`te mor"tem (?). [L.] Before death; -- generally used adjectivelly; as, an ante-mortem statement; ante- mortem examination.

The ante-mortem statement, or dying declaration made in view of death, by one injured, as to the cause and manner of the injury, is often receivable in evidence against one charged with causing the death.

An*thoph"i*lous (?), a. [Gr. 'a`nqos flower + fi`los loving.] (Zoöl.) Lit., fond of flowers; hence, feeding upon, or living among, flowers.

An"thra*cene oil (?). A heavy green oil (partially solidifying on cooling), which distills over from coal tar at a temperature above 270°. It is the principal source of anthracene.

An*thrac"nose` (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, carbuncle + &?; disease.] (Bot.) Any one of several fungus diseases, caused by parasitic species of the series Melanconiales, attacking the bean, grape, melon, cotton, and other plants. In the case of the grape, brown concave spots are formed on the stem and fruit, and the disease is called bird's-eye rot.

||An`thra*co"sis (?), n. [NL. See Anthrax.] (Med.) A chronic lung disease, common among coal miners, due to the inhalation of coal dust; -- called also collier's lung and miner's phthisis.

An"thrax vac"cine. (Veter.) A fluid vaccine obtained by growing a bacterium (Bacterium anthracis) in beef broth. It is used to immunize animals, esp. cattle.

An`thro*po*ge*og"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?; man + geography.] The science of the human species as to geographical distribution and environment. Broadly, it includes industrial, commercial, and political geography, and that part of ethnology which deals with distribution and physical environment. -- An`thro*po*ge*og"ra*pher (#), n. -- An`thro*po*ge`o*graph"ic*al (#), a.

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{ An`thro*po*nom"ics (?), An`thro*pon"o*my (?) }, n.} [Gr. &?; man + &?; usage, law, rule.] The science of the laws of the development of the human organism in relation to other organisms and to environment. -- An`thro*po*nom"ic*al (#), a.

An`thro*pop"a*thite (?), n. One who ascribes human feelings to deity.

An`ti*bac*te"ri*al (?), a. (Med.) (a) Inimical to bacteria; -- applied esp. to serum for protection against bacterial diseases. (b) Opposed to the bacterial theory of disease.

An"ti*bod`y (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) Any of various bodies or substances in the blood which act in antagonism to harmful foreign bodies, as toxins or the bacteria producing the toxins. Normal blood serum apparently contains variousantibodies, and the introduction of toxins or of foreign cells also results in the development of their specific antibodies.

An`ti*bu*bon"ic (?), a. Good or used against bubonic plague; as, antibubonic serum, obtained from immunized horses; antibubonic vaccine, a sterilized bouillon culture of the plague bacillus; antibubonic measures.

An"ti*cline (?), n. [See Anticlinal.] (Geol.) A structure of bedded rocks in which the beds on both sides of an axis or axial plane dip away from the axis; an anticlinal.

An`ti*co*her"er (?), n. (Wireless Teleg.) A device, one form of which consists of a scratched deposit of silver on glass, used in connection with the receiving apparatus for reading wireless signals. The electric waves falling on this contrivance increase its resistance several times. The anticoherer can be used in conjunction with a telephone.

An`ti*diph`the*rit"ic (?), a. (Med.) Destructive to, or hindering the growth of, diphtheria bacilli. -- n. An antidiphtheritic agent.

An`ti-im*pe"ri*al*ism (?), n. Opposition to imperialism; -- applied specif., in the United States, after the Spanish-American war (1898), to the attitude or principles of those opposing territorial expansion; in England, of those, often called Little Englanders, opposing the extension of the empire and the closer relation of its parts, esp. in matters of commerce and imperial defense. -- An`ti- im*pe"ri*al*ist, n. -- An`ti- im*pe`ri*al*is"tic (#), a.

An"ti*mon*soon" (?), n. (Meteor.) The upper, contrary-moving current of the atmosphere over a monsoon.

An"ti*pasch (?), n. [Pref. anti- + pasch.] (Eccl.) The Sunday after Easter; Low Sunday.

An`ti-Sem"i*tism (?), n. Opposition to, or hatred of, Semites, esp. Jews. -- An`ti-Sem"ite (#), n. -- An`ti-Sem*it"ic (#), a.

||An`ti*sep"sis (&?;), n. [NL. See Anti-; Sepsis.] Prevention of sepsis by excluding or destroying microorganisms.

An`ti*si*al"a*gogue (?), a. (Med.) Checking the flow of saliva.

An`ti*si*al"a*gogue, n. A remedy against excessive salivation.

An"ti-trade`, n. A westerly wind which blows nearly continuously between 30° and 50° of latitude in both the northern and the southern hemisphere.

An`ti*ve"nin (?), n. [Written also antivenen, antivenine.] [Pref. anti- + L. venenum poison.] (Physiol. Chem.) The serum of blood rendered antitoxic to a venom by repeated injections of small doses of the venom.

A*part"ment house. A building comprising a number of suites designed for separate housekeeping tenements, but having conveniences, such as heat, light, elevator service, etc., furnished in common; -- often distinguished in the United States from a flat house.

||A`per`çu" (`pâr`s"), n.; pl. Aperçus (- s"). [F., prop. p. p. of apercevoir to perceive.] 1. A first view or glance, or the perception or estimation so obtained; an immediate apprehension or insight, appreciative rather than analytic.

The main object being to develop the several aperçus or insights which furnish the method of such psychology.

W. T. Harris.

A series of partial and more or less disparate aperçus or outlooks; each for itself a center of experience.

James Ward.

2. Hence, a brief or detached view; conspectus; sketch.

A*pho"tic (*f"tk), a. [Gr. 'a`fws, 'a`fwtos.] Without light.

Aphotic region. (Phytogeog.) A depth of water so great that only those organisms can exist that do not assimilate.

||A*phra"si*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. 'a priv. + fra`sis speech.] (Med.) (a) = Dumbness. (b) A disorder of speech in which words can be uttered but not intelligibly joined together.

A`pi*ol"o*gy (?), n. [L. apis bee + -logy.] The scientific or systematic study of honey bees.

A*plan`o*ga*mete" (?), n. (Bot.) A nonmotile gamete, found in certain lower algæ.

||A*pla"si*a (?), n. [NL.; Gr. &?; priv. + &?; a molding.] (Med.) Incomplete or faulty development.

Ap`neu*mat"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; not blown through.] (Med.) Devoid of air; free from air; as, an apneumatic lung; also, effected by or with exclusion of air; as, an apneumatic operation.

A*poc"a*lypse (?), n. (Eccl.) One of a numerous class of writings proceeding from Jewish authors between 250 b. c. and 150 a. d., and designed to propagate the Jewish faith or to cheer the hearts of the Jewish people with the promise of deliverance and glory; or proceeding from Christian authors of the opening centuries and designed to portray the future.

Ap`o*chro*mat"ic (?), a. [Pref. apo- + chromatic.] (Optics) Free from chromatic and spherical aberration; -- said esp. of a lens in which rays of three or more colors are brought to the same focus, the degree of achromatism thus obtained being more complete than where two rays only are thus focused, as in the ordinary achromatic objective. -- Ap`o*chro"ma*tism (#), n.

Ap`o*co*de"ine (?), n. [Pref. apo- + codeine.] (Chem.) An alkaloid, &?;, prepared from codeine. In its effects it resembles apomorphine.

Ap`o*se*mat"ic (?), a. [Pref. apo- + sematic.] (Zoöl.) Having or designating conspicuous or warning colors or structures indicative of special means of defense against enemies, as in the skunk.

Ap`os*tol"ic del"e*gate. (R. C. Ch.) The diplomatic agent of the pope highest in grade, superior to a nuncio.

||Ap`pel" (?), n. [F., prop., a call. See Appeal, n.] (Fencing) A tap or stamp of the foot as a warning of intent to attack; -- called also attack.

{ Ap`pen*dec"to*my (?), Ap*pend`i*cec"to*my (?) }, n.} [Appendix + Gr. &?;, fr. &?; excision.] (Surg.) Excision of the vermiform appendix.

Ap*pen"dix, n. The vermiform appendix.

||Ap*pen"dix ver`mi*for"mis (?). [NL.] (Anat.) The vermiform appendix.

Ap*pos"a*ble (?), a. (Anat.) Capable of being apposed, or applied one to another, as the thumb to the fingers of the hand.

Ap*proach", n. (Golf) A stroke whose object is to land the ball on the putting green. It is made with an iron club.

||Ap`pui" (?), n. (Man.) The mutual bearing or support of the hand of the rider and the mouth of the horse through the bit and bridle. -- Point d'appui (&?;), any point of support or basis of operations, as a rallying point.

||A*ra"ba (?), n. [Written also aroba and arba.] [Ar. or Turk. 'arabah: cf. Russ. arba.] A wagon or cart, usually heavy and without springs, and often covered. [Oriental]

The araba of the Turks has its sides of latticework to admit the air

Balfour (Cyc. of India).

||Ar`a*ro"ba (?), n. [Tupi.] 1. Goa powder.

2. A fabaceous tree of Brazil (Centrolobium robustum) having handsomely striped wood; -- called also zebrawood.

Arc (ärk), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Arcked (ärkt); p. pr. & vb. n. Arcking.] (Elec.) To form a voltaic arc, as an electrical current in a broken or disconnected circuit.

Ar"chi*bald wheel (?). A metal-hubbed wheel of great strength and elasticity, esp. adapted for artillery carriages and motor cars.

Ar"cho*plasm (?), n. [See Archon; Plasma.] (Biol.) The substance from which attraction spheres develop in mitotic cell division, and of which they consist.

Arc light. (Elec.) The light of an arc lamp.

Ar`dois" sys"tem (?). (Naut.) A widely used system of electric night signals in which a series of double electric lamps (white and red) is arranged vertically on a mast, and operated from a keyboard below.

{ A*re"co*line (?), n. Also - lin }. [From NL. Areca, a genus of palms bearing betel nut.] An oily liquid substance, C8H13O2N, the chief alkaloid of the betel nut, to which the latter owes its anthelmintic action.

||A`rête" (?), n. [F., lit., a sharp fish bone, ridge, sharp edge, fr. L. arista beard of grain.] (Geog.) An acute and rugged crest of a mountain range or a subsidiary ridge between two mountain gorges.

Ar`gen*ta"li*um (?), n. [NL.; L. argentum silver + E. aluminium.] A (patented) alloy of aluminium and silver, with a density of about 2.9.

{ Ar*gen"ta*mine (?), n. Also - min }. [L. argentum silver + E. amine.] (Med.) A solution of silver phosphate in an aqueous solution of ethylene diamine, used as an antiseptic astringent and as a disinfectant.

Ar"gon (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, neut. of &?; inactive; &?; priv. + &?; work.] (Chem.) A colorless, odorless gas occurring in the air (of which it constitutes 0.93 per cent by volume), in volcanic gases, etc.; -- so named on account of its inertness by Rayleigh and Ramsay, who prepared and examined it in 1894-95. Symbol, A; at. wt., 39.9. Argon is condensible to a colorless liquid boiling at -186.1° C. and to a solid melting at -189.6° C. It has a characteristic spectrum. No compounds of it are known, but there is physical evidence that its molecule is monatomic. Weight of one liter at 0° C. and 760 mm., 1.7828 g.

Ar"go*naut (?), n. One of those who went to California in search of gold shortly after it was discovered there in 1848. [U. S.] Bret Harte.

The "Argonauts of '49" were a strong, self- reliant, generous body of men.

D. S. Jordan.

A"ri*el (?), n. [Heb. ariël, perh. confused with E. aërial.] In the Cabala, a water spirit; in later folklore, a light and graceful spirit of the air.

In zoölogy, ariel is used adjectively of certain birds noted for their graceful flight; as, the ariel toucan; the ariel petrel.

Ar"il*lode (?), n. [Arillus + Gr. &?; form.] (Bot.) A false aril; an aril originating from the micropyle instead of from the funicle or chalaza of the ovule. The mace of the nutmeg is an arillode.

A*ris"to*type` (?), n. [Gr. &?; best + -type.] (Photog.) Orig., a printing-out process using paper coated with silver chloride in gelatin; now, any such process using silver salts in either collodion or gelatin; also, a print so made.

Ar*kose" (?), n. [F] (Petrog) A sandstone derived from the disintegration of granite or gneiss, and characterized by feldspar fragments. -- Ar*kos"ic (#), a.

Ar"ma*ture (?), n. (Elec.) That part of a dynamo or electric generator or of an electric motor in which a current is induced by a relatively moving magnetic field. The armature usually consists of a series of coils or groups of insulated conductors surrounding a core of iron.

Ar"mored cruis"er. (Nav.) A man-of-war carrying a large coal supply, and more or less protected from the enemy's shot by iron or steel armor. There is no distinct and accepted classification distinguishing armored and protected cruisers from each other, except that the first have more or heavier armor than the second.

Army organization. The system by which a country raises, classifies, arranges, and equips its armed land forces. The usual divisions are: (1) A regular or active army, in which soldiers serve continuously with the colors and live in barracks or cantonments when not in the field; (2) the reserves of this army, in which the soldiers, while remaining constantly subject to a call to the colors, live at their homes, being summoned more or less frequently to report for instruction, drill, or maneuvers; and (3) one or more classes of soldiers organized largely for territorial defense, living at home and having only occasional periods of drill and instraction, who are variously called home reserves (as in the table below), second, third, etc., line of defense (the regular army and its reserves ordinarily constituting the first line of defense), territorial forces, or the like. In countries where conscription prevails a soldier is supposed to serve a given number of years. He is usually enrolled first in the regular army, then passes to its reserve, then into the home reserves, to serve until he reaches the age limit. It for any reason he is not enrolled in the regular army, he may begin his service in the army reserves or even the home reserves, but then serves the full number of years or up to the age limit. In equipment the organization of the army is into the three great arms of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, together with more or less numerous other branches, such as engineers, medical corps, etc., besides the staff organizations such as those of the pay and subsistence departments.

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{ ||Ar*naut" ||Ar*naout" } (?), n. [Turk. Arnaut, fr. NGr. &?;, for &?;.] An inhabitant of Albania and neighboring mountainous regions, specif. one serving as a soldier in the Turkish army.

Ar"oid (?), n. [Arum + - oid.] (Bot.) Any plant of the Arum family (Araceæ).

A*rol"la (*rl"l), n. [F. arolle.] (Bot.) The stone pine (Pinus Cembra).

||Ar"rha (?), n.; pl. Arrhæ (#). [L. Cf. Earnest.] (Law) Money or other valuable thing given to evidence a contract; a pledge or earnest.

||Ar*te`ri*o*scle*ro"sis (är*t`r**skl*r"ss), n. [Gr. 'arthri`a artery + sclerosis.] (Med.) Abnormal thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries, esp. of the intima, occurring mostly in old age. -- Ar*te`ri*o*scle*rot"ic (#), a.

||Ar`thro*chon*dri"tis (?), n. [NL.] (Med.) Chondritis of a joint.

||Ar*throd"e*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; joint + &?; a binding together.] (Surg.) Surgical fixation of joints.

Ar*throp"a*thy (?), n. [Gr. &?; joint + &?;, &?;, to suffer.] (Med.) Any disease of the joints.

Ar"thro*spore (?), n. [Gr. &?; joint + E. spore.] (Bacteriol.) A bacterial resting cell, - - formerly considered a spore, but now known to occur even in endosporous bacteria. -- Ar`thro*spor"ic (#), Ar*thros"po*rous (#), a.

Ar"thro*tome (?), n. [Gr. &?; joint + &?; to cut.] (Surg.) A strong scalpel used in the dissection of joints.

Ar*thu"ri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to King Arthur or his knights. J. R. Symonds.

In magnitude, in interest, and as a literary origin, the Arthurian invention dwarfs all other things in the book.


Ar"ti*fact (?), n. [L. ars, artis, art + facere, factum, to make.] 1. (Archæol.) A product of human workmanship; -- applied esp. to the simpler products of aboriginal art as distinguished from natural objects.

2. (Biol.) A structure or appearance in protoplasm due to death or the use of reagents and not present during life.

Ar*til"ler*y wheel. A kind of heavily built dished wheel with a long axle box, used on gun carriages, usually having 14 spokes and 7 felloes; hence, a wheel of similar construction for use on automobiles, etc.

||As`ca*ri"a*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; an intestinal worm.] (Med.) A disease, usually accompanied by colicky pains and diarrhea, caused by the presence of ascarids in the gastrointestinal canal.

As"co*carp (?), n. [Gr. 'asko`s a bladder + karpo`s fruit.] (Bot.) In ascomycetous fungi, the spherical, discoid, or cup-shaped body within which the asci are collected, and which constitutes the mature fructification. The different forms are known in mycology under distinct names. Called also spore fruit.

||As`co*my*ce"tes (?), n. pl. [NL.; ascus + Gr. &?;, &?;, fungus.] (Bot.) A large class of higher fungi distinguished by septate hyphæ, and by having their spores formed in asci, or spore sacs. It comprises many orders, among which are the yeasts, molds, mildews, truffles, morels, etc. -- As`co*my*ce"tous (#), a.

||A*se"mi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; priv. + &?; sign.] (Med.) Loss of power to express, or to understand, symbols or signs of thought.

||A*sep"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; priv. + sepsis.] State of being aseptic; the methods or processes of asepticizing.

A*sex`u*al*i*za"tion (?), n. [Asexual + -ize + -ation.] The act or process of sterilizing an animal or human being, as by vasectomy.

As"pect, n. (Aëronautics) A view of a plane from a given direction, usually from above; more exactly, the manner of presentation of a plane to a fluid through which it is moving or to a current. If an immersed plane meets a current of fluid long side foremost, or in broadside aspect, it sustains more pressure than when placed short side foremost. Hence, long narrow wings are more effective than short broad ones of the same area.

Aspect ratio. (Aëronautics) The ratio of the long to the short side of an aëroplane, aërocurve, or wing.

As"pi*rin (?), n. (Pharm.) A white crystalline compound of acetyl and salicylic acid used as a drug for the salicylic acid liberated from it in the intestines.

As"say pound. A small standard weight used in assaying bullion, etc., sometimes equaling 0.5 gram, but varying with the assayer.

Assay ton. A weight of 29.166 + grams used in assaying, for convenience. Since it bears the same relation to the milligram that a ton of 2000 avoirdupois pounds does to the troy ounce, the weight in milligrams of precious metal obtained from an assay ton of ore gives directly the number of ounces to the ton.

As*sem"ble, v. t. To collect and put together the parts of; as, to assemble a bicycle, watch, gun, or other manufactured article.

AS*sign" (?), v. i. (Law) To transfer or pass over property to another, whether for the benefit of the assignee or of the assignor's creditors, or in furtherance of some trust.

As"ta*tize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Astatized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Astatizing.] (Magnetism) To render astatic.

As*tat"ki (?), n. [From Russ. ostatki remnants, pl. of ostatok.] A thick liquid residuum obtained in the distillation of Russian petroleum, much used as fuel.

As"ter, n. (Biol.) A star- shaped figure of achromatic substance found chiefly in cells dividing by mitosis.

As*ter"o*pe (?), n. [Gr. &?;, lit., lightning.] 1. (Myth.) One of the Pleiades; -- called also Sterope.

2. (Astron.) A double star in the Pleiades (21 k and 22 l Pleiadum, of the 5.8 and 6.4 magnitude respectively), appearing as a single star of the 5.3 magnitude to the naked eye.

Asth"ma pa"per. Paper impregnated with saltpeter. The fumes from the burning paper are often inhaled as an alleviative by asthmatics.

As"tral, a. 1. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to an aster; as, astral rays; astral sphere.

2. (Theosophy) Consisting of, belonging to, or designating, a kind of supersensible substance alleged to be next above the tangible world in refinement; as, astral spirits; astral bodies of persons; astral current.

As`tro*pho*tom"e*ter (?), n. [Pref. astro- + photometer.] (Astron.) A photometer for measuring the brightness of stars.

As`tro*pho*tom"e*try (?), n. (Astron.) The determination of the brightness of stars, and also of the sun, moon, and planets. -- As`tro*pho`to*met"ric*al (#), a.

As`tro*phys"ics (?), n. [Astro- + physics.] (Astron.) The science treating of the physical characteristics of the stars and other heavenly bodies, their chemical constitution, light, heat, atmospheres, etc.

Its observations are made with the spectroscope, bolometer, etc., usually in connection with the telescope.

A*syn"chro*nous (?), a. [Gr. &?; not + synchronous.] Not simultaneous; not concurrent in time; -- opposed to synchronous.

At`a*mas"co lil"y (?). [Atamasco is fr. North American Indian.] (Bot.) See under Lily.

{ A`te*lets" sauce (?) or ||Sauce` aux ha`te*lets" (?) }. [F. hâtelet skewer.] A sauce (such as egg and bread crumbs) used for covering bits of meat, small birds, or fish, strung on skewers for frying.

{ ||Ath`a*na"si*a (?), A*than"a*sy (?) }, n. [NL. athanasia, fr. Gr. &?;; &?; priv. + &?; death.] The quality of being deathless; immortality.

Is not a scholiastic athanasy better than none?


Ath"e*tize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Athetized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Athetizing (?).] [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; set aside, not fixed; &?; not + &?; to place.] To set aside or reject as spurious, as by marking with an obelus.

||A*threp"si*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; priv. + &?; nourishment.] (Med.) Profound debility of children due to lack of food and to unhygienic surroundings. -- A*threp"tic (#), a.

At"las pow"der. A blasting powder or dynamite composed of nitroglycerin, wood fiber, sodium nitrate, and magnesium carbonate.

||At"man (?), n. [Skr. tman.] (Hinduism) (a) The life principle, soul, or individual essence. (b) The universal ego from whom all individual atmans arise. This sense is a European excrescence on the East Indian thought.

At*mi"a*try (?), n. [Gr. &?; vapor + &?; medical treatment, healing.] Treatment of disease by vapors or gases, as by inhalation.

||A*to"le (?), n. [Mex. Sp.] A porridge or gruel of maize meal and water, milk, or the like. [Sp. Amer.]

A*tone"ment, n. -- Day of Atonement (Jewish Antiq.), the only fast day of the Mosaic ritual, celebrated on the tenth day of the seventh month (Tisri), according to the rites described in Leviticus xvi.

||A"tri*um, n. (Anat.) A cavity, entrance, or passage; as, the atrium, or atrial cavity, in the body wall of the amphioxus; an atrium of the infundibula of the lungs, etc.

At*trac"tion sphere. 1. (Zoöl.) (a) The central mass of the aster in mitotic cell division; centrosphere. (b) Less often, the mass of archoplasm left by the aster in the resting cell.

2. (Bot.) A small body situated on or near the nucleus in the cells of some of the lower plants, consisting of two centrospheres containing centrosomes. It exercises an important function in mitosis.

At*tri"tus (?), n. [L. attritus, p. p. of atterere; ad + terere to rub.] Matter pulverized by attrition.

Auc"tion bridge. A variety of the game of bridge in which the players, beginning with the dealer, bid for the privilege of naming the trump and playing with the dummy for that deal, there being heavy penalties for a player's failure to make good his bid. The score value of each trick more than six taken by the successful bidder is as follows: when the trump is spades, 2; clubs, 6; diamonds, 7; hearts, 8; royal spades (lilies), 9; and when the deal is played with no trump, 10.

Auction pitch. A game of cards in which the players bid for the privilege of determining or "pitching" the trump suit. R. F. Foster.

Au"dile (?), n. [L. audire to hear.] (Psychol.) One whose thoughts take the form of mental sounds or of internal discourse rather than of visual or motor images.

||Auf"klä*rung (?), n. [G., enlightenment.] A philosophic movement of the 18th century characterized by a lively questioning of authority, keen interest in matters of politics and general culture, and an emphasis on empirical method in science. It received its impetus from the unsystematic but vigorous skepticism of Pierre Bayle, the physical doctrines of Newton, and the epistemological theories of Locke, in the preceding century. Its chief center was in France, where it gave rise to the skepticism of Voltaire , the naturalism of Rousseau, the sensationalism of Condillac, and the publication of the "Encyclopedia" by D'Alembert and Diderot. In Germany, Lessing, Mendelssohn, and Herder were representative thinkers, while the political doctrines of the leaders of the American Revolution and the speculations of Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine represented the movement in America.

||Au` fond" (?). [F., lit., at the bottom.] At bottom; fundamentally; essentially.

||Au` gra`tin" (?). [F.] (Cookery) With a crust made by browning in the oven; as, spaghetti may be served au gratin.

{ Auld licht (?), Auld light }. (Eccl. Hist.) (a) A member of the conservative party in the Church of Scotland in the latter part of the 18th century. (b) Same as Burgher, n., 2.

||Au` re*voir" (?). [F., lit., to the seeing again.] Good-by until we meet again.

Au`ri*lave (?), n. [L. auris ear + lavare to wash.] An instrument for cleansing the ear, consisting of a small piece of sponge on an ivory or bone handle.

Aus"tral (?), a. (Biogeography) Designating, or pert. to, a zone extending across North America between the Transition and Tropical zones, and including most of the United States and central Mexico except the mountainous parts.

Aus*tra"li*an bal"lot. (Law) A system of balloting or voting in public elections, originally used in South Australia, in which there is such an arrangement for polling votes that secrecy is compulsorily maintained, and the ballot used is an official ballot printed and distributed by the government.

||Aus"zug` (ous"tsk), n.; Ger. pl. -zÜge (-tsü`g). [G.] See Army organization, Switzerland.

Au"to- (?). An abbrev. of automobile, used as a prefix with the meaning of self-moving, self- propelling; as, an autocar, an autocarriage, an autotruck, etc., an automobile car, carriage, truck, etc.

Au`to*ca*tal"y*sis (?), n. [Auto- + catalysis.] (Chem.) Self-catalysis; catalysis of a substance by one of its own products, as of silver oxide by the silver formed by reduction of a small portion of it. -- Au`to*cat`a*lyt"ic (#), a.

Au`to*clas"tic (?), a. [See Auto- ; Clastic.] (Geol.) Broken in place; -- said of rocks having a broken or brecciated structure due to crushing, in contrast to those of brecciated materials brought from a distance.

Au`to*co*her"er (?), n. [Auto- + coherer.] (Wireless Teleg.) A self-restoring coherer, as a microphonic detector.

Au`to*dy*nam"ic (?), a. [Auto- + dynamic.] Supplying its own power, as a hydraulic ram.

Au*tœ"cious (?), a. [Auto- + Gr. &?; house.] (Biol.) Passing through all its stages on one host, as certain parasitic fungi; -- contrasted with heterœcious.

Au*tœ"cism (?), n. Quality of being autœcious.

Au`to*ge*net"ic, a. (Phys. Geog.) Pertaining to, controlled by, or designating, a system of self- determined drainage.

Autogenetic drainage. (Phys. Geog.) A system of natural drainage developed by the constituent streams through headwater erosion.

Autogenetic topography. (Phys. Geog.) A system of land forms produced by the free action of rain and streams on rocks of uniform texture.

Au*tog"e*nous (?), a. Autogenetic.

Au"to*harp (?), n. [Auto- + harp.] A zitherlike musical instrument, provided with dampers which, when depressed, deaden some strings, leaving free others that form a chord.

Au`to*hyp*not"ic (?), a. Pert. to autohypnotism; self-hypnotizing. -- n. An autohypnotic person.

Au`to*hyp"no*tism (?), n. [Auto- + hypnotism.] Hypnotism of one's self by concentration of the attention on some object or idea.

Au`to-in*fec"tion, n. [Auto- + infection.] (Med.) Poisoning caused by a virus that originates and develops in the organism itself.

Au`to-in*oc`u*la"tion, n. [Auto- + inoculation.] (Med.) Inoculation of a person with virus from his own body.

Au`to-in*tox`i*ca"tion, n. [Auto- + intoxication.] (Med.) Poisoning, or the state of being poisoned, from toxic substances produced within the body; autotoxæmia.

||Au`to*ki*ne"sis (?), n. [NL.; auto- + Gr. &?; motion.] (Physiol.) Spontaneous or voluntary movement; movement due to an internal cause.

Au`to*ki*net"ic (?), a. [Auto- + kinetic.] Self-moving; moving automatically.

Autokinetic system. In fire-alarm telegraphy, a system so arranged that when one alarm is being transmitted, no other alarm, sent in from another point, will be transmitted until after the first alarm has been disposed of.

Au`to*mixte" system (?). (Mach.) A system (devised by Henri Pieper, a Belgian) of driving automobiles employing a gasoline engine and an auxiliary reversible dynamo. When there is an excess of power the dynamo is driven by the engine so as to charge a small storage battery; when there is a deficiency of power the dynamo reverses and acts as an auxiliary motor. Sometimes called Pieper system. -- Automixte car, etc.

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Au`to*mo"bile (?), n. [F.] An automobile vehicle or mechanism; esp., a self-propelled vehicle suitable for use on a street or roadway. Automobiles are usually propelled by internal combustion engines (using volatile inflammable liquids, as gasoline or petrol, alcohol, naphtha, etc.), steam engines, or electric motors. The power of the driving motor varies from about 4 to 50 H. P. for ordinary vehicles, ranging from the run- about to the touring car, up to as high as 200 H. P. for specially built racing cars. Automobiles are also commonly, and generally in British usage, called motor cars.

Au`to*mo"bil*ism (?), n. The use of automobiles, or the practices, methods, or the like, of those who use them. -- Au`to*mo"bil*ist, n.

Au`to*path"ic (?), a. [See Auto-, and Pathic, a.] (Med.) Dependent upon, or due or relating to, the structure and characteristics of the diseased organism; endopathic; as, an autopathic disease; an autopathic theory of diseases.

Au*toph"a*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; self + &?; to eat.] (Med.) The feeding of the body upon itself, as in fasting; nutrition by consumption of one's own tissues.

Au`to*pneu*mat"ic (?), a. [Auto- + pneumatic.] Acting or moving automatically by means of compressed air.

Au`to*sta*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Auto- + stability.] (Mechanics) Automatic stability; also, inherent stability. An aëroplane is inherently stable if it keeps in steady poise by virtue of its shape and proportions alone; it is automatically stable if it keeps in steady poise by means of self- operative mechanism.

Au`to*sug*ges"tion (?), n. [Auto- + suggestion.] (Med.) Self-suggestion as distinguished from suggestion coming from another, esp. in hypnotism. Autosuggestion is characteristic of certain mental conditions in which expectant belief tends to produce disturbance of function of one or more organs.

||Au`to*tox*æ"mi*a, -tox*e"mi*a (&?;), n. [NL. See Auto-, and Toxæmia.] (Physiol.) Self-intoxication. See Auto- intoxication.

Au`to*tox"ic (?), a. [Auto- + toxic.] (Med.) Pertaining to, or causing, autotoxæmia.

Au`to*tox`i*ca"tion (?), n. [Auto- + toxication.] (Physiol.) Same as Auto- intoxication.

Au`to*trans*form"er (?), n. [Auto- + transformer.] (Elec.) A transformer in which part of the primary winding is used as a secondary winding, or vice versa; -- called also a compensator or balancing coil.

Au`to*troph"ic (?), a. [Auto- + trophic.] (Plant Physiol.) Capable of self- nourishment; -- said of all plants in which photosynthetic activity takes place, as opposed to parasitism or saprophytism.

Au*tot"ro*pism (?), n. [Auto- + Gr. &?; to turn.] (Plant Physiol.) The tendency of plant organs to grow in a straight line when uninfluenced by external stimuli.

Au"tun*ite (?), n. [From Autun, France, its locality.] (Min.) A lemon-yellow phosphate of uranium and calcium occurring in tabular crystals with basal cleavage, and in micalike scales. H., 2-2.5. Sp. gr., 3.05-3.19.

Aux*e"to*phone (?), n. [Gr. &?; that may be increased + &?; sound, voice.] A pneumatic reproducer for a phonograph, controlled by the recording stylus on the principle of the relay. It produces much clearer and louder tones than does the ordinary vibrating disk reproducer.

Aux*om"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; to increase + -meter.] (Optics) An instrument for measuring the magnifying power of a lens or system of lenses.

A*ven"a*lin (?), n. [L. avena eats.] (Chem.) A crystalline globulin, contained in oat kernels, very similar in composition to excelsin, but different in reactions and crystalline form.

Av`er*run*ca"tor (?), n. An instrument for pruning trees, having two blades, or a blade and a hook, fixed on a long rod and operated by a string or wire.

A*ves"tan (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Avesta or the language of the Avesta. -- n. The language of the Avesta; -- less properly called Zend.

||A`vi*a"do (?), n. [Sp.] One who works a mine with means provided by another. [Sp. Amer. & Southwestern U. S.]

A"vi*ate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Aviated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Aviating.] To fly, or navigate the air, in an aëroplane or heavier-than-air flying machine. [Colloq.]

A"vi*a`tor (?), n. The driver or pilot of an aëroplane, or heavier-than-air flying machine.

{ A"vi*a`tress (?), A`vi*a"trix (?) }, n. A woman aviator.

A`vi*ette" (?), n. A heavier-than- air flying machine in which the motive power is furnished solely by the aviator.

Awk"ward squad. (Mil.) A squad of inapt recruits assembled for special drill.

{ Ax"min*ster (?), n., or Axminster carpet }. (a) [More fully chenille Axminster.] A variety of Turkey carpet, woven by machine or, when more than 27 inches wide, on a hand loom, and consisting of strips of worsted chenille so colored as to produce a pattern on a stout jute backing. It has a fine soft pile. So called from Axminster, England, where it was formerly (1755 -- 1835) made. (b) A similar but cheaper machine- made carpet, resembling moquette in construction and appearance, but finer and of better material.

A*zo"gue (?), n. [Sp. See Azoth.] Lit.: Quicksilver; hence: pl. (Mining) Silver ores suitable for treatment by amalgamation with mercury. [Sp. Amer.]

Az"ole (?), n. [From Azote.] (Org. Chem.) Any of a large class of compounds characterized by a five-membered ring which contains an atom of nitrogen and at least one other noncarbon atom (nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur). The prefixes furo-, thio, and pyrro- are used to distinguish three subclasses of azoles, which may be regarded as derived respectively from furfuran, thiophene, and pyrrol by replacement of the CH group by nitrogen; as, furo-monazole. Names exactly analogous to those for the azines are also used; as, oxazole, diazole, etc.

||A*zo"te (?), n. [Sp.] A switch or whip. [Sp. Amer.]

Az"ot*ed (?), a. Nitrogenized; nitrogenous.

{ Az"o*tine (?), n. Also - tin }. [Azote + -ine.] 1. An explosive consisting of sodium nitrate, charcoal, sulphur, and petroleum.

2. = 1st Ammonite, 2.

||Az`o*tu"ri*a (?), n. [NL.; azote + Gr. &?; urine.] (Med.) Excess of urea or other nitrogenous substances in the urine.


Bab (?), n. [Per.] Lit., gate; -- a title given to the founder of Babism, and taken from that of Bab- ud-Din, assumed by him.

{ Bab"ism (?), Bab"i*ism (?) }, n. The doctrine of a modern religious pantheistical sect in Persia, which was founded, about 1844, by Mirza Ali Mohammed ibn Rabhik (1820 -- 1850), who assumed the title of Bab- ed-Din (Per., Gate of the Faith). Babism is a mixture of Mohammedan, Christian, Jewish, and Parsi elements. This doctrine forbids concubinage and polygamy, and frees women from many of the degradations imposed upon them among the orthodox Mohammedans. Mendicancy, the use of intoxicating liquors and drugs, and slave dealing, are forbidden; asceticism is discountenanced. -- Bab"ist, n.

{ Ba*bul", Ba*bool" (?) }, n. [See Bablah.] (Bot.) Any one of several species of Acacia, esp. A. Arabica, which yelds a gum used as a substitute for true gum arabic.

In place of Putney's golden gorse
The sickly babul blooms.


Ba*cil"lar, a. (Biol.) Pertaining to, or produced by, the organism bacillus; bacillary.

Bac"il*la*ry, a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to bacilli; produced by, or containing, bacilli; bacillar; as, a bacillary disease.

Back fire. (a) A fire started ahead of a forest or prairie fire to burn only against the wind, so that when the two fires meet both must go out for lack of fuel. (b) A premature explosion in the cylinder of a gas or oil engine during the exhaust or the compression stroke, tending to drive the piston in a direction reverse to that in which it should travel; also, an explosion in the exhaust passages of such ah engine.

Back"-fire`, v. i. 1. (Engin.) To have or experience a back fire or back fires; -- said of an internal-combustion engine.

2. Of a Bunsen or similar air-fed burner, to light so that the flame proceeds from the internal gas jet instead of from the external jet of mixed gas and air. -- Back"- fir`ing, n.

Back"heel` (?), n. (Wrestling) A method of tripping by getting the leg back of the opponent's heel on the outside and pulling forward while pushing his body back; a throw made in this way. -- v. t. To trip (a person) in this way.

Back"stop` (?), n. 1. In baseball, a fence, prop. at least 90 feet behind the home base, to stop the balls that pass the catcher; also, the catcher himself.

2. In rounders, the player who stands immediately behind the striking base.

3. In cricket, the longstop; also, the wicket keeper.

Ba*co"ni*an (?), n. 1. One who adheres to the philosophy of Lord Bacon.

2. One who maintains that Lord Bacon is the author of the works commonly attributed to Shakespeare.

Bac"te*rin (?), n. (Med.) A bacterial vaccine.

||Bac*te`ri*ol"y*sis (?), n. [NL.; fr. Gr. &?;, &?;, a staff + &?; a loosing.] 1. Chemical decomposition brought about by bacteria without the addition of oxygen.

2. The destruction or dissolution of bacterial cells. -- Bac*te`ri*o*lyt"ic (#), a.

Bac*te`ri*os"co*py (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, a staff + &?; to view.] Microscopic examination or investigation of bacteria. -- Bac*te`ri*o*scop"ic (#), a. -- *scop"ic*al*ly (#), adv. -- Bac*te`ri*os"co*pist (#), n.

||Ba`daud" (?), n. [F.] A person given to idle observation of everything, with wonder or astonishment; a credulous or gossipy idler.

A host of stories . . . dealing chiefly with the subject of his great wealth, an ever delightful topic to the badauds of Paris.

Pall Mall Mag.

Badg"er game. The method of blackmailing by decoying a person into a compromising situation and extorting money by threats of exposure. [Cant]

Badger State. Wisconsin; -- a nickname.

Ba*di"geon (b*dj"n), n. [F.] A cement or distemper paste (as of plaster and powdered freestone, or of sawdust and glue or lime) used by sculptors, builders, and workers in wood or stone, to fill holes, cover defects, etc.

||Bæ"tu*lus (?), n.; pl. Bætuli (#). [L., fr. Gr. bai`tylos a sacred meteorite.] (Antiq.) A meteorite, or similar rude stone artificially shaped, held sacred or worshiped as of divine origin.

All the evidence goes to prove that these menhirs are bætuli, i. e., traditional and elementary images of the deity.

I. Gonino (Perrot & Chipiez).

Baff (bf), v. t. & i. [Scot., prob. imitative; cf. G. baff, interj. imitating the sound of a shot.] To strike; to beat; to make a baff. [Scot. or Golf]

Baff, n. A blow; stroke; thud; specif. (Golf), a stroke in which the sole of the club hits the ground and drives the ball aloft. [Scot. or Golf]

Baf"fle, n. 1. (Engin.) (a) A deflector, as a plate or wall, so arranged across a furnace or boiler flue as to mingle the hot gases and deflect them against the substance to be heated. (b) A grating or plate across a channel or pipe conveying water, gas, or the like, by which the flow is rendered more uniform in different parts of the cross section of the stream; -- used in measuring the rate of flow, as by means of a weir.

2. (Coal Mining) A lever for operating the throttle valve of a winding engine. [Local, U. S.]

Baff"y (bf"), n. [See Baff, v. t.] (Golf) A short wooden club having a deeply concave face, seldom used.

{ ||Ba*ha"dur ||Ba*hau"dur } (?), n. [Written also bahawder.] [Hind. bahdur hero, champion.] A title of respect or honor given to European officers in East Indian state papers, and colloquially, and among the natives, to distinguished officials and other important personages.

Ba*hai" (b*h"), n.; pl. Bahais (-hz). A member of the sect of the Babis consisting of the adherents of Baha (Mirza Husain Ali, entitled "Baha 'u 'llah," or, "the Splendor of God"), the elder half brother of Mirza Yahya of Nur, who succeeded the Bab as the head of the Babists. Baha in 1863 declared himself the supreme prophet of the sect, and became its recognized head. There are upwards of 20,000 Bahais in the United States.

Ba*ha"ism (?), n. The religious tenets or practices of the Bahais.

||Bai`gnoire" (?), n. [Written also baignoir.] [F., lit., bath tub.] A box of the lowest tier in a theater. Du Maurier.

Bai"ly's beads (?). (Astron.) A row of bright spots observed in connection with total eclipses of the sun. Just before and after a total eclipse, the slender, unobscured crescent of the sun's disk appears momentarily like a row of bright spots resembling a string of beads. The phenomenon (first fully described by Francis Baily, 1774 -- 1844) is thought to be an effect of irradiation, and of inequalities of the moon's edge.

Bai*ram" (?), n. [Turk. baïrm.] Either of two Mohammedan festivals, of which one (the Lesser Bairam) is held at the close of the fast called Ramadan, and the other (the Greater Bairam) seventy days after the fast.

Bal"a*ta (?), n. [Sp., prob. fr. native name.] 1. A West Indian sapotaceous tree (Bumelia retusa).

2. The bully tree (Minusops globosa); also, its milky juice (balata gum), which when dried constitutes an elastic gum called chicle, or chicle gum.

||Ba`la`yeuse" (?), n. [F., lit., a female sweeper.] A protecting ruffle or frill, as of silk or lace, sewed close to the lower edge of a skirt on the inside.

Ball, n. (Baseball) A pitched ball, not struck at by the batsman, which fails to pass over the home base at a height not greater than the batsman's shoulder nor less than his knee.

Bal"lis*tite (?), n. [See Ballista.] (Chem.) A smokeless powder containing equal parts of soluble nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin.

Bal"lot*age (?), n. [F. ballottage.] In France, a second ballot taken after an indecisive first ballot to decide between two or several candidates.

Bal*op"ti*con (?), n. [Gr. &?; to throw + stereopticon.] See Projector, below.

||Bam*bi"no (?), n.; It. pl. -ni (#). [It.] A child or baby; specif., a representation in art of the infant Christ.

Ba*na"na so*lu"tion. A solution used as a vehicle in applying bronze pigments. In addition to acetote, benzine, and a little pyroxylin, it contains amyl acetate, which gives it the odor of bananas.

||Ban*cal" (?), n.; pl. - cales (#). [Sp., fr. banca, banco, bench. Cf. Bench.] An ornamental covering, as of carpet or leather, for a bench or form.

Ban*deau" (?), n.; pl. - deaux (#). [F.] A narrow band or fillet, as for the hair, part of a headdress, etc.

||Ban`de*ril"la (?), n. [Sp., dim. of bandera banner. See Banner, and cf. Banderole.] A barbed dart carrying a banderole which the banderillero thrusts into the neck or shoulder of the bull in a bullfight.

||Ban`de*ril*le"ro (?), n. [Sp.] One who thrusts in the banderillas in bullfighting. W. D. Howells.

Ban`jo*rine" (?), n. [From banjore banjo. See Banjo.] (Music.) A kind of banjo, with a short neck, tuned a fourth higher than the common banjo; -- popularly so called.

Bank, n. A group or series of objects arranged near together; as, a bank of electric lamps, etc.

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Bank, n. (Aëronautics) The lateral inclination of an aëroplane as it rounds a curve; as, a bank of 45° is easy; a bank of 90° is dangerous.

Bank, v. i. (Aëronautics) To tilt sidewise in rounding a curve; -- said of a flying machine, an aërocurve, or the like.

Bank discount. A sum equal to the interest at a given rate on the principal (face) of a bill or note from the time of discounting until it becomes due.

Ban*quette" (?), n. A bench or seat for passengers on the top of a diligence or other public vehicle.

My brother-in-law . . . took refuge in the banquette.

Mrs. Howe.

{ Bans"shee, Ban"shie (?) }, n. [Gael. bean-shith fairy; Gael. & Ir. bean woman + Gael. sith fairy.] (Celtic Folklore) A supernatural being supposed to warn a family of the approaching death of one of its members, by wailing or singing in a mournful voice.

Ban"tu (?), n. A member of one of the great family of Negroid tribes occupying equatorial and southern Africa. These tribes include, as important divisions, the Kafirs, Damaras, Bechuanas, and many tribes whose names begin with Aba- , Ama-, Ba-, Ma-, Wa-, variants of the Bantu plural personal prefix Aba-, as in Ba-ntu, or Aba-ntu, itself a combination of this prefix with the syllable -ntu, a person. -- Ban"tu, a.

||Ban"zai" (?), interj. [Jap. banzai, banzei, ten thousand years, forever.] Lit., May you live ten thousand years; -- used in salutation of the emperor and as a battle cry. [Japan]

Ba*ra"ca (?), n. An international, interdenominational organization of Bible classes of young men; -- so named in allusion to the Hebrew word Berachah (Meaning blessing) occurring in 2 Chron. xx. 26 and 1 Chron. xii.

Bar"ad (?), n. [Gr. &?; weight.] (Physics) The pressure of one dyne per square centimeter; -- used as a unit of pressure.

{ Bar`æs*the`si*om"e*ter, Bar`es*the`si*om"e*ter (?) }, n. [Gr. &?; weight + æsthesiometer.] (Physiol.) An instrument for determining the delicacy of the sense of pressure. -- Bar`æs*the`si*o*met"ric, Bar`es*the`si*o*met"ric (#), a.

Bar`a*the"a (?), n. A soft fabric with a kind of basket weave and a diapered pattern.

Bar"ber, n. (Meteor.) A storm accompanied by driving ice spicules formed from sea water, esp. one occurring on the Gulf of St. Lawrence; -- so named from the cutting ice spicules. [Canada]

{ Bar`bi`zon", or Bar`bi`son", school (?) }. (Painting) A French school of the middle of the 19th century centering in the village of Barbizon near the forest of Fontainebleau. Its members went straight to nature in disregard of academic tradition, treating their subjects faithfully and with poetic feeling for color, light, and atmosphere. It is exemplified, esp. in landscapes, by Corot, Rousseau, Daubigny, Jules Dupré, and Diaz. Associated with them are certain painters of animals, as Troyon and Jaque, and of peasant life, as Millet and Jules Breton.

||Bar*di"glio (?), n. [It.] An Italian marble of which the principal varieties occur in the neighborhood of Carrara and in Corsica. It commonly shows a dark gray or bluish ground traversed by veins.

Barn"burn`er (?), n. [So called in allusion to the fable of the man who burned his barn in order to rid it of rats.] A member of the radical section of the Democratic party in New York, about the middle of the 19th century, which was hostile to extension of slavery, public debts, corporate privileges, etc., and supported Van Buren against Cass for president in 1848; -- opposed to Hunker. [Political Cant, U. S.]

Barn"storm`er (?), n. [Barn + storm, v.] An itinerant theatrical player who plays in barns when a theatre is lacking; hence, an inferior actor, or one who plays in the country away from the larger cities. -- Barn"storm`ing, n. [Theatrical Cant]

Bar`o*cy`clon*om"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; weight + cyclone + -meter.] (Meteorol.) An aneroid barometer for use with accompanying graphic diagrams and printed directions designed to aid mariners to interpret the indications of the barometer so as to determine the existence of a violent storm at a distance of several hundred miles.

Bar"o*gram (?), n. [Gr. &?; weight + -gram.] (Meteor.) A tracing, usually made by the barograph, showing graphically the variations of atmospheric pressure for a given time.

||Ba*rong" (?), n. [Native name.] A kind of cutting weapon with a thick back and thin razorlike edge, used by the Moros of the Philippine Islands.

Ba*roque" (?), a. Irregular in form; -- said esp. of a pearl.

Bar`o*ther"mo*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; weight + thermograph.] An instrument for recording both pressure and temperature, as of the atmosphere.

Bar`ra*cu"da (?), n. [Native name.] Any of several voracious pikelike marine fishes allied to the gray mullets, constituting the genus Sphyræna and family Sphyrænidæ. The great barracuda (S. barracuda) of the West Indies, Florida, etc., is often six feet or more long, and as dangerous as a shark. In Cuba its flesh is reputed to be poisonous. S. Argentea of the Pacific coast and S. sphyræna of Europe are smaller species, and are used as food.

Bar`ra*mun"di (?), n. [Written also barramunda.] [Native name.] (Zoöl.) (a) A remarkable Australian fresh-water ganoid fish of the genus Ceratodus. (b) An Australian river fish (Osteoglossum Leichhardtii).

Bar"rel proc"ess. (Metal.) A process of extracting gold or silver by treating the ore in a revolving barrel, or drum, with mercury, chlorine, cyanide solution, or other reagent.

Bar"ret*ter (?), n. [OF. bareter to exchange. Cf. Barter.] (Wireless Teleg.) A thermal cymoscope which operates by increased resistance when subjected to the influence of electric waves. The original form consisted of an extremely fine platinum wire loop attached to terminals and inclosed in a small glass or silver bulb. In a later variety, called the liquid barretter, wire is replace by a column of liquid in a very fine capillary tube.

||Bar"ri*o (?), n.; pl. Barrios (#). [Sp.] In Spain and countries colonized by Spain, a village, ward, or district outside a town or city to whose jurisdiction it belongs.

Bar"y*sphere (?), n. [Gr. &?; heavy + sphere.] (Geol.) The heavy interior portion of the earth, within the lithosphere.

Bash (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bashed; p. pr. & vb. n. Bashing.] [Perh. of imitative origin; or cf. Dan. baske to strike, bask a blow, Sw. basa to beat, bas a beating.] To strike heavily; to beat; to crush. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Hall Caine.

Bash her open with a rock.


Ba"sic proc"ess. (Iron Metal.) A Bessemer or open-hearth steel-making process in which a lining that is basic, or not siliceous, is used, and additions of basic material are made to the molten charge during treatment. Opposed to acid process, above. Called also Thomas process.

Basic slag. A by-product from the manufacture of steel by the basic process, used as a fertilizer. It is rich in lime and contains 14 to 20 per cent of phosphoric acid. Called also Thomas slag, phosphatic slag, and odorless phosphate.

Basic steel. Steel produced by the basic process.

||Ba*sid`i*o*my*ce"tes (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. NL. & E. basidium + Gr. &?;, &?;, fungus.] (Bot.) A large subdivision of fungi coördinate with the Ascomycetes, characterized by having the spores borne on a basidium. It embraces those fungi best known to the public, such as mushrooms, toadstools, etc.

Bas"ket ball`. A game, usually played indoors, in which two parties of players contest with each other to toss a large inflated ball into opposite goals resembling baskets.

Bas"set horn`. (Mus.) The corno di bassetto.

Ba*su"tos (?), n. pl.; sing. Basuto (&?;). (Ethnol.) A warlike South African people of the Bantu stock, divided into many tribes, subject to the English. They formerly practiced cannibalism, but have now adopted many European customs.

||Bat (?), n. [Siamese.] Same as Tical, n., 1.

Bat, v. t. & i. 1. To bate or flutter, as a hawk. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

2. To wink. [Local, U. S. & Prov Eng.]

Bat, n. 1. In badminton, tennis, and similar games, a racket.

2. A stroke; a sharp blow. [Colloq. or Slang]

3. A stroke of work. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

4. Rate of motion; speed. [Colloq.] "A vast host of fowl . . . making at full bat for the North Sea." Pall Mall Mag.

5. A spree; a jollification. [Slang, U. S.]

6. Manner; rate; condition; state of health. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

Bath`y*graph"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; deep + graphic.] Descriptive of the ocean depth; as, a bathygraphic chart.

Bat*tal"ion (?), n. (Mil.) An infantry command of two or more companies, which is the tactical unit of the infantry, or the smallest command which is self- supporting upon the battlefield, and also the unit in which the strength of the infantry of an army is expressed.

In the United States army, since April 29, 1898, a battalion consists of four companies, and three battalions form a regiment. The term is also applied to two or more batteries of artillery combined into a single command.

Bat"tle range`. (Mil.) The range within which the fire of small arms is very destructive. With the magazine rifle, this is six hundred yards.

Battle ship. (Nav.) An armor-plated man-of-war built of steel and heavily armed, generally having from ten thousand to fifteen thousand tons displacement, and intended to be fit to meet the heaviest ships in line of battle.

Bau`mé" (?), a. Designating or conforming to either of the scales used by the French chemist Antoine Baumé in the graduation of his hydrometers; of or relating to Baumé's scales or hydrometers. There are two Baumé hydrometers. One, which is used with liquids heavier than water, sinks to 0° in pure water, and to 15° in a 15 per cent salt solution; the other, for liquids lighter than water, sinks to 0° in a 10 per cent salt solution and to 10° in pure water. In both cases the graduation, based on the distance between these fundamental points, is continued along the stem as far as desired. Since all the degrees on a Baumé scale are thus equal in length, while those on a specific-gravity scale grow smaller as the density increases, there is no simple relation between degrees Bé. and Sp. gr. However, readings on Baumés scale may be approximately reduced to specific gravities by the following formulæ (x in each case being the reading on Baumé's scale) : (a) for liquids heavier than water, sp. gr. = 144 ÷ (144 - x); (b) for liquids lighter than water, sp. gr. = 144 ÷ (134 + x).

||Ba`var`dage" (?), n. [F.] Much talking; prattle; chatter. Byron.

Ba*ya"mo (?), n. (Meteor.) A violent thunder squall occurring on the south coast of Cuba, esp. near Bayamo. The gusts, called bayamo winds, are modified foehn winds.

Ba`yeux" tap"es*try (?). A piece of linen about 1 ft. 8 in. wide by 213 ft. long, covered with embroidery representing the incidents of William the Conqueror's expedition to England, preserved in the town museum of Bayeux in Normandy. It is probably of the 11th century, and is attributed by tradition to Matilda, the Conqueror's wife.

Bay"man (?), n. (Nav.) In the United States navy, a sick-bay nurse; -- now officially designated as hospital apprentice.

Bay"ou State` (?). Mississippi; -- a nickname, from its numerous bayous.

Bay State. Massachusetts, which had been called the Colony of Massachusetts Bay; -- a nickname.

Beach comber. [Written also beach-comber.] (Naut.) A vagrant seaman, usually of low character, who loiters about seaports, particularly on the shores and islands of the Pacific Ocean.

I was fortunate enough, however, to forgather with a Scotchman who was a beach-comber.

F. T. Bullen.

Bear"ing ring`. In a balloon, the braced wooden ring attached to the suspension ropes at the bottom, functionally analogous to the keel of a ship.

Bear State. Arkansas; -- a nickname, from the many bears once inhabiting its forests.

Bear"-trap` dam. (Engin.) A kind of movable dam, in one form consisting of two leaves resting against each other at the top when raised and folding down one over the other when lowered, for deepening shallow parts in a river.

Beat, n. 1. One that beats, or surpasses, another or others; as, the beat of him. [Colloq.]

2. The act of one that beats a person or thing; as: (a) (Newspaper Cant) The act of obtaining and publishing a piece of news by a newspaper before its competitors; also, the news itself; a scoop.

It's a beat on the whole country.

Scribner's Mag.

(b) (Hunting) The act of scouring, or ranging over, a tract of land to rouse or drive out game; also, those so engaged, collectively. "Driven out in the course of a beat." Encyc. of Sport.

Bears coming out of holes in the rocks at the last moment, when the beat is close to them.

Encyc. of Sport.

(c) (Fencing) A smart tap on the adversary's blade.

Beau"fort's scale` (?). (Meteor.) A scale of wind force devised by Sir F. Beaufort, R. N., in 1805, in which the force is indicated by numbers from 0 to 12.

The full scale is as follows: -- 0, calm; 1, light air; 2, light breeze; 3, gentle breeze; 4, moderate breeze; 5, fresh breeze; 6, strong breeze; 7, moderate gale; 8, fresh gale; 9, strong gale; 10, whole gale; 11, storm; 12, hurricane.

Beau`mon"ta*gue (?), n. A cement used in making joints, filling cracks, etc. For iron, the principal constituents are iron borings and sal ammoniac; for wood, white lead or litharge, whiting, and linseed oil.

Bea"ver State. Oregon; -- a nickname.

Be*bee"ru (?), n. [Written also bibiru.] [Native name.] (Bot.) A tropical South American tree (Nectandra Rodiœi), the bark of which yields the alkaloid bebeerine, and the wood of which is known as green heart.

||Be"bung (?), n. [G., lit., a trembling.] (Music) A tremolo effect, such as that produced on the piano by vibratory repetition of a note with sustained use of the pedal.

Bec"chi's test (?). [After E. Becchi, Italian chemist.] (Chem.) A qualitative test for cottonseed oil, based on the fact this oil imparts a maroon color to an alcoholic solution of silver nitrate.

Bech`u*a"nas (?), n. pl. A division of the Bantus, dwelling between the Orange and Zambezi rivers, supposed to be the most ancient Bantu population of South Africa. They are divided into totemic clans; they are intelligent and progressive.

Beck's scale (?). A hydrometer scale on which the zero point corresponds to sp. gr. 1.00, and the 30°-point to sp. gr. 0.85. From these points the scale is extended both ways, all the degrees being of equal length.

Becque`rel" rays" (?). (Physics) Radiations first observed by the French physicist Henri Becquerel, in working with uranium and its compounds. They consist of a mixture of alpha, beta, and gamma rays.

{ Be*cui"ba (?), n., Be*cui"ba nut` (?) }. [Native name.] (Bot.) The nut of the Brazilian tree Myristica Bicuhyba, which yields a medicinal balsam used for rheumatism.

Beg"ohm` (?), n. (Elec.) A unit of resistance equal to one billion ohms, or one thousand megohms.

||Be*ju"co (?), n. [Sp., a reed or woody vine.] Any climbing woody vine of the tropics with the habit of a liane; in the Philippines, esp. any of various species of Calamus, the cane or rattan palm.

Bel (?), n. [Hind., fr. Skr. bilva.] A thorny rutaceous tree (Ægle marmelos) of India, and its aromatic, orange-like fruit; -- called also Bengal quince, golden apple, wood apple. The fruit is used medicinally, and the rind yields a perfume and a yellow dye.

Bel"gi*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Belgium.

Belgian block. A nearly cubical block of some tough stone, esp. granite, used as a material for street pavements. Its usual diameter is 5 to 7 inches.

Bel"lar*mine (?), n. A stoneware jug of a pattern originated in the neighborhood of Cologne, Germany, in the 16th century. It has a bearded face or mask supposed to represent Cardinal Bellarmine, a leader in the Roman Catholic Counter Reformation, following the Reformation; -- called also graybeard, longbeard.

Bel*leek" ware (?). A porcelainlike kind of decorative pottery with a high gloss, which is sometimes iridescent. A very fine kind is made at Belleek in Ireland.

Bell process. (Iron Metal.) The process of washing molten pig iron by adding iron oxide, proposed by I. Lowthian Bell of England about 1875.

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Bell's palsy. Paralysis of the facial nerve, producing distortion of one side of the face.

Bell system of control. (Aëronautics) See Cloche.

Bench mark. (Leveling) Any permanent mark to which other levels may be referred. Specif. : A horizontal mark at the water's edge with reference to which the height of tides and floods may be measured.

Benefit society. A society or association formed for mutual insurance, as among tradesmen or in labor unions, to provide for relief in sickness, old age, and for the expenses of burial. Usually called friendly society in Great Britain.

||Ben"thos (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; depth of the sea.] The bottom of the sea, esp. of the deep oceans; hence (Bot. & Zoöl.), the fauna and flora of the sea bottom; -- opposed to plankton.

{ Ben`zo*naph"thol (?), n. Also Ben`zo*naph"tol }. [Benzoin + naphthol.] (Chem.) A white crystalline powder used as an intestinal antiseptic; beta-naphthol benzoate.

Ben"zo*sol (?), n. (Pharm.) Guaiacol benzoate, used as an intestinal antiseptic and as a substitute for creosote in phthisis. It is a colorless crystalline pewder.

||Ber`ceuse" (?), n. [F.] (Mus.) A vocal or instrumental composition of a soft tranquil character, having a lulling effect; a cradle song.

Ber`e*ni"ce's Hair` (?). [See Berenice's, Locks, in Dictionary of Noted Names in Fiction.] (Astron.) See Coma Berenices, under Coma.

||Berg"schrund` (?), n. [G., lit., mountain gap.] (Phys. Geog.) The crevasse or series of crevasses, usually deep and often broad, frequently occurring near the head of a mountain glacier, about where the névé field joins the valley portion of the glacier.

||Berg"stock` (?), n. [G., lit., mountain stick.] A long pole with a spike at the end, used in climbing mountains; an alpenstock.

Be"ring Sea Controversy (?). A controversy (1886 -- 93) between Great Britain and the United States as to the right of Canadians not licensed by the United States to carry on seal fishing in the Bering Sea, over which the United States claimed jurisdiction as a mare clausum. A court of arbitration, meeting in Paris in 1893, decided against the claim of the United States, but established regulations for the preservation of the fur seal.

Ber*mu"da lil"y. (Bot.) The large white lily (Lilium longiflorum eximium, syn. L. Harrisii) which is extensively cultivated in Bermuda.

Ber*seem" (?), n. [Ar. bershm clover.] An Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) extensively cultivated as a forage plant and soil- renewing crop in the alkaline soils of the Nile valley, and now introduced into the southwestern United States. It is more succulent than other clovers or than alfalfa. Called also Egyptian clover.

Ber`til`lon" sys"tem (?). [After Alphonse Bertillon, French anthropologist.] A system for the identification of persons by a physical description based upon anthropometric measurements, notes of markings, deformities, color, impression of thumb lines, etc.

Bes"ti*a*ry (?), n. [LL. bestiarium, fr. L. bestiarius pert. to beasts, fr. bestia beast: cf. F. bestiaire.] A treatise on beasts; esp., one of the moralizing or allegorical beast tales written in the Middle Ages.

A bestiary . . . in itself one of the numerous mediæval renderings of the fantastic mystical zoölogy.


Be"ta (?), n. [Gr. bh^ta.] The second letter of the Greek alphabet, B, β. See B, and cf. etymology of Alphabet. Beta (B, β) is used variously for classifying, as: (a) (Astron.) To designate some bright star, usually the second brightest, of a constellation, as, β Aurigæ. (b) (Chem.) To distinguish one of two or more isomers; also, to indicate the position of substituting atoms or groups in certain compounds; as, β-naphthol. With acids, it commonly indicates that the substituent is in union with the carbon atom next to that to which the carboxyl group is attached.

{ Be"ta*cism (?), ||Be`ta*cis"mus (?) }, n. Excessive or extended use of the b sound in speech, due to conversion of other sounds into it, as through inability to distinguish them from b, or because of difficulty in pronouncing them.

Be"ta rays (?). (Physics) Penetrating rays readily deflected by a magnetic or electric field, emitted by radioactive substances, as radium. They consist of negatively charged particles or electrons, apparently the same in kind as those of the cathode rays, but having much higher velocities (about 35,000 to 180,000 miles per second).

||Bez`po*pov"tsy (?), n. [Russ.; bez without + popovtsy, a derivative of pop priest.] A Russian sect. See Raskolnik.

{ Bhees"ty, Bhees"tie (?) }, n. [Written also bhistee, bhisti, etc.] [Per. bihisht lit., heavenly.] A water carrier, as to a household or a regiment. [India]

{ Bhis"tee (?), Bhis"ti (?) }, n. Same as Bheesty. [India]

Bi*an"nu*al (?), a. [Pref. bi- + annual.] Occurring twice a year; half-yearly; semiannual.

||Bi`be*lot" (?), n. [F.] A small decorative object without practical utility.

Her pictures, her furniture, and her bibelots.

M. Crawford.

{ Bick"ford fuse or fuze, or Bickford match (?) }. A fuse used in blasting, consisting of a long cylinder of explosive material inclosed in a varnished wrapping of rope or hose. It burns from 2 to 4 feet a minute.

{ Bi*dar"kee (?), Bi*dar"ka (?) }, n. [Russ. baidarka, dim. Cf. Baidar.] A portable boat made of skins stretched on a frame. [Alaska] The Century.

Bie"la's com"et (?). (Astron.) A periodic coment, discovered by Biela in 1826, which revolves around the sun in 6.6 years. The November meteors (Andromedes or Bielids) move in its orbit, and may be fragments of the comet.

Bie"lid (?), n. (Astron.) See Andromede.

Bi*fo"cal (?), a. [Pref. bi-+ focal.] Having two foci, as some spectacle lenses.

Big Bend State. Tennessee; -- a nickname.

Bil"la*bong` (?), n. [Native name.] In Australia, a blind channel leading out from a river; -- sometimes called an anabranch. This is the sense of the word as used in the Public Works Department; but the term has also been locally applied to mere back-waters forming stagnant pools and to certain water channels arising from a source.

Bil"let, n. Quarters or place to which one is assigned, as by a billet or ticket; berth; position. Also used fig. [Colloq.]

The men who cling to easy billets ashore.

Harper's Mag.

His shafts of satire fly straight to their billet, and there they rankle.

Pall Mall Mag.

{ Bil"ly*cock (?), n., or Bil"ly*cock hat` (?) }. [Perh. from bully + cock; that is, cocked like the hats of the bullies.] A round, low-crowned felt hat; a wideawake. "The undignified billycocks and pantaloons of the West." B. H. Chamberlain.

Little acquiesced, and Ransome disguised him in a beard, and a loose set of clothes, and a billicock hat.

Charles Reade.

Bi"me*tal"lic, a. Composed of two different metals; formed of two parts, each of a different metal; as, bimetallic wire; bimetallic thermometer, etc.

Bi"mo*lec"u*lar (?), a. [Pref. bi- + molecular.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or formed from, two molecules; as, a bimolecular reaction (a reaction between two molecules).

||Bin*bash"i (?), n. [Turk., prop., chief of a thousand; bin thousand + bash head.] (Mil.) A major in the Turkish army.

Bind"ing post`. (Elec.) A metallic post attached to electrical apparatus for convenience in making connections.

Bind"ing screw`. A set screw used to bind parts together, esp. one for making a connection in an electrical circuit.

{ Bi`o*dy*nam"ic (?), Bi`o*dy*nam"ic*al (?) }, a.} (Biol.) Of or pertaining to biodynamics, or the doctrine of vital forces or energy.

Bi`o*dy*nam"ics (?), n. The branch of biology which treats of the active vital phenomena of organisms; -- opposed to biostatics.

Bi`o*ge*og"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. bi`os life + E. geography.] The branch of biology which deals with the geographical distribution of animals and plants. It includes both zoögeography and phytogeography. - - Bi`o*ge`o*graph"ic (#), a. -- Bi`o*ge`o*graph"ic*al*ly (#), adv.

Bi"o*graph (?), n. [Gr. bi`os life + -graph.] 1. An animated picture machine for screen projection; a cinematograph.

2. [Cf. Biography.] A biographical sketch. [Rare]

Bi`o*pho"to*phone (?), n. [Gr. bi`os life + photo + fwnh` sound, voice.] An instrument combining a cinematograph and a phonograph so that the moving figures on the screen are accompanied by the appropriate sounds.

Bi`o*plas"tic (?), a. (Biol.) Bioplasmic.

{ Bi`o*psy"chic (?), Bi`o*psy"chic*al (?) }, a.} [Gr. bi`os life + psychic, -cal.] Pertaining to psychical phenomena in their relation to the living organism or to the general phenomena of life.

Bi"o*scope (?), n. [Gr. bi`os life + -scope.] 1. A view of life; that which gives such a view.

Bagman's Bioscope: Various Views of Men and Manners. [Book Title.]

W. Bayley (1824).

2. An animated picture machine for screen projection; a cinematograph (which see).

Bi"plane (?), n. [Pref. bi- + plane.] (Aëronautics) An aëroplane with two main supporting surfaces one above the other.

Bi"plane, a. (Aëronautics) Having, or consisting of, two superposed planes, aërocurves, or the like; of or pertaining to a biplane; as, a biplane rudder.

Bi"prism (?), n. [Pref. bi- + prism.] 1. A prism whose refracting angle is very nearly 180 degrees.

2. A combination of two short rectangular glass prisms cemented together at their diagonal faces so as to form a cube; -- called also optical cube. It is used in one form of photometer.

Bird"man (?), n. An aviator; airman. [Colloq.]

Bird"wom`an (?), n. An airwoman; an aviatress. [Colloq.]

{ Bis"ka*ra boil`, Bis"ka*ra but"ton }. [Named after the town Biskara, in Algeria.] (Med.) Same as Aleppo boil.

Bis"sell truck (?). A truck for railroad rolling stock, consisting of two ordinary axle boxes sliding in guides attached to a triangular frame; -- called also pony truck.

Bit, n. In the British West Indies, a fourpenny piece, or groat.

{ Bi"to (?), n., Bi"to tree` }. [Etym. uncertain.] (Bot.) A small scrubby tree (Balanites Ægyptiaca) growing in dry regions of tropical Africa and Asia.

The hard yellowish white wood is made into plows in Abyssinia; the bark is used in Farther India to stupefy fish; the ripe fruit is edible, when green it is an anthelmintic; the fermented juice is used as a beverage; the seeds yield a medicinal oil called zachun. The African name of the tree is hajilij.

Bi*tu"men proc"ess. (Photog.) Any process in which advantage is taken of the fact that prepared bitumen is rendered insoluble by exposure to light, as in photolithography.

Black"bird, n. 1. Among slavers and pirates, a negro or Polynesian. [Cant]

2. A native of any of the islands near Queensland; -- called also Kanaka. [Australia]

Black"bird*er (?), n. A slave ship; a slaver. [Colloq.] F. T. Bullen.

Black"bird*ing, n. 1. The kidnaping of negroes or Polynesians to be sold as slaves.

2. The act or practice of collecting natives of the islands near Queensland for service on the Queensland sugar plantations. [Australia]

Black"-eyed` Su"san. (Bot.) (a) The coneflower, or yellow daisy (Rudbeckia hirta). (b) The bladder ketmie.

Black Flags. An organization composed originally of Chinese rebels that had been driven into Tonkin by the suppression of the Taiping rebellion, but later increased by bands of pirates and adventurers. It took a prominent part in fighting the French during their hostilities with Anam, 1873-85.

Black Friday. Any Friday on which a public disaster has occurred, as: In England, December 6, 1745, when the news of the landing of the Pretender reached London, or May 11, 1866, when a financial panic commenced. In the United States, September 24, 1869, and September 18, 1873, on which financial panics began.

Black Ham"burg (?). A sweet and juicy variety of European grape, of a dark purplish black color, much grown under glass in northern latitudes.

Black Hand. [A trans. of Sp. mano negra.] 1. A Spanish anarchistic society, many of the members of which were imprisoned in 1883.

2. A lawless or blackmailing secret society, esp. among Italians. [U. S.]

Black Spanish. One of an old and well-known Mediterranean breed of domestic fowls with glossy black plumage, blue legs and feet, bright red comb and wattles, and white face. They are remarkable as egg layers.

Black"wa`ter State. Nebraska; -- a nickname alluding to the dark color of the water of its rivers, due to the presence of a black vegetable mold in the soil.

Blade, n. The flat part of the tongue immediately behind the tip, or point.

"Lower blade" implies, of course, the lower instead of the upper surface of the tongue.

H. Sweet.

||Blanc (?), n. [F., white.] 1. A white cosmetic.

2. A white sauce of fat, broth, and vegetables, used esp. for braised meat.

Blan"chard lathe (?). [After Thomas Blanchard, American inventor.] (Mach.) A kind of wood-turning lathe for making noncircular and irregular forms, as felloes, gun stocks, lasts, spokes, etc., after a given pattern. The pattern and work rotate on parallel spindles in the same direction with the same speed, and the work is shaped by a rapidly rotating cutter whose position is varied by the pattern acting as a cam upon a follower wheel traversing slowly along the pattern.

Blan"ket clause`. (Law) A clause, as in a blanket mortgage or policy, that includes a group or class of things, rather than a number mentioned individually and having the burden, loss, or the like, apportioned among them.

{ Blanket mortgage or policy }. One that covers a group or class of things or properties instead of one or more things mentioned individually, as where a mortgage secures various debts as a group, or subjects a group or class of different pieces of property to one general lien.

Blanket stitch. A buttonhole stitch worked wide apart on the edge of material, as blankets, too thick to hem.

Blast lamp. A lamp provided with some arrangement for intensifying combustion by means of a blast.

Blath"er (bl"r), v. i. & t. [imp. & p. p. Blathered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Blathering.] [Written also blether.] [Icel. blaðra. Cf. Blatherskite.] To talk foolishly, or nonsensically. G. Eliot.

Blath"er, n. [Written also blether.] Voluble, foolish, or nonsensical talk; -- often in the pl. Hall Caine.

Blaz"er (?), n. 1. Anything that blazes or glows, as with heat or flame.

2. A light jacket, usually of wool or silk and of a bright color, for wear at tennis, cricket, or other sport.

3. The dish used when cooking directly over the flame of a chafing-dish lamp, or the coals of a brasier.

||Bleph`a*ri"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; eyelid + -ilis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the eyelids. -- Bleph`a*rit"ic (#), a.

Blet (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Bletted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bletting.] To decay internally when overripe; -- said of fruit.

Blind reader. A post-office clerk whose duty is to decipher obscure addresses.

Block, n. 1. In Australia, one of the large lots into which public land, when opened to settlers, is divided by the government surveyors.

2. (Cricket) (a) The position of a player or bat when guarding the wicket. (b) A block hole. (c) The popping crease. [R.]

Back blocks, Australian pastoral country which is remote from the seacoast or from a river.

Block chain. (Mach.) A chain in which the alternate links are broad blocks connected by thin side links pivoted to the ends of the blocks, used with sprocket wheels to transmit power, as in a bicycle.

Block signal. (Railroads) One of the danger signals or safety signals which guide the movement of trains in a block system. The signal is often so coupled with a switch that act of opening or closing the switch operates the signal also.

Block system. (Railroads) A system by which the track is divided into short sections, as of three or four miles, and trains are so run by the guidance of electric, or combined electric and pneumatic, signals that no train enters a section or block until the preceding train has left it, as in absolute blocking, or that a train may be allowed to follow another into a block as long as it proceeds with excessive caution, as in permissive blocking.

<! p. 1969 !>

Blol"ly (?), n. (Bot.) (a) A shrub or small tree of southern Florida and the West Indies (Pisonia obtusata) with smooth oval leaves and a hard, 10-ribbed fruit. (b) The rubiaceous shrub Chicocca racemosa, of the same region.

Blue-grass State. The Sate of Kentucky; -- a nickname alluding to the blue-grass region, where fine horses are bred.

Blue Hen State. The State of Delaware; -- a popular sobriquet. It is said, though the story lacks proof, to have taken its origin from the insistence of a Delaware Revolutionary captain, named Caldwell, that no cock could be truly game unless the mother was a blue hen, whence Blue Hen's Chickens came to be a nickname for the people of Delaware.

Blue"nose` (?), n. A Nova Scotian; also, a Nova Scotian ship (called also Blue"nos`er (&?;)); a Nova Scotian potato, etc.

Blue"-sky"law`. A law enacted to provide for the regulation and supervision of investment companies in order to protect the public against companies that do not intend to do a fair and honest business and that offer investments that do not promise a fair return; -- so called because the promises made by some investment companies are as boundless or alluring as the blue sky, or, perhaps, because designed to clear away the clouds and fogs from the simple investor's horizon. [Colloq.]

Blue"y (?), n. [From Blue, a.] [Australasia] 1. A bushman's blanket; -- named from its color.

We had to wring our blueys.


2. A bushman's bundle; a swag; -- so called because a blanket is sometimes used as the outside covering.

Bod veal. Veal too immature to be suitable for food.

{ Bo"dhi*sat (?), ||Bo`dhi*satt"va, ||Bo`dhi*satt"wa (?) }, n. [Skr. bdhisattva (perh. through Pali bdhisatt); fr. bdhi knowledge, enlightenment + sattva being, essence.] (Buddhism) One who has reached the highest degree of saintship, so that in his next incarnation he will be a Buddha, or savior of the world. -- Bo"dhi*sat`ship, n.

Bod"y, n. (Aëronautics) The central, longitudinal framework of a flying machine, to which are attached the planes or aërocurves, passenger accommodations, controlling and propelling apparatus, fuel tanks, etc.

Bo"gey (?), n.; pl. Bogeys (#). [Also bogie.] 1. A goblin; a bugbear.

I have become a sort of bogey -- a kill- joy.

Wm. Black.

2. (Golf) A given score or number of strokes, for each hole, against which players compete; -- said to be so called because assumed to be the score of an imaginary first-rate player called Colonel Bogey.

Bo"gie en"gine. (Railroads) A switching engine the running gear and driving gear of which are on a bogie, or truck.

Boil"er, n. A sunken reef; esp., a coral reef on which the sea breaks heavily.

||Bo*le"ro (?), n. A kind of small outer jacket, with or without sleeves, worn by women.

||Bo"lo (?), n. [Sp.] A kind of large knife resembling a machete. [Phil. Islands]

||Bol"sa (?), n. [Sp., lit., purse. See Bourse.] An exchange for the transaction of business. [Sp. Amer. & Phil. Islands]

||Bo`na*ci" (?), n. [Amer. Sp. bonasí, prob. from native name.] (Zoöl.) (a) A large grouper (Mycteroperca bonaci) of Florida and the West Indies, valuable as a food fish; -- called also aguaji and, in Florida, black grouper. (b) Also, any one of several other similar fishes.

||Bo"na fi"des (b"n f"dz). [L.] Good faith; honesty; freedom from fraud or deception.

||Bon`bon`nière" (?), n.; pl. -nières (#). [F.] A small fancy box or dish for bonbons.

Bond, n. 1. (Elec.) A heavy copper wire or rod connecting adjacent rails of an electric railway track when used as a part of the electric circuit.

2. League; association; confederacy. [South Africa]

The Africander Bond, a league or association appealing to African, but practically to Boer, patriotism.

James Bryce.

Bon"go (b"g), n. Either of two large antelopes (Boöcercus eurycercus of West Africa, and B. isaaci of East Africa) of a reddish or chestnut-brown color with narrow white stripes on the body. Their flesh is especially esteemed as food.

Bon"naz (?), n. A kind of embroidery made with a complicated sewing machine, said to have been originally invented by a Frenchman of the name of Bonnaz. The work is done either in freehand or by following a perforated design.

Bon"net, n. (Automobiles) The metal cover or shield over the motor.

||Bon`net" rouge" (?). [F.] The red cap adopted by the extremists in the French Revolution, which became a sign of patriotism at that epoch; hence, a revolutionist; a Red Republican.

Boost"er (?), n. (Elec.) An instrument for regulating the electro-motive force in an alternating- current circuit; -- so called because used to "boost", or raise, the pressure in the circuit.

Bor*deaux" mix"ture. (Hort.) A fungicidal mixture composed of blue vitriol, lime, and water. The formula in common use is: blue vitriol, 6 lbs.; lime, 4 lbs.; water, 35 -- 50 gallons.

||Bor`de*reau" (?), n.; pl. Bordereaux (#). [F.] A note or memorandum, esp. one containing an enumeration of documents.

Bo"re*al, a. (Biogeography) Designating or pertaining to a terrestrial division consisting of the northern and mountainous parts of both the Old and the New World; -- equivalent to the Holarctic region exclusive of the Transition, Sonoran, and corresponding areas. The term is used by American authors and applied by them chiefly to the Nearctic subregion. The Boreal region includes approximately all of North and Central America in which the mean temperature of the hottest season does not exceed 18° C. (= 64.4° F.). Its subdivisions are the Arctic zone and Boreal zone, the latter including the area between the Arctic and Transition zones.

||Bos"tryx (?), n. [NL.; irreg. fr. Gr. &?; a curl.] (Bot.) A form of cymose inflorescence with all the flowers on one side of the rachis, usually causing it to curl; -- called also a uniparous helicoid cyme.

Bos*well"i*an (?), a. Relating to, or characteristic of, Dr. Johnson's biographer, James Boswell, whose hero worship made his narrative a faithful but often uncritical record of details. -- Bos"well*ize (#), v. i. & t. -- Bos"weel*ism (#). n.

Bot"tle-neck` frame". (Automobiles) An inswept frame. [Colloq.]

Bot"tom fer`men*ta"tion. A slow alcoholic fermentation during which the yeast cells collect at the bottom of the fermenting liquid. It takes place at a temperature of 4° - 10° C. (39° - 50°F.). It is used in making lager beer and wines of low alcohol content but fine bouquet.

Bou"cher*ize (?), v. t. [After Dr. Auguste Boucherie, a French chemist, who invented the process.] To impregnate with a preservative solution of copper sulphate, as timber, railroad ties, etc.

||Bou*gie" dé`ci`male" (?). [F., lit., decimal candle.] A photometric standard used in France, having the value of one twentieth of the Violle platinum standard, or slightly less than a British standard candle. Called also decimal candle.

Bou*lan"gism (?), n. [F. boulangisme.] The spirit or principles of a French political movement identified with Gen. Georges Boulanger (d. 1891), whose militarism and advocacy of revenge on Germany attracted to him a miscellaneous party of monarchists and Republican malcontents. - - Bou*lan"gist (#), n.

Bou"le (?), n. [Gr. &?;.] 1. (Gr. Antiq.) A legislative council of elders or chiefs; a senate. The boule of Homeric times was an aristocratic body of princes and leaders, merely advisory to the king. The Athenian boule of Solon's time was an elective senate of 400, acting as a check on the popular ecclesia, for which it examined and prepared bills for discussion. It later increased to 500, chosen by lot, and extended its functions to embrace certain matters of administration and oversight.

2. Legislature of modern Greece. See Legislature.

||Boule`var`dier" (?), n. [F.] A frequenter of a city boulevard, esp. in Paris. F. Harrison.

Bowd"ler*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bowdlerized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bowdlerizing (?).] [After Dr. Thomas Bowdler, an English physician, who published an expurgated edition of Shakespeare in 1818.] To expurgate, as a book, by omitting or modifying the parts considered offensive.

It is a grave defect in the splendid tale of Tom Jones . . . that a Bowlderized version of it would be hardly intelligible as a tale.

F. Harrison.

-- Bowd`ler*i*za"tion (#), n. -- Bowd"ler*ism (#), n.

Bow"er-Barff" proc`ess . (Metal.) A certain process for producing upon articles of iron or steel an adherent coating of the magnetic oxide of iron (which is not liable to corrosion by air, moisture, or ordinary acids). This is accomplished by producing, by oxidation at about 1600° F. in a closed space, a coating containing more or less of the ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and the subsequent change of this in a reduced atmosphere to the magnetic oxide (Fe2O4).

Bowl"er (?), n. [From 2d Bowl.] A derby hat. [Eng.]

Box"er, n. A member of a powerful Chinese organization which committed numerous outrages on Europeans and Christian converts in the uprising against foreigners in 1900. Various names, as "League of United Patriots" and "Great Knife [or Sword] Society," have been given as the Chinese name of the organization; why the members were called Boxers is uncertain.

Box"ing day`. The first week day after Christmas, a legal holiday on which Christmas boxes are given to postmen, errand boys, employees, etc. The night of this day is boxing night. [Eng.]

Box kite. A kite, invented by Lawrence Hargrave, of Sydney, Australia, which consist of two light rectangular boxes, or cells open on two sides, and fastened together horizontally. Called also Hargrave, or cellular, kite.

Box tail. (Aëronautics) In a flying machine, a tail or rudder, usually fixed, resembling a box kite.

Boy, n. In various countries, a male servant, laborer, or slave of a native or inferior race; also, any man of such a race.

He reverted again and again to the labor difficulty, and spoke of importing boys from Capetown.

Frances Macnab.

Boy scout. Orig., a member of the "Boy Scouts," an organization of boys founded in 1908, by Sir R. S. S. Baden-Powell, to promote good citizenship by creating in them a spirit of civic duty and of usefulness to others, by stimulating their interest in wholesome mental, moral, industrial, and physical activities, etc. Hence, a member of any of the other similar organizations, which are now worldwide. In "The Boy Scouts of America" the local councils are generally under a scout commissioner, under whose supervision are scout masters, each in charge of a troop of two or more patrols of eight scouts each, who are of three classes, tenderfoot, second-class scout, and first-class scout.

Brack"et, n. (Gunnery) A figure determined by firing a projectile beyond a target and another short of it, as a basis for ascertaining the proper elevation of the piece; -- only used in the phrase, to establish a bracket. After the bracket is established shots are fired with intermediate elevations until the exact range is obtained. In the United States navy it is called fork.

Brack"et, v. t. (Gunnery) To shoot so as to establish a bracket for (an object).

||Braille (?), n. A system of printing or writing for the blind in which the characters are represented by tangible points or dots. It was invented by Louis Braille, a French teacher of the blind.

Bran"den*burg (?), n. [So named after Brandenburg, a province and a town of Prussia.] A kind of decoration for the breast of a coat, sometimes only a frog with a loop, but in some military uniforms enlarged into a broad horizontal stripe.

He wore a coat . . . trimmed with Brandenburgs.


Brash"y (?), a. 1. Resembling, or of the nature of, brash, or broken fragments; broken; crumbly.

Our progress was not at all impeded by the few soft, brashy floes that we encountered.

F. T. Bullen.

2. Showery; characterized by brashes, or showers.

Bras"i*lin (?), n. [Cf. F. brésiline. See 2d Brazil.] (Chem.) A substance, C16H14O5, extracted from brazilwood as a yellow crystalline powder which is white when pure. It is colored intensely red by alkalies on exposure to the air, being oxidized to bra*sil"e*in (&?;), C16H12O5, to which brazilwood owes its dyeing properties.

Brasque (?), n. [F.] (Metal.) A paste made by mixing powdered charcoal, coal, or coke with clay, molasses, tar, or other suitable substance. It is used for lining hearths, crucibles, etc. Called also steep.

Bras`sière" (?), n. [F.] A form of woman's underwaist stiffened with whalebones, or the like, and worn to support the breasts.

Brass"y (?), n. [Written also brassie and brassey.] (Golf) A wooden club soled with brass.

Braw (?), a. [See Brave, a.] [Scot. & Prov. Eng.] 1. Well-dressed; handsome; smart; brave; -- used of persons or their clothing, etc.; as, a braw lad. "A braw new gown." Burns.

2. Good; fine. "A braw night." Sir W. Scott.

Break"a*way` (?), n. [Break + away] [Australasia] 1. A wild rush of sheep, cattle, horses, or camels (especially at the smell or the sight of water); a stampede.

2. An animal that breaks away from a herd.

Breech action. The breech mechanism in breech-loading small arms and certain special guns, as automatic and machine guns; -- used frequently in referring to the method by which the movable barrels of breech-loading shotguns are locked, unlocked, or rotated to loading position.

||Bre*lan" (?), n. [F.] (Card Playing) (a) A French gambling game somewhat like poker. (b) In French games, a pair royal, or triplet.

||Bre*lan" car`re" (?). [F. carré square.] (Card Playing) In French games, a double pair royal.

||Bre*lan" fa`vo`ri" (?). [F. favori favorite.] (Card Playing) In French games, a pair royal composed of 2 cards in the hand and the card turned.

Bre*loque" (?), n. [F.] A seal or charm for a watch chain. "His chains and breloques." Thackeray.

Brick"field`er (?), n. [Australia] 1. Orig., at Sydney, a cold and violent south or southwest wind, rising suddenly, and regularly preceded by a hot wind from the north; -- now usually called southerly buster. It blew across the Brickfields, formerly so called, a district of Sydney, and carried clouds of dust into the city.

2. By confusion, a midsummer hot wind from the north.

||Bri*cole" (?), n. 1. An ancient kind of military catapult.

2. In court tennis, the rebound of a ball from a wall of the court; also, the side stroke or play by which the ball is driven against the wall; hence, fig., indirect action or stroke.

3. (Billiards) A shot in which the cue ball is driven first against the cushion.

Bridge, n. A card game resembling whist. The trump, if any, is determined by the dealer or his partner, the value of each trick taken over six being: for "no trumps" 12, hearts 8, diamonds 6, clubs 4, spades 2. The opponents of the dealer can, after the trump is declared, double the value of the tricks, in which case the dealer or his partner can redouble, and so on. The dealer plays his partner's hand as a dummy. The side which first reaches or exceeds 30 points scored for tricks wins a game; the side which first wins two games wins a rubber. The total score for any side is the sum of the points scored for tricks, for rubbers (each of which counts 100), for honors (which follow a special schedule of value), and for slam, little slam, and chicane.

Brie" cheese" (?). A kind of soft French cream cheese; -- so called from the district in France where it is made; -- called also fromage de Brie.

Brig (?), n. [Origin unknown.] (Nav.) On a United States man-of-war, the prison or place of confinement for offenders.

Bril"lian*tine (?), n. [F. brillantine. See lst Brilliant.] 1. An oily composition used to make the hair glossy.

2. A dress fabric having a glossy finish on both sides, resembling alpaca but of superior quality.

||Bri`oche" (?), n. [F.] 1. A light cake made with flour, butter, yeast, and eggs.

2. A knitted foot cushion.

Bri`o*lette" (?), n. [F.] An oval or pearshaped diamond having its entire surface cut in triangular facets.

Bri*quette" (?), n. [Also briquet.] [F., dim. of brique brick.] 1. A block of compacted coal dust, or peat, etc., for fuel.

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2. A block of artificial stone in the form of a brick, used for paving; also, a molded sample of solidified cement or mortar for use as a test piece for showing the strength of the material.

||Bro`ché" (br`sh"), a. Stitched; -- said of a book with no cover or only a paper one.

||Bro`chette" (br`sht"), n. [F., dim. of broche. See Broach, n.] (Cookery) A small spit or skewer.

-- En bro`chette" (än) [F.], on a brochette; skewered.

{ Brock"en spec"ter or spec"tre (?) }. [Trans. of G. Brockengespenst.] A mountain specter (which see), esp. that observed on the Brocken, in the Harz Mountains.

Bro"ken breast`. Abscess of the mammary gland.

Bro"ma*lin (?), n. [From Bromine.] (Pharm.) A colorless or white crystalline compound, (CH2)6N4C2H5Br, used as a sedative in epilepsy.

Brom`an"il (?), n. [Bromine + aniline.] (Chem.) A substance analogous to chloranil but containing bromine in place of chlorine.

Bro"mide, n. A person who is conventional and commonplace in his habits of thought and conversation. [Slang] -- Bro*mid"ic (#), a. [Slang]

The bromide conforms to everythyng sanctioned by the majority, and may be depended upon to be trite, banal, and arbitrary.

Gelett Burgess.

{ Bromide, or Bromid, paper}. (Photog.) A sensitized paper coated with gelatin impregnated with bromide of silver, used in contact printing and in enlarging.

Bro*mid"i*om (?), n. [Bromide + idiom.] A conventional comment or saying, such as those characteristic of bromides. [Slang]

Bro`mo*gel"a*tin (?), a. [Bromine + gelatin.] (Photog.) Designating or pertaining to, a process of preparing dry plates with an emulsion of bromides and silver nitrate in gelatin.

Bro`mo*i"o*dism (?), n. [Bromine + iodine + -ism.] (Med.) Poisoning induced by large doses of bromine and iodine or of their compounds.

Bro`mo*i"o*dized (?), a. (Photog.) Treated with bromides and iodides.

Bro"mol (?), n. [Abbr. fr. tribromophenol.] (Pharm.) A crystalline substance (chemically, tribromophenol, C6H2Br3OH), used as an antiseptic and disinfectant.

Bron"to*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; thunder + -graph.] (Meteor.) (a) A tracing or chart showing the phenomena attendant on thunderstorms. (b) An instrument for making such tracings, as a recording brontometer.

Bron*tom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; thunder + -meter.] (Meteor.) An instrument for noting or recording phenomena attendant on thunderstorms.

Bronze steel. A hard tough alloy of tin, copper, and iron, which can be used for guns.

Brown race. The Malay or Polynesian race; -- loosely so called.

Brush, n. In Australia, a dense growth of vegetation in good soil, including shrubs and trees, mostly small.

Buc"can (?), n. [F. boucan. See Buccaneer.] 1. A wooden frame or grid for roasting, smoking, or drying meat over fire.

2. A place where meat is smoked.

3. Buccaned meat.

Buc"can, v. t. [F. boucaner. See Buccaneer.] To expose (meat) in strips to fire and smoke upon a buccan.

Bu*ceph"a*lus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, lit., ox-headed; &?; ox + &?; head.] 1. The celebrated war horse of Alexander the Great.

2. Hence, any riding horse. [Jocose] Sir W. Scott.

Buck"et (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bucketed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bucketing.] 1. To draw or lift in, or as if in, buckets; as, to bucket water.

2. To pour over from a bucket; to drench.

3. To ride (a horse) hard or mercilessly.

4. (Rowing) To make, or cause to make (the recovery), with a certain hurried or unskillful forward swing of the body. [Eng.]

Buck fever. Intense excitement at the sight of deer or other game, such as often unnerves a novice in hunting. [Colloq.]

Bulb"il (?), n. [Dim. fr. bulb.] 1. (Bot.) A small or secondary bulb; hence, now almost exclusively: An aërial bulb or deciduous bud, produced in the leaf axils, as in the tiger lily, or relpacing the flowers, as in some onions, and capable, when separated, of propagating the plant; -- called also bulblet and brood bud.

2. (Anat.) A small hollow bulb, such as an enlargement in a small vessel or tube.

Bul"ger (?), n. [From Bulge.] (Golf) A driver or a brassy with a convex face.

Bull Moose. (U. S. Politics) (a) A follower of Theodore Roosevelt in the presidential campaign of 1912; - - a sense said to have originated from a remark made by Roosevelt on a certain occasion that he felt "like a bull moose." [Cant] (b) The figure of a bull moose used as the party symbol of the Progressive party in the presidential campaign of 1912. -- Bull Mooser. [Cant]

Bull"-roar`er (?), n. A contrivance consisting of a slat of wood tied to the end of a thong or string, with which the slat is whirled so as to cause an intermittent roaring noise. It is used as a toy, and among some races in certain religious rites.

{ Bul"ly (?), n., Bul"ly beef` (?) }. [F. bouilli boiled meat, fr. bouillir to boil. See Boil, v. The word bouilli was formerly commonly used on the labels of canned beef.] Pickled or canned beef.

||Bul"tong (?), n. Biltong.

Bum"ble*pup`py (?), n. [Origin unknown; cf. Bumble, n.] 1. The old game of nineholes.

2. (Card Playing) Whist played in an unscientific way.

||Bun"des*rath` (?), n. [G.; bund confederacy + rath council.] Lit., a federal council, esp. of the German Empire. See Legislature.

||Bun"des-Ver*samm"lung (?), n. [G.; bund confederacy + versammlung assembly.] See Legislature, Switzerland.

||Bun"do*bust (?), n. [Hind. & Per. bando-bast tying and binding.] System; discipline. [India]

He has more bundobust than most men.


Bun"ker (?), n. 1. A small sand hole or pit, as on a golf course. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

2. (Golf) Hence, any rough hazardous ground on the links; also, an artificial hazard with built-up faces.

Bun"ker, v. t. (Golf) To drive (the ball) into a bunker.

Bun"ko (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bunkoed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bunkoing.] To swindle by a bunko game or scheme; to cheat or victimize in any similar way, as by a confidence game, passing a bad check, etc.

Bun"sen cell (?). (Elec.) A zinc-carbon cell in which the zinc (amalgamated) is surrounded by dilute sulphuric acid, and the carbon by nitric acid or a chromic acid mixture, the two plates being separated by a porous cup.

Bunt, n. A push or shove; a butt; specif. (Baseball), the act of bunting the ball.

Bunt, v. t. & i. (Baseball) To bat or tap (the ball) slowly within the infield by meeting it with the bat without swinging at it.

||Bur"schen*schaft` (?), n.; pl. -schaften (#). [G.] In Germany, any of various associations of university students formed (the original one at Jena in 1815) to support liberal ideas, or the organization formed by the affiliation of the local bodies. The organization was suppressed by the government in 1819, but was secretly revived, and is now openly maintained as a social organization, the restrictive laws having been repealed prior to 1849. -- Bur"schen*schaft`ler (#), -schaf`ter (#), n.

Bush"el (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Busheled (?), p. pr. & vb. n. Busheling.] [Cf. G. bosseln.] (Tailoring) To mend or repair, as men's garments; to repair garments. [U. S.]

||Bu"shi`do` (b"sh`d`), n. [Jap. bu military + shi knight + d way, doctrine, principle.] The unwritten code of moral principles regulating the actions of the Japanese knighthood, or Samurai; the chivalry of Japan.

Unformulated, Bushido was and still is the animating spirit, the motor force of our country.

Inazo Nitobé.

Busk (bsk), n. Among the Creek Indians, a feast of first fruits celebrated when the corn is ripe enough to be eaten. The feast usually continues four days. On the first day the new fire is lighted, by friction of wood, and distributed to the various households, an offering of green corn, including an ear brought from each of the four quarters or directions, is consumed, and medicine is brewed from snakeroot. On the second and third days the men physic with the medicine, the women bathe, the two sexes are taboo to one another, and all fast. On the fourth day there are feasting, dancing, and games.

Bu`tyl*am"ine (?), n. [Butyric + -yl + amine.] (Org. Chem.) A colorless liquid base, C4H9NH2, of which there are four isomeric varieties.

Bu"ty*ryl (?), n. [Butyric + -yl.] (Chem.) The radical (C4H7O) of butyric acid.

Bye, n. 1. In various sports in which the contestants are drawn in pairs, the position or turn of one left with no opponent in consequence of an odd number being engaged; as, to draw a bye in a round of a tennis tournament.

2. (Golf) The hole or holes of a stipulated course remaining unplayed at the end of a match.


||Caa*tin"ga (?), n. [Tupi caa- tinga white forest.] (Phytogeography) A forest composed of stunted trees and thorny bushes, found in areas of small rainfall in Brazil.

||Ca`bal*le*ri"a (?), n. [Sp. See Caballero.] An ancient Spanish land tenure similar to the English knight's fee; hence, in Spain and countries settled by the Spanish, a land measure of varying size. In Cuba it is about 33 acres; in Porto Rico, about 194 acres; in the Southwestern United States, about 108 acres.

||Ca`bal*le"ro (?), n. [Sp. Cf. Cavalier.] A knight or cavalier; hence, a gentleman.

||Ca*bal"lo (k*väl"y; 220), n. [Written also cavallo.] [Sp., fr. L. caballus a nag. See Cavalcade.] A horse. [Sp. Amer.]

Cab"a*ret (?), n. In the United States, a café or restaurant where the guests are entertained by performers who dance or sing on the floor between the tables, after the practice of a certain class of French taverns; hence, an entertainment of this nature.

Ca"ber (?), n. [Gael. cabar.] A pole or beam, esp. one used in Gaelic games for tossing as a trial of strength.

||Ca`bo`chon" (k`b`shôN"), n. [F.] (Jewelry) A stone of convex form, highly polished, but not faceted; also, the style of cutting itself. Such stones are said to be cut en cabochon.

||Ca*chæ"mi*a, ||Ca*che"mi*a (&?;), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; bad + &?; blood.] (Med.) A degenerated or poisoned condition of the blood. -- Ca*chæ"mic, Ca*che"mic (#), a.

||Cac`o*chym"i*a (?), n. [NL., Gr. &?;; &?; bad + &?; juice.] (Med.) A vitiated state of the humors, or fluids, of the body, esp. of the blood. -- Cac`o*chym"ic (#), Cac`o*chym"ic*al (#), a.

||Cac`o*sto"mi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; bad + &?; mouth.] (Med.) Diseased or gangrenous condition of the mouth.

{ Ca*dav"er*ine (?), n. Also - in }. [From Cadaver.] (Chem.) A sirupy, nontoxic ptomaine, C5H14N2 (chemically pentamethylene diamine), formed in putrefaction of flesh, etc.

Cad"die (?), n. [Written also caddy, cadie, cady, and cawdy.] [See Cadet.] 1. A cadet. [Obs. Scot.]

2. A lad; young fellow. [Scot.] Burns.

3. One who does errands or other odd jobs. [Scot.]

4. An attendant who carries a golf player's clubs, tees his ball, etc.

Ca*det", n. 1. In New Zealand, a young gentleman learning sheep farming at a station; also, any young man attached to a sheep station.

2. A young man who makes a business of ruining girls to put them in brothels. [Slang, U. S.]

Cæ`la*tu"ra (?), n. [L., fr. caelare to engrave in relief.] Art of producing metal decorative work other than statuary, as reliefs, intaglios, engraving, chasing, etc.

Caf`e*te"ri*a (?), n. [Cf. F. cafetière.] A restaurant or café at which the patrons serve themselves with food kept at a counter, taking the food to small tables to eat. [U. S.]

Ca*hens"ly*ism (?), n. (R. C. Ch.) A plan proposed to the Pope in 1891 by P. P. Cahensly, a member of the German parliament, to divide the foreign-born population of the United States, for ecclesiastical purposes, according to European nationalities, and to appoint bishops and priests of like race and speaking the same language as the majority of the members of a diocese or congregation. This plan was successfully opposed by the American party in the Church.

Ca*hin"ca root` (?). [Written also cainca root.] [See Cahincic.] (Bot.) The root of an American shrub (Chiococca racemosa), found as far north as Florida Keys, from which cahincic acid is obtained; also, the root of the South American Chiococca anguifuga, a celebrated antidote for snake poison.

Cais"son dis*ease". (Med.) A disease frequently induced by remaining for some time in an atmosphere of high pressure, as in caissons, diving bells, etc. It is characterized by neuralgic pains and paralytic symptoms. It is variously explained, most probably as due to congestion of internal organs with subsequent stasis of the blood.

Ca"jun (?), n. [A corruption of Acadian.] (Ethnol.) In Louisiana, a person reputed to be Acadian French descent.

||Ca`la*bo"zo (?), n. [Sp.] A jail. See Calaboose.

Ca`la*ve"ras skull (?). A human skull reported, by Prof. J. D. Whitney, as found in 1886 in a Tertiary auriferous gravel deposit, lying below a bed of black lava, in Calaveras County, California. It is regarded as very doubtful whether the skull really belonged to the deposit in which it was found. If it did, it indicates an unprecedented antiquity for human beings of an advanced type.

Cal`i*for"ni*a jack" (?). A game at cards, a modification of seven-up, or all fours.

||Ca*lor"i*sa`tor (?), n. [NL., heater, fr. L. calor heat.] An apparatus used in beet-sugar factories to heat the juice in order to aid the diffusion.

Calve (?), v. i. (Phys. Geog.) To throw off fragments which become icebergs; -- said of a glacier.

||Ca"ma*ra (?), n. [Pg.] Chamber; house; -- used in Ca"ma*ra dos Pa"res (&?;), and Ca"ma*ra dos De`pu*ta"dos (&?;). See Legislature.

||Ca`ma`ra`de*rie" (?), n. [F. See Comrade.] Comradeship and loyalty.

The spirit of camaraderie is strong among these riders of the plains.

W. A. Fraser.

Cam"ass (?). n. [Origin uncert.] A small prairie in a forest; a small grassy plain among hills. [Western U. S.]

Ca*mel"li*a (?), n. [NL., after Georg Josef Kamel, or Camelli, a Jesuit who is said to have brought it from the East.] (Hort.) An ornamental greenhouse shrub (Thea japonica) with glossy evergreen leaves and roselike red or white double flowers.

Cam"el*ry (?), n. Troops that are mounted on camels.

||Ca`mem`bert" (?), n., or Camembert cheese. A kind of soft, unpressed cream cheese made in the vicinity of Camembert, near Argentan, France; also, any cheese of the same type, wherever made.

||Ca*mor"ra (?), n. [It.] A secret organization formed at Naples, Italy, early in the 19th century, and used partly for political ends and partly for practicing extortion, violence, etc. -- Ca*mor"rist (#), n.

Ca*nal", n. A long and relatively narrow arm of the sea, approximately uniform in width; -- used chiefly in proper names; as, Portland Canal; Lynn Canal. [Alaska]

||Ca`na`pé" (?), n. [F., orig. a couch with mosquito curtains. See Canopy.] 1. A sofa or divan.

2. (Cookery) A slice or piece of bread fried in butter or oil, on which anchovies, mushrooms, etc., are served.

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||Ca`na`pé" con`fi`dent" (?). A sofa having a seat at each end at right angles to the main seats.

Can*des"cent (?), a. [L. candescens, -entis, p. pr. of candescere, v. incho. fr. candere to shine.] Glowing; luminous; incandescent.

Candle foot. (Photom.) The illumination produced by a British standard candle at a distance of one foot; -- used as a unit of illumination.

Candle meter. (Photom.) The illumination given by a standard candle at a distance of one meter; -- used as a unit of illumination, except in Great Britain.

Can"dle*nut` (?), n. 1. The fruit of a euphorbiaceous tree or shrub (Aleurites moluccana), native of some of the Pacific islands. It is used by the natives as a candle. The oil from the nut ( candlenut, or kekune, oil) has many uses.

2. The tree itself.

Can`dle*pin` (?), n. (Tenpins) (a) A form of pin slender and nearly straight like a candle. (b) The game played with such pins; -- in form candlepins, used as a singular.

Candle power. (Photom.) Illuminating power, as of a lamp, or gas flame, reckoned in terms of the light of a standard candle.

Cangue (kng), n. [Written also cang.] [F. cangue, fr. Pg. canga yoke.] A very broad and heavy wooden collar which certain offenders in China are compelled to wear as a punishment.

||Can`ne*lé" (?), n. [F., pop., fluted.] (Textiles) A style of interweaving giving to fabrics a channeled or fluted effect; also, a fabric woven so as to have this effect; a rep.

Can"ne*lure (kn"n*lr), n. [F., fr. canneler to groove.] (Mil.) A groove in any cylinder; specif., a groove around the cylinder of an elongated bullet for small arms to contain a lubricant, or around the rotating band of a gun projectile to lessen the resistance offered to the rifling. Also, a groove around the base of a cartridge, where the extractor takes hold. -- Can"ne*lured (#), a.

Can"non, v. i. 1. To discharge cannon.

2. To collide or strike violently, esp. so as to glance off or rebound; to strike and rebound.

He heard the right-hand goal post crack as a pony cannoned into it -- crack, splinter, and fall like a mast.


||Cañ`on*ci"to (?), n. [Amer. Sp. dim. See Cañon.] [Southwestern U. S.] 1. A small cañon.

2. A narrow passage or lane through chaparral or a forest.

||Ca`po*ral" (kä`p*räl"), n. [Sp. See Corporal, n.] One who directs work; an overseer. [Sp. Amer.]

||Ca"po tas"to (?). [It. capotasto.] (Music) A sort of bar or movable nut, attached to the finger board of a guitar or other fretted instrument for the purpose of raising uniformly the pitch of all the strings.

Ca"pri (?), n. Wine produced on the island of Capri, commonly a light, dry, white wine.

||Cap`su*li"tis (?), n. [NL.; E. capsule + -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of a capsule, as that of the crystalline lens.

Cap`su*lot"o*my (?), n. [Capsule + Gr. &?; to cut.] (Surg.) The incision of a capsule, esp. of that of the crystalline lens, as in a cataract operation.

||Ca`ra*ba"o (?), n. [Native name.] (Zoöl.) The water buffalo. [Phil. Islands]

Ca`ra*cul" (?), n. Var. of Karakul, a kind of fur.

Car"bon, n. (Elec.) A carbon rod or pencil used in an arc lamp; also, a plate or piece of carbon used as one of the elements of a voltaic battery.

Car"bon*ite (?), n. [Carbon + -ite.] 1. An explosive consisting essentially of nitroglycerin, wood meal, and some nitrate, as that of sodium.

2. An explosive composed of nitrobenzene, saltpeter, sulphur, and kieselguhr.

Car"bon process. (Photog.) A printing process depending on the effect of light on bichromatized gelatin. Paper coated with a mixture of the gelatin and a pigment is called carbon paper or carbon tissue. This is exposed under a negative and the film is transferred from the paper to some other support and developed by washing (the unexposed portions being dissolved away). If the process stops here it is called single transfer; if the image is afterward transferred in order to give an unreversed print, the method is called double transfer.

Carbon steel. Steel deriving its qualities from carbon chiefly, without the presence of other alloying elements; -- opposed to alloy steel.

Carbon transmitter. A telephone transmitter in which a carbon contact is used.

Car`bo*run"dum (?), [Carbon + corundum.] A beautiful crystalline compound, SiC, consisting of carbon and silicon in combination; carbon silicide. It is made by heating carbon and sand together in an electric furnace. The commercial article is dark-colored and iridescent. It is harder than emery, and is used as an abrasive.

{ Carborundum cloth or paper }. Cloth or paper covered with powdered carborundum.

{ Car"bu*ret`or, Car"bu*ret`tor (?) }, n. One that carburets; specif., an apparatus in which air or gas is carbureted, as by passing it through a light petroleum oil. The carburetor for a gasoline engine is usually either a surface carburetor, or a float, float- feed, or spray, carburetor. In the former air is charged by being passed over the surface of gasoline. In the latter a fine spray of gasoline is drawn from an atomizing nozzle by a current of air induced by the suction of the engine piston, the supply of gasoline being regulated by a float which actuates a needle valve controlling the outlet of the feed pipe. Alcohol and other volatile inflammable liquids may be used instead of gasoline.

Car"cel (?), n. (Photom.) A light standard much used in France, being the light from a Carcel lamp of stated size and construction consuming 42 grams of colza oil per hour with a flame 40 millimeters in height. Its illuminating power is variously stated at from 8.9 to 9.6 British standard candles.

Car"di*o*gram` (?), n. [Gr. &?; heart + -gram.] (Physiol.) The curve or tracing made by a cardiograph.

Car`di*og"ra*phy (?), n. 1. Description of the heart.

2. (Physiol.) Examination by the cardiograph.

||Car"di*o*scle*ro"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; heart + sclerosis.] Induration of the heart, caused by development of fibrous tissue in the cardiac muscle.

Car mile. (Railroads) A mile traveled by a single car, taken as a unit of computation, as in computing the average travel of each car of a system during a given period.

Car mileage. (Railroads) (a) Car miles collectively. (b) The amount paid by one road the use of cars of another road.

Car"mi*nat`ed (?), a. Of, relating to, or mixed with, carmine; as, carminated lake.

Car"nic (?), a. [L. caro, carnis, flesh.] Of or pertaining to flesh; specif. (Physiol. Chem.), pertaining to or designating a hydroscopic monobasic acid, C10H15O5N3, obtained as a cleavage product from an acid of muscle tissue.

Car`not's" cy"cle (?). [After N. L. S. Carnot, French physicist.] (Thermodynamics) An ideal heat-engine cycle in which the working fluid goes through the following four successive operations: (1) Isothermal expansion to a desired point; (2) adiabatic expansion to a desired point; (3) isothermal compression to such a point that (4) adiabatic compression brings it back to its initial state.

||Ca`rotte" (?), n. [F., prop., carrot.] A cylindrical roll of tobacco; as, a carotte of perique.

||Car`ro*ma"ta (?), n. [Sp. in Phil. I.] In the Philippines, a light, two-wheeled, boxlike vehicle usually drawn by a single native pony and used to convey passengers within city limits or for traveling. It is the common public carriage.

Car"tist (?), n. [Sp. cartista, fr. carta paper, document (cf. Pg. carta). See Charta; cf. Chartist.] In Spain and Portugal, one who supports the constitution.

Car"to*gram (?), n. [F. cartogramme.] A map showing geographically, by shades or curves, statistics of various kinds; a statistical map.

||Ca"sa (?), n. [Sp. or It., fr. L. casa cabin.] A house or mansion. [Sp. Amer. & Phil. Islands]

I saw that Enriquez had made no attempt to modernize the old casa, and that even the garden was left in its lawless native luxuriance.

Bret Harte.

Cas*cade" meth"od. (Physics) A method of attaining successively lower temperatures by utilizing the cooling effect of the expansion of one gas in condensing another less easily liquefiable, and so on.

Cascade system. (Elec.) A system or method of connecting and operating two induction motors so that the primary circuit of one is connected to the secondary circuit of the other, the primary circuit of the latter being connected to the source of supply; also, a system of electric traction in which motors so connected are employed. The cascade system is also called tandem, or concatenated, system; the connection a cascade, tandem, or concatenated, connection, or a concatenation; and the control of the motors so obtained a tandem, or concatenation, control. In the cascade system of traction the cascade connection is used for starting and for low speeds up to half speed. For full speed the short- circuited motor is cut loose from the other motor and is either left idle or (commonly) connected direct to the line.

Cas"ca*ra buck"thorn` (?). (Bot.) The buckthorn (Rhamnus Purshiana) of the Pacific coast of the United States, which yields cascara sagrada.

||Cas`ca*ron" (?), n. [Sp. cascarón.] Lit., an eggshell; hence, an eggshell filled with confetti to be thrown during balls, carnivals, etc. [Western U. S.]

Ca"se*ose (?), n. [Casein + - ose.] (Physiol.Chem.) A soluble product (proteose) formed in the gastric and pancreatic digestion of casein and caseinogen.

Case system. (Law) The system of teaching law in which the instruction is primarily a historical and inductive study of leading or selected cases, with or without the use of textbooks for reference and collateral reading.

Cash*ier's" check (?). (Banking) A check drawn by a bank upon its own funds, signed by the cashier.

Cash railway. A form of cash carrier in which a small carrier or car travels upon a kind of track.

Cash register. A device for recording the amount of cash received, usually having an automatic adding machine and a money drawer and exhibiting the amount of the sale.

Cas"sa*va wood` (?). (Bot.) A West Indian tree (Turpinia occidentalis) of the family Staphyleaceæ.

{ Cas"sel brown, Cas"sel earth } (?). A brown pigment of varying permanence, consisting of impure lignite. It was found originally near Cassel (now Kassel), Germany.

||Casse`-tête" (?), n. [F., fr. casser to breal (see 2d Quash) + tête head.] A small war club, esp. of savages; -- so called because of its supposed use in crushing the skull.

||Cas`sette" (?), n. [F., prop., a casket, dim. of casse a case. See lst Case.] Same as Seggar.

Cat"a*clasm (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; down + &?; to break.] A breaking asunder; disruption.

Cat`a*crot"ic (?), a. [Cata- + Gr. &?; a beating.] (Physiol.) Designating, pertaining to, or characterized by, that form of pulse tracing, or sphygmogram, in which the descending portion of the curve is marked by secondary elevations due to two or more expansions of the artery in the same beat. -- Ca*tac"rotism (#), n.

Cat`a*di"cro*tism (?), n. [Cata- + dicrotism.] (Physiol.) Quality or state of being catacrotic. -- Cat`a*di*crot"ic (#), a.

Cat"a*plex`y (?), n. [Gr. &?; amazement: cf. Apoplexy.] (Med.) A morbid condition caused by an overwhelming shock or extreme fear and marked by rigidity of the muscles. -- Cat`a*plec"tic (#), a.

Catch crop. Any crop grown between the rows of another crop or intermediate between two crops in ordinary rotation in point of time. -- Catch"-crop`ping, n.

Radishes . . . are often grown as a catch crop with other vegetables.

L. H. Bailey.

Catch title. A short expressive title used for abbreviated book lists, etc.

Catch"y (?), a. 1. Apt or tending to catch the fancy or attention; catching; taking; as, catchy music.

2. Tending to catch or insnare; entangling; - - usually used fig.; as, a catchy question.

3. Consisting of, or occuring in, disconnected parts or snatches; changeable; as, a catchy wind.

It [the fox's scent] is . . . flighty or catchy, if variable.

Encyc. of Sport.

Ca*thar"sis (?), n. (Psychotherapy) The process of relieving an abnormal excitement by reëstablishing the association of the emotion with the memory or idea of the event that first caused it, and of eliminating it by complete expression (called the abreaction).

{ Ca*thod"o*graph (?), n. Also Ca*thod"e*graph (?) }. [Cathode + -graph.] (Physics) A picture produced by the Röntgen rays; a radiograph.

Cau"lome (?), n. [Gr. kalo`s stem + -ome as in rhizome.] (Bot.) A stem structure or stem axis of a plant, viewed as a whole. -- Cau*lom"ic (#), a.

||Cause`rie" (?), n. [F., fr. causer to chat.] Informal talk or discussion, as about literary matters; light conversation; chat.

Cau"tion, n. (Civil & Scots Law) A pledge, bond, or other security for the performance of an obligation either in or out of judicial proceedings; the promise or contract of one not for himself but another; security.

Cau"tion*a*ry block. (Railroads) A block in which two or more trains are permitted to travel, under restrictions imposed by a caution card or the like.

Cave, n. (Eng. Politics) A coalition or group of seceders from a political party, as from the Liberal party in England in 1866. See Adullam, Cave of, in the Dictionary of Noted Names in Fiction.

||Ca"yo (?), n.; pl. - yos (#). [Sp.] A small island or ledge of rock in the water; a key. [Sp. Am.]

||Cein`ture" (?), n. [F.] A cincture, girdle, or belt; -- chiefly used in English as a dressmaking term.

Ce*les"tial (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of, the Chinese, or Celestial, Empire, of the Chinese people.

Ce*les"tial, n. A Chinaman; a Chinese. [Colloq.]

Cel"ti*um (?), n. [NL.] (Chem.) A supposed new element of the rare-earth group, accompanying lutecium and scandium in the gadolinite earths. Symbol, Ct (no period).

Ce*ment" steel. Steel produced by cementation; blister steel.

Cen`tau*rom"a*chy (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; centaur + &?; battle.] (Ancient Art) A fight in which centaurs take part, -- a common theme for relief sculpture, as in the Parthenon metopes.

Centennial State. Colorado; -- a nickname alluding to the fact that it was admitted to the Union in the centennial year, 1876.

{ Cen"ter, or Cen"tre, seal }. (Gas Manuf.) A compound hydraulic valve for regulating the passage of the gas through a set of purifiers so as to cut out each one in turn for the renewal of the lime.

{ Center, or Centre, punch }. (Mech.) (a) A punch for making indentations or dots in a piece of work, as for suspension between lathe centers, etc. (b) A punch for punching holes in sheet metal, having a small conical center to insure correct locating.

Cen*trif"u*gal fil"ter. A filter, as for sugar, in which a cylinder with a porous or foraminous periphery is rapidly rotated so as to drive off liquid by centrifugal action.

Cen"tro*sphere (?), n. [Gr. &?; centre + sphere.] 1. (Geol.) The nucleus or central part of the earth, forming most of its mass; -- disting. from lithosphere, hydrosphere, etc.

2. (Biol.) The central mass of an aster from which the rays extend and within which the centrosome lies when present; the attraction sphere. The name has been used both as excluding and including the centrosome, and also to designate a modified mass of protoplasm about a centrosome whether aster rays are developed or not.

Ceorl (kôrl or chrl), n. [AS. See Churl, n.] (O. Eng. Hist.) A freeman of the lowest class; one not a thane or of the servile classes; a churl.

Ce*pa"ceous (?), a. [L. cepa, caepa, onion.] Of the nature of an onion, as in odor; alliaceous.

Ceph`a*lal"gi*a (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;; &?; head + &?; pain.] (Med.) Headache.

Ceph`a*lal"gic (?), a. [L. cephalalgicus, Gr. &?;.] (Med.) Relating to, or affected with, headache. -- n. A remedy for the headache.

Ceph"a*lism (?), n. [Gr. &?; head.] (Anthropol.) Form or development of the skull; as, the races of man differ greatly in cephalism.

Ceph`a*lom"e*try (?), n. (Anthropometry) The measurement of the heads of living persons. -- Ceph`a*lo*met"ric (#),a.

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Cer"e*vis (sr"*vs; G. tsr`*vs"), n. [G., fr. L. cerevisia, cervisia, beer.] A small visorless cap, worn by members of German student corps. It is made in the corps colors, and usually bears the insignia of the corps.

Ce"ri*a (s"r*), n. (Chem.) Cerium oxide, CeO2, a white infusible substance constituting about one per cent of the material of the common incandescent mantle.

Ce"ro*type` (?), n. [Gr. &?; wax + - type.] A printing process of engraving on a surface of wax spread on a steel plate, for electrotyping.

Ce*ru"le*in (?), n. [L. caeruleus sky-blue.] (Chem.) A fast dyestuff, C20H8O6, made by heating gallein with strong sulphuric acid. It dyes mordanted fabrics green.

Ce`ru*les"cent (?), a. [L. caeruleus sky-blue + -escent.] Tending to cerulean; light bluish.

Ce*ru"le*um (?), n. [NL.] A greenish blue pigment prepared in various ways, consisting essentially of cobalt stannate. Unlike other cobalt blues, it does not change color by gaslight.

C. G. T. An abbreviation for Confédération Générale du Travail (the French syndicalist labor union).

Cha (chä), n. [Chin. ch‘a.] [Also chaa, chais, tsia, etc.] Tea; -- the Chinese (Mandarin) name, used generally in early works of travel, and now for a kind of rolled tea used in Central Asia.

A pot with hot water . . . made with the powder of a certain herb called chaa, which is much esteemed.

Tr. J. Van Linschoten's Voyages (1598).

Cha"gres fe"ver (?). (Med.) A form of malarial fever occurring along the Chagres River, Panama.

Chain tie. (Arch.) A tie consisting of a series of connected iron bars or rods.

Chal`a*zog"a*my (?), n. [Chalaza + -gamy, as in polygamy.] (Bot.) A process of fecundation in which the pollen tube penetrates to the embryosac through the tissue of the chalaza, instead of entering through the micropyle. It was originally discovered by Treub in Casuarina, and has since been found to occur regularly in the families Betulaceæ and Juglandaceæ. Partial chalazogamy is found in Ulmus, the tube here penetrating the nucleus midway between the chalaza and micropyle. -- Chal`a*zo*gam"ic (#), a.

||Cham`bran"le (?), n. [F.] (Arch.) An ornamental bordering or framelike decoration around the sides and top of a door, window, or fireplace. The top piece is called the traverse and the side pieces the ascendants.

Cham"bray (?), n. [From Cambrai, France. Cf. Cambric.] A gingham woven in plain colors with linen finish.

||Cha`mi*sal" (?), n. [Amer. Sp., fr. Sp. chamiza a kind of wild cane.] 1. (Bot.) A California rosaceous shrub (Adenostoma fasciculatum) which often forms an impenetrable chaparral.

2. A chaparral formed by dense growths of this shrub.

||Champ`le*vé" (?), a. [F., p. p. of champlever to engrave. See 3d Champ, Camp, Lever a bar.] (Art) Having the ground engraved or cut out in the parts to be enameled; inlaid in depressions made in the ground; -- said of a kind of enamel work in which depressions made in the surface are filled with enamel pastes, which are afterward fired; also, designating the process of making such enamel work. -- n. A piece of champlevé enamel; also, the process or art of making such enamel work; champlevé work.

Change gear. (Mach.) A gear by means of which the speed of machinery or of a vehicle may be changed while that of the propelling engine or motor remains constant; -- called also change-speed gear.

Change key. A key adapted to open only one of a set of locks; -- distinguished from a master key.

||Chan`son" de geste" (?). [F., prop., song of history.] Any Old French epic poem having for its subject events or exploits of early French history, real or legendary, and written originally in assonant verse of ten or twelve syllables. The most famous one is the Chanson de Roland.

Langtoft had written in the ordinary measure of the later chansons de geste.


Chant"ey (?), n. [Cf. F. chanter to sing, and Chant. n.] A sailor's song.

May we lift a deep-sea chantey such as seamen use at sea?


||Cha`pa*ra"jos (?), n. pl. [Mex. Sp.] Overalls of sheepskin or leather, usually open at the back, worn, esp. by cowboys, to protect the legs from thorny bushes, as in the chaparral; -- called also chapareras or colloq. chaps. [Sp. Amer.]

||Cha`pa*re"ras (?), n. pl. [Mex. Sp.] Same as Chaparajos. [Sp. Amer.]

Chaps (?), n. pl. Short for Chaparajos. [Colloq.]

Char"lie (?), n. 1. A familiar nickname or substitute for Charles.

2. A night watchman; -- an old name.

3. A short, pointed beard, like that worn by Charles I.

4. As a proper name, a fox; -- so called in fables and familiar literature.

||Chasse (?), n. [See Chasse- cafÉ] A small potion of spirituous liquor taken to remove the taste of coffee, tobacco, or the like; -- originally chasse-café, lit., "coffee chaser."

||Chasse`-ca`fé" (?), n. [F., fr. chasser to chase + café coffee.] See Chasse, n., above.

||Chasse`-ma`rée" (?), n. [F., fr. chasser to chase + marée tide.] (Naut.) A French coasting lugger.

Chas"sis (?), n. The under part of an automobile, consisting of the frame (on which the body is mounted) with the wheels and machinery.

Chat"ter mark`. (a) (Mach.) One of the fine undulations or ripples which are formed on the surface of work by a cutting tool which chatters. (b) (Geol.) A short crack on a rock surface planed smooth by a glacier.

||Chauf`feur" (?), n. [F., lit., stoker.] 1. [pl.] (F. Hist.) Brigands in bands, who, about 1793, pillaged, burned, and killed in parts of France; -- so called because they used to burn the feet of their victims to extort money.

2. One who manages the running of an automobile; esp., the paid operator of a motor vehicle.

||Chauf`feuse" (?), n. [F., fem. of chauffeur.] A woman chauffeur.

Chau*tau"qua sys"tem (of education) (?). The system of home study established in connection with the summer schools assembled at Chautauqua, N. Y., by the Methodist Episcopal bishop, J. H. Vincent.

Cheese" cloth` (?). A thin, loosewoven cotton cloth, such as is used in pressing cheese curds.

||Che"la (?), n. [Hind. chla, orig., slave, fr. Skr. ca, caka, slave, servant.] In India, a dependent person occupying a position between that of a servant or slave and a disciple; hence, a disciple or novice. -- Che"la*ship, n.

Che*mig"ra*phy (?), n. [Chemical + -graphy.] Any mechanical engraving process depending upon chemical action; specif., a process of zinc etching not employing photography. -- Chem`i*graph"ic (#), a.

||Che*mo"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a swelling of the cornea resembling a cockleshell, fr. &?; a gaping, hence a cockleshell.] (Med.) Inflammatory swelling of the conjunctival tissue surrounding the cornea. -- Che*mot"ic (#), a.

Chem`os*mo"sis (?), n. [Chemical + osmosis.] Chemical action taking place through an intervening membrane. -- Chem`os*mot"ic (#), a.

Chem`o*syn"the*sis (?), n. [Chemical + synthesis.] (Plant Physiol.) Synthesis of organic compounds by energy derived from chemical changes or reactions. Chemosynthesis of carbohydrates occurs in the nitrite bacteria through the oxidation of ammonia to nitrous acid, and in the nitrate bacteria through the conversion of nitrous into nitric acid. -- Chem`o*syn*thet"ic (#), a.

{Chem`o*tax"is (?), n. Formerly also Chem`i*o*tax"is}. [Chemical + Gr. &?; arrangement, fr. &?; to arrange.] (Biol.) The sensitiveness exhibited by small free-swimming organisms, as bacteria, zoöspores of algæ, etc., to chemical substances held in solution. They may be attracted (positive chemotaxis) or repelled (negative chemotaxis). -- Chem`o*tac"tic (#), a. -- Chem`o*tac"tic*al*ly, adv.

Chev"y (?), n. [Written also chivy, and chivvy.] [Prob. fr. the ballad of Chevy Chase; cf. Prov. E. chevychase a noise, confusion, pursuit.] [Eng.] 1. A cry used in hunting.

2. A hunt; chase; pursuit.

3. The game of prisoners' base. See Base, n., 24.

||Chic (?), a. [F. Cf. Chic, n.] Original and in good taste or form. [Colloq.]

||Chi`ca*lo"te (?), n. [Sp., prob. of Mex. origin.] (Bot.) A Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone platyceras), which has migrated into California.

Chi*cane" (?), n. (Card playing) In bridge, the holding of a hand without trumps, or the hand itself. It counts as simple honors.

{Chic"le (?), n., Chicle gum}. [Amer. Sp. chicle.] A gumlike substance obtained from the bully tree (Mimusops globosa) and sometimes also from the naseberry or sapodilla (Sapota zapotilla). It is more plastic than caoutchouc and more elastic than gutta-percha, as an adulterant of which it is used in England. It is used largely in the United States in making chewing gum.

Chi"co (?), n. 1. Var. of Chica.

2. The common greasewood of the western United States (Sarcobatus vermiculatus).

3. In the Philippines, the sapodilla or its fruit; also, the marmalade tree or its fruit.

||Chif`fon" (?), n. [F., lit., rag. See Chiffonier.] 1. Any merely ornamental adjunct of a woman's dress, as a bunch of ribbon, lace, etc.

2. A kind of soft gauzy material used for ruches, trimmings, etc.

||Chih" fu` (?). [Chin. chih fu, lit., (He who) knows (the) prefecture.] An official administering a prefecture of China; a prefect, supervising the civil business of the hsiens or districts comprised in his fu (which see).

||Chih" hsien` (?). [Chin. chih hsien, lit., (He who) knows (the) district.] An official having charge of a hsien, or administrative district, in China; a district magistrate, responsible for good order in his hsien (which see), and having jurisdiction in its civil and criminal cases.

||Chih" tai` (?). [Chin. chih to govern + t‘ai an honorary title.] A Chinese governor general; a tsung tu (which see).

Child study. A scientific study of children, undertaken for the purpose of discovering the laws of development of the body and the mind from birth to manhood.

Chil"e*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Chile.

Chil"e*an, n. A native or resident of Chile; Chilian.

Chilean pine. (Bot.) Same as Monkey- puzzle.

Chinese Exclusion Act. Any of several acts forbidding the immigration of Chinese laborers into the United States, originally from 1882 to 1892 by act of May 6, 1882, then from 1892 to 1902 by act May 5, 1892. By act of April 29, 1902, all existing legislation on the subject was reënacted and continued, and made applicable to the insular possessions of the United States.

||Chi`noi`se*rie" (sh`nw`z'*r"), n. [F.] Chinese conduct, art, decoration, or the like; also, a specimen of Chinese manners, art, decoration, etc.

Chi*nook" State. Washington -- a nickname. See Chinook, n.

Chip"pen*dale (?), a. Designating furniture designed, or like that designed, by Thomas Chippendale, an English cabinetmaker of the 18th century. Chippendale furniture was generally of simple but graceful outline with delicately carved rococo ornamentation, sculptured either in the solid wood or, in the cheaper specimens, separately and glued on. In the more elaborate pieces three types are recognized: French Chippendale, having much detail, like Louis Quatorze and Louis Quinze; Chinese Chippendale, marked by latticework and pagodalike pediments; and Gothic Chippendale, attempting to adapt medieval details. The forms, as of the cabriole and chairbacks, often resemble Queen Anne. In chairs, the seat is widened at the front, and the back toward the top widened and bent backward, except in Chinese Chippendale, in which the backs are usually rectangular. -- Chip"pen*dal*ism (#), n.

It must be clearly and unmistakably understood, then, that, whenever painted (that is to say, decorated with painted enrichment) or inlaid furniture is described as Chippendale, no matter where or by whom, it is a million chances to one that the description is incorrect.

R. D. Benn.

Chirm (?), n. [AS. cirm, cyrm.] Noise; din; esp.; confused noise, clamor, or hum of many voices, notes of birds, or the like.

{ Chit, Chit"ty (?) }, n. [Hind. chi.] 1. A short letter or note; a written message or memorandum; a certificate given to a servant; a pass, or the like.

2. A signed voucher or memorandum of a small debt, as for food and drinks at a club. [India, China, etc.]

{ ||Chi*var"ras (?), ||Chi*var"ros (?), } n. pl. [Mex. Sp.] Leggings. [Mex. & Southwestern U. S.]

Chlo"ro*plast (?), n. [Pref. chloro- + Gr. &?; to mold, form.] (Biol.) A plastid containing chlorophyll, developed only in cells exposed to the light. Chloroplasts are minute flattened granules, usually occurring in great numbers in the cytoplasm near the cell wall, and consist of a colorless ground substance saturated with chlorophyll pigments. Under light of varying intensity they exhibit phototactic movements. In animals chloroplasts occur only in certain low forms.

Choke"bore` (?), n. 1. In a shotgun, a bore which is tapered to a slightly smaller diameter at a short distance (usually 2½ to 3 inches) to the rear of the muzzle, in order to prevent the rapid dispersion of the shot.

2. A shotgun that is made with such a bore.

Choke"bore`, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chokebored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chokeboring.] To provide with a chokebore.

Choking coil. (Elec.) A coil of small resistance and large inductance, used in an alternating-current circuit to impede or throttle the current, or to change its phase; -- called also reactance coil or reactor, these terms being now preferred in engineering usage.

Cho"ky (?), n. [From Hind. chauki watching, guard.] 1. A station, as for collection of customs, for palanquin bearers, police, etc. [India]

2. Specif., a prison or lockup; a jail. [India, or Slang, Eng.]

||Cho`mage" (?), n. [F. chomage.] 1. Stoppage; cessation (of labor).

2. A standing still or idle (of mills, factories, etc.).

{ Chop su"ey or soo"y } (?). [Chin. (Cantonese) shap sui odds and ends, fr. shap for sap to enter the mouth + sui small bits pounded fine.] A mélange served in Chinese restaurants to be eaten with rice, noodles, etc. It consists typically of bean sprouts, onions, mushrooms, etc., and sliced meats, fried and flavored with sesame oil. [U. S.]

Chor"tle (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Chortled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chor"tling (&?;).] A word coined by Lewis Carroll (Charles L. Dodgson), and usually explained as a combination of chuckle and snort. [Humorous]

O frabjous day ! Callooh ! Callay !
He chortled in his joy.

Lewis Carroll.

||Chou (?), n.; pl. Choux (#). [F., fr. L. caulis stalk.] 1. A cabbage.

2. A kind of light pastry, usually in the form of a small round cake, and with a filling, as of jelly or cream.

3. A bunch, knot, or rosette of ribbon or other material, used as an ornament in women's dress.

Chow (?), n. [Chin chou.] A prefecture or district of the second rank in China, or the chief city of such a district; -- often part of the name of a city, as in Foochow.

Chris"tian, a. -- Christian Endeavor, Young People's Society of. In various Protestant churches, a society of young people organized in each individual church to do Christian work; also, the whole body of such organizations, which are united in a corporation called the United Society of Christian Endeavor, organized in 1885. The parent society was founded in 1881 at Portland, Maine, by Rev. Francis E. Clark, a Congregational minister.

Christian Era. The era in use in all Christian countries, which was intended to commence with the birth of Christ. The era as now established was first used by Dionysius Exiguus (died about 540), who placed the birth of Christ on the 25th of December in the year of Rome 754, which year he counted as 1 a. d. This date for Christ's birth is now generally thought to be about four years too late.

Christian Science. A system of healing disease of mind and body which teaches that all cause and effect is mental, and that sin, sickness, and death will be destroyed by a full understanding of the Divine Principle of Jesus' teaching and healing. The system was founded by Rev. Mary Baker Glover Eddy, of Concord, N. H., in 1866, and bases its teaching on the Scriptures as understood by its adherents.

Christian Scientist. A believer in Christian Science; one who practices its teachings.

Christian Seneca. Joseph Hall (1574 -- 1656), Bishop of Norwich, a divine eminent as a moralist.

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Christian Socialism. Any theory or system that aims to combine the teachings of Christ with the teachings of socialism in their applications to life; Christianized socialism; esp., the principles of this nature advocated by F. D. Maurice, Charles Kingsley, and others in England about 1850. -- Christian socialist.

Chro"ma*tin (?), n. (Biol.) The deeply staining substance of the nucleus and chromosomes of cells, now supposed to be the physical basis of inheritance, and generally regarded as the same substance as the hypothetical idioplasm or germ plasm.

Chrome (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chromed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chroming.] [From Chrome, n.] To treat with a solution of potassium bichromate, as in dyeing.

Chrome steel. Same as Chromium steel, under Steel.

Chro`mo*pho"to*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + photograph.] A picture made by any of the processes for reproducing photographs in colors. -- Chro`mo*pho`to*graph"ic (#), a.

Chron`o*pho"to*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; time + photograph.] One of a set of photographs of a moving object, taken for the purpose of recording and exhibiting successive phases of the motion. -- Chron`o*pho*tog"ra*phy, n.

Chtho"ni*an (?), a. [Gr. &?; in or under the earth, fr. &?;, &?;, earth.] Designating, or pertaining to, gods or spirits of the underworld; esp., relating to the underworld gods of the Greeks, whose worship is widely considered as more primitive in form than that of the Olympian gods. The characteristics of chthonian worship are propitiatory and magical rites and generalized or euphemistic names of the deities, which are supposed to have been primarily ghosts.

Chum, n. -- New chum, a recent immigrant. [Australia]

Chu*pat"ty (?), n.; pl. - ties (#). [Hind. chapt.] A kind of griddlecake of unleavened bread, used among the natives of India. [Anglo-Indian]

{ Chu*pras"sy Chu*pras"sie } (?), n. [Hind. chaprss, fr. chaprs badge.] A messenger or servant wearing an official badge. [Anglo-Indian]

Churr (?), n. [Cf. Chirr.] A vibrant or whirring noise such as that made by some insects, as the cockchafer, or by some birds, as the nightjar, the partridge, etc.

Churr, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Churred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Churr"ing.] To make a churr, as a cockchafer.

That's the churring of the nightjar.

Hall Caine.

Churr, v. t. To utter by churring.

Cinch, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cinched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cinch"ing.] 1. To put a cinch upon; to girth tightly. [Western U. S.]

2. To get a sure hold upon; to get into a tight place, as for forcing submission. [Slang, U. S.]

Cinch, v. i. To perform the action of cinching; to tighten the cinch; -- often with up. [Western U. S.]

Cinch, n. [Cf. cinch a girth, a tight grip, as v., to get a sure hold upon; perh. so named from the tactics used in the game; also cf. Sp. cinco five (the five spots of the color of the trump being important cards).] A variety of auction pitch in which a draw to improve the hand is added, and the five of trumps (called right pedro) and the five of the same color (called left pedro, and ranking between the five and the four of trumps) each count five on the score. Fifty-one points make a game. Called also double pedro and high five.

Cinch, v. t. In the game of cinch, to protect (a trick) by playing a higher trump than the five.

Cin*cin"nus (?), n.; pl. - ni (#). [Also cicinus, cicinnus.] [L., a curl of hair.] (Bot.) A form of monochasium in which the lateral branches arise alternately on opposite sides of the false axis; -- called also scorpioid cyme. -- Cin*cin"nal (#), a.

Cin`e*mat"o*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, motion + -graph.] 1. A machine, combining magic lantern and kinetoscope features, for projecting on a screen a series of pictures, moved rapidly (25 to 50 a second) and intermittently before an objective lens, and producing by persistence of vision the illusion of continuous motion; a moving-picture machine; also, any of several other machines or devices producing moving pictorial effects. Other common names for the cinematograph are animatograph, biograph, bioscope, electrograph, electroscope, kinematograph, kinetoscope, veriscope, vitagraph, vitascope, zoögyroscope, zoöpraxiscope, etc.

The cinematograph, invented by Edison in 1894, is the result of the introduction of the flexible film into photography in place of glass.

Encyc. Brit.

2. A camera for taking chronophotographs for exhibition by the instrument described above.

Cin`e*ma*tog"ra*pher (?), n. One who exhibits moving pictures or who takes chronophotographs by the cinematograph. -- Cin`e*mat`o*graph"ic (#), a. -- Cin`e*mat`o*graph"ic*al*ly (#), adv.

Ci*ne"mo*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; motion + -graph.] An integrating anemometer.

Cin`que*cen"tist (?), n. 1. An Italian of the sixteenth century, esp. a poet or artist.

2. A student or imitator of the art or literature of the Cinquecento.

Cit"range (?), n. [Citrus + orange.] A citrous fruit produced by a cross between the sweet orange and the trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata). It is more acid and has a more pronounced aroma than the orange; the tree is hardier. There are several varieties.

Civil Service Commission. In the United States, a commission appointed by the President, consisting of three members, not more than two of whom may be adherents of the same party, which has the control, through examinations, of appointments and promotions in the classified civil service. It was created by act of Jan, 16, 1883 (22 Stat. 403).

Civil Service Reform. The substitution of business principles and methods for political methods in the conduct of the civil service. esp. the merit system instead of the spoils system in making appointments to office.

Clair*au"di*ence (?), n. [F. clair clear + F. & E. audience a hearing. See Clear.] Act of hearing, or the ability to hear, sounds not normally audible; -- usually claimed as a special faculty of spiritualistic mediums, or the like.

Clair*au"di*ent (?), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, clairaudience.

Clair*au"di*ent, n. One alleged to have the power of clairaudience.

||Claire (?), n. [F.] A small inclosed pond used for gathering and greening oysters.

Clan"-na-Gael" (?), n. [Ir., clan of the Gaels.] A secret society of Irish Fenians founded in Philadelphia in 1881.

Clash gear. (Mach.) A change-speed gear in which the gears are changed by sliding endwise.

Class day. In American colleges and universities, a day of the commencement season on which the senior class celebrates the completion of its course by exercises conducted by the members, such as the reading of the class histories and poem, the delivery of the class oration, the planting of the class ivy, etc.

Clatch (?), n. [Cf. Scot. clatch a slap, the noise caused by the collision of soft bodies; prob. of imitative origin.] (Scot. & Dial. Eng.) 1. A soft or sloppy lump or mass; as, to throw a clatch of mud.

2. Anything put together or made in a careless or slipshod way; hence, a sluttish or slipshod woman.

Clatch, v. t. & i. To daub or smear, as with lime; to make or finish in a slipshod way. [Scot.]

Clear"cole` (?), n. [F. claire colle clear glue; clair clear (f. claire) + colle glue, Gr. &?;] A priming of size mixed with whiting or white lead, used in house painting, etc.; also, a size upon which gold leaf is applied in gilding.

Clear"cole`, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Clearcoled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Clearcoling (?).] To coat or paint with clearcole.

Cleek (?), n. 1. A large hook or crook, as for a pot over a fire; specif., an iron-headed golf club with a straight, narrow face and a long shaft.

2. Act of cleeking; a clutch. [Scot.]

Cleek, v. t. [pret. Claught (?); pret. & p. p. Cleeked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cleeking.] [ME. cleken, clechen, to seize, clutch; perh. akin to E. clutch.] [Scot & Dial. Eng.] 1. To seize; clutch; snatch; catch; pluck.

2. To catch or draw out with a cleek, as a fish; to hook.

3. To hook or link (together); hence, to marry. Scott.

Cle`o*pa"tra's nee"dle (?). [So named after Cleopatra, queen of Egypt.] Either of two obelisks which were moved in ancient times from Heliopolis to Alexandria, one of which is now on the Thames Embankment in London, and the other in Central Park, in the City of New York.

Some writers consider that only the obelisk now in Central Park is properly called Cleopatra's needle.

Cli*mac"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a climax; forming, or of the nature of, a climax, or ascending series.

A fourth kind of parallelism . . . is still sufficiently marked to be noticed by the side of those described by Lowth, viz., climactic parallelism (sometimes called "ascending rhythm").

S. R. Driver.

Clink (?), n. A prison cell; a lockup; -- probably orig. the name of the noted prison in Southwark, England. [Colloq.] "I'm here in the clink." Kipling.

Cli"no*stat (?), n. [Gr. &?; to incline + &?; to make to stand.] (Bot.) An apparatus consisting of a slowly revolving disk, usually regulated by clockwork, by means of wich the action of external agents, as light and gravity, on growing plants may be regulated or eliminated.

Clip, n. 1. (Mach.) A part, attachment, or appendage, for seizing, clasping, or holding, an object, as a cable, etc.

2. (Angling) A gaff or hook for landing the fish, as in salmon fishing. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

3. A rapid gait. "A three-minute clip." Kipling.

Cloche (?), n. [F., prop., bell.] (Aëronautics) An apparatus used in controlling certain kinds of aëroplanes, and consisting principally of a steering column mounted with a universal joint at the base, which is bellshaped and has attached to it the cables for controlling the wing- warping devices, elevator planes, and the like.

Clock"wise` (?), a. & adv. Like the motion of the hands of a clock; -- said of that direction of a rotation about an axis, or about a point in a plane, which is ordinarily reckoned negative.

||Clo"nus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; violent, confused motion.] (Med.) A series of muscular contractions due to sudden stretching of the muscle, -- a sign of certain neuropathies.

Cloot (?), n. [Cf. G. dial. kleuzen to split.] (Scot. & Dial. Eng.) 1. One of the divisions of a cleft hoof, as in the ox; also, the whole hoof.

2. The Devil; Clootie; -- usually in the pl. Burns.

Cloot"ie (?), n. (Scot. & Dial. Eng.) 1. A little hoof.

2. The Devil. "Satan, Nick, or Clootie." Burns.

Clydes"dale (?), n. One of a breed of heavy draft horses originally from Clydesdale, Scotland. They are about sixteen hands high and usually brown or bay.

Clydesdale terrier. One of a breed of small silky- haired terriers related to, but smaller than, the Skye terrier, having smaller and perfectly erect ears.

Cly"tie knot (?). In hair dressing, a loose, low coil at the back of the head, like the knot on the head of the bust of Clytie by G. F. Watts.

Coach"er (?), n. 1. A coachman. [Obs.]

2. A coach horse.

3. One who coaches; specif. (Baseball), one of the side at the bat posted near first or third base to direct a base runner.

Coal"sack` (?), n. [Coal + 2d sack.] (Astron.) Any one of the spaces in the Milky Way which are very black, owing to the nearly complete absence of stars; esp., the large space near the Southern Cross sometimes called the Black Magellanic Cloud.

Coast and Geodetic Survey. A bureau of the United States government charged with the topographic and hydrographic survey of the coast and the execution of belts of primary triangulation and lines of precise leveling in the interior. It now belongs to the Department of Commerce and Labor.

Co*ca"in*ism (?), n. (Med.) A morbid condition produced by the habitual and excessive use of cocaine. -- Co*ca"in*ist, n.

Co*ca"in*ize (?), v. t. To treat or anæsthetize with cocaine. -- Co*ca`in*i*za"tion (#), n.

Cock"er span"iel. One of a breed of small or medium- sized spaniels kept for hunting or retrieving game or for household pets. They usually weigh from eighteen to twenty-eight pounds. They have the head of fair length, with square muzzle, the ears long and set low, the legs short or of medium length, and the coat fine and silky, wavy but not curly. Various colors are bred, as black, liver, red, black and white, black and tan, etc.

Cock"pit` (?), n. In some aëroplanes and flying machines, an inclosure for the pilot or a passenger.

{ Cock`y*ol"ly, or Cock`y*ol"y, bird } (?). [Cf. Cock, fowl; Yellow.] A pet name for any small bird.

Co`e*lec"tron, n. See Electron.

Co*gon" (?), n. [Sp., prob. fr. a native name.] A tall, coarse grass (Imperata arundinacea) of the Philippine Islands and adjacent countries, used for thatching.

Co*her"er (?), n. (Elec.) Any device in which an imperfectly conducting contact between pieces of metal or other conductors loosely resting against each other is materially improved in conductivity by the influence of Hertzian waves; -- so called by Sir O. J. Lodge in 1894 on the assumption that the impact of the electic waves caused the loosely connected parts to cohere, or weld together, a condition easily destroyed by tapping. A common form of coherer as used in wireless telegraphy consists of a tube containing filings (usually a pinch of nickel and silver filings in equal parts) between terminal wires or plugs (called conductor plugs).

{ Co*hune" (?), n., or Cohune palm }. [Prob. fr. a native name in Honduras.] A Central and South American pinnate-leaved palm (Attalea cohune), the very large and hard nuts of which are turned to make fancy articles, and also yield an oil used as a substitute for coconut oil.

||Coif`feur" (?), n. [F.] A hairdresser.

Coign (?), n. A var. spelling of Coin, Quoin, a corner, wedge; -- chiefly used in the phrase coign of vantage, a position advantageous for action or observation.

From some shielded nook or coign of vantage.

The Century.

The lithosphere would be depressed on four faces; . . . the four projecting coigns would stand up as continents.


Co`in*sur"ance (?), n. [Co- + insurance.] Insurance jointly with another or others; specif., that system of fire insurance in which the insurer is treated as insuring himself to the extent of that part of the risk not covered by his policy, so that any loss is apportioned between him and the insurance company on the principle of average, as in marine insurance or between other insurers.

||Co"la, n., L. pl. of Colon.

||Co"la (?), n. [NL., fr. a native name.] (Bot.) (a) A genus of sterculiaceous trees, natives of tropical Africa, esp. Guinea, but now naturalized in tropical America, esp. in the West Indies and Brazil. (b) Same as Cola nut, below.

{ Cola nut, Cola seed }. (Bot.) The bitter fruit of Cola acuminata, which is nearly as large as a chestnut, and furnishes a stimulant, which is used in medicine.

Cold"-short`, a. [Prob. fr. Sw. kallskör; kall cold + skör brittle. Oxf. E. D.] (Metal.) Brittle when cold (that is, below a red heat). -- Cold"-short`ness, n.

Cold" wave". (Meteor.) In the terminology of the United States Weather Bureau, an unusual fall in temperature, to or below the freezing point, exceeding 16° in twenty-four hours or 20° in thirty-six hours, independent of the diurnal range.

{ Col`lar*et" (?), ||Col`la*rette" (?) }, n. [F. collerette, dim. of collier. See Collar.] A small collar; specif., a woman's collar of lace, fur, or other fancy material.

Col`lec*tiv"i*ty (?), n. 1. Quality or state of being collective.

2. The collective sum. aggregate, or mass of anything; specif., the people as a body; the state.

The proposition to give work by the collectivity is supposed to be in contravention of the sacred principle of monopolistic competition.

W. D. Howells.

3. (Polit. Econ.) Collectivism.

Col*leen" (?), n. [Ir. cailin.] A girl; a maiden. [Anglo-Irish]

Of all the colleens in the land
Sweet Mollie is the daisy.

The Century.

Col"lo*type (?), n. [Gr. &?; glue + - type.] A photomechanical print made directly from a hardened film of gelatin or other colloid; also, the process of making such prints. According to one method, the film is sensitized with potassium dichromate and exposed to light under a reversed negative. After the dichromate has been washed out, the film is soaked in glycerin and water. As this treatment causes swelling in those parts of the film which have been acted on by light, a plate results from which impressions can be taken with prepared ink. The albertype, phototype, and heliotype are collotypes.

||Col*lu"vi*es (?), n. [L., a collection of washings, dregs, offscourings, fr. colluere to wash; col- + luere to wash.] 1. A collection or gathering, as of pus, or rubbish, or odds and ends.

2. A medley; offscourings or rabble.

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||Col`o*bo"ma (?), n. [NL. fr. Gr. &?;, the part taken away in mutilation, fr. &?; to mutilate.] (Anat. & Med.) A defect or malformation; esp., a fissure of the iris supposed to be a persistent embryonic cleft.

Co*lo"ni*al*ism (?), n. 1. The state or quality of, or the relationship involved in, being colonial.

The last tie of colonialism which bound us to the mother country is broken.

Brander Matthews.

2. A custom, idea, feature of government, or the like, characteristic of a colony.

3. The colonial system or policy in political government or extension of territory.

Col"o*ny, n. 1. (Bot.) A cell family or group of common origin, mostly of unicellular organisms, esp. among the lower algæ. They may adhere in chains or groups, or be held together by a gelatinous envelope.

2. (Zoöl.) A cluster or aggregation of zooids of any compound animal, as in the corals, hydroids, certain tunicates, etc.

3. (Zoöl.) A community of social insects, as ants, bees, etc.

Col`o*ra"do (?), a. [Sp., red.] 1. Reddish; -- often used in proper names of rivers or creeks. [Southwestern U. S.]

2. Medium in color and strength; -- said of cigars. [Cant]

Col`or*im"e*try (?), n. [See Colorimeter.] 1. The quantitative determination of the depth of color of a substance.

2. A method of quantitative chemical analysis based upon the comparison of the depth of color of a solution with that of a standard liquid.

Colt pistol. (Firearms) A self-loading or semi-automatic pistol with removable magazine in the handle holding seven cartridges. The recoil extracts and ejects the empty cartridge case, and reloads ready for another shot. Called also Browning, ∧ Colt-Browning, pistol.

Colt revolver. (Firearms) A revolver made according to a system using a patented revolving cylinder, holding six cartridges, patented by Samuel Colt, an American inventor, in 1835. With various modifications, it has for many years been the standard for the United States army.

Co*lum"bus Day (?). The 12th day of October, on which day in 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered America, landing on one of the Bahama Islands (probably the one now commonly called Watling Island), and naming it "San Salvador"; -- called also Discovery Day. This day is made a legal holiday in many States of The United States.

Com*bus"tion cham`ber. (Mech.) (a) A space over, or in front of , a boiler furnace where the gases from the fire become more thoroughly mixed and burnt. (b) The clearance space in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine where the charge is compressed and ignited.

Come"-a*long`, n. A gripping device, as for stretching wire, etc., consisting of two jaws so attached to a ring that they are closed by pulling on the ring.

Co*meth"er (?), n. [Prob. dial. pron. of come hither, used in calling cows, etc.] [Dial. or Colloq., Brit.] 1. Matter; affair.

2. Friendly communication or association.

To put the, or one's, comether on, to exercise persuasion upon; to get under one's influence; to beguile; to wheedle.

How does ut come about, sorr, that whin a man has put the comether on wan woman he's sure bound to put ut on another?


||Co`mi*ti"va (?), n. [It.] A body of followers; -- applied to the lawless or brigand bands in Italy and Sicily.

Com`man*deer" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Commandeered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Commandeering.] [D. kommandeeren to command, in South Africa to commandeer, fr. F. commander to command. See Command.] 1. (Mil.) To compel to perform military service; to seize for military purposes; -- orig. used of the Boers.

2. To take arbitrary or forcible possession of. [Colloq.]

Com*man"do (?), n. [D. See Command, v. t.] In South Africa, a military body or command; also, sometimes, an expedition or raid; as, a commando of a hundred Boers.

The war bands, called commandos, have played a great part in the . . . military history of the country.

James Bryce.

Com"merce de*stroy"er. (Nav.) A very fast, unarmored, lightly armed vessel designed to capture or destroy merchant vessels of an enemy. Not being intended to fight, they may be improvised from fast passenger steamers.

Com*min"gler (?), n. One that commingles; specif., a device for noiseless heating of water by steam, in a vessel filled with a porous mass, as of pebbles.

Com*mis`sion*aire" (?), n. [F. commissionnaire. Cf. Commissioner.] 1. One intrusted with a commission, now only a small commission, as an errand; esp., an attendant or subordinate employee in a public office, hotel, or the like. The commissionaire familiar to European travelers performs miscellaneous services as a light porter, messenger, solicitor for hotels, etc.

2. One of a corps of pensioned soldiers, as in London, employed as doorkeepers, messengers, etc.

Com`mu*ta"tion tick"et. A ticket for transportation at a reduced rate in consideration of some special circumstance, as increase of travel; specif., a ticket for a certain number of, or for daily, trips between neighboring places at a reduced rate, such as are commonly used by those doing business in a city and living in a suburb. Commutation tickets are excepted from the prohibition against special rates contained in the Interstate Commerce Act of Feb. 4, 1887 (24 Stat. 379), and in 145 U. S. 263 it was held that party tickets were also excepted as being "obviously within the commuting principle."

Com"po (?), n.; pl. - pos (#). Short for Composition; -- used, esp. in England, colloq. in various trade applications; as : (a) A mortar made of sand and cement. (b) A carver's mixture of resin, whiting, and glue, used instead of plaster of Paris for ornamenting walls and cornices. (c) A composition for billiard balls. (d) A preparation of which printer's rollers are made. (e) A preparation used in currying leather. (f) Composition paid by a debtor.

||Com"pos men"tis (?). [L.] (Law) Sane in mind; being of sound mind, memory, and understanding.

Com"pos-men"tis, n. One who is compos mentis. [Colloq.]

||Com`po`tier" (kôN`p`ty"), n.; pl. Compotiers (F. ty"). [F.] A dish for holding compotes, fruit, etc.

Com"pound con*trol". (Aëronautics) A system of control in which a separate manipulation, as of a rudder, may be effected by either of two movements, in different directions, of a single lever, etc.

Com*pressed" yeast. A cake yeast made by filtering the cells from the liquid in which they are grown, subjecting to heavy pressure, and mixing with starch or flour.

Com*pres"sion pro*jec"tile. A projectile constructed so as to take the grooves of a rifle by means of a soft copper band firmly attached near its base or, formerly, by means of an envelope of soft metal. In small arms the modern projectile, having a soft core and harder jacket, is subjected to compression throughout the entire cylindrical part.

Comp"to*graph (?), n. [F. compter to count + -graph.] A machine for adding numbers and making a printed record of the sum.

Comp*tom"e*ter (?), n. [See Count; -meter.] A calculating machine; an arithmometer.

Con"cen*tra`tor, n. (Firearms) A frame or ring of wire or hard paper fitting into the cartridge case used in some shotguns, and holding the shot together when discharged, to secure close shooting; also, a device for slightly narrowing the bore at the muzzle for the same purpose.

{ Concert of Europe, or European concert}. An agreement or understanding between the chief European powers to take only joint action in the (European) Eastern Question.

Concert of the powers. An agreement or understanding between the chief European powers, the United States, and Japan in 1900 to take only joint action in the Chinese aspect of the Eastern Question.

{ Con*ces`sion*aire" (?), ||Con`ces`sion`naire" (?) }, n. [F. concessionnaire.] The beneficiary of a concession or grant.

Con*ces"sion*a*ry (?), a. Of or pertaining to a concession. -- n.; pl. -ries (&?;). A concessionaire.

||Con`cier`ge*rie" (?), n. [F.] 1. The office or lodge of a concierge or janitor.

2. A celebrated prison, attached to the Palais de Justice in Paris.

Con"cord bug"gy (k"krd). [From Concord, New Hampshire, where first made.] A kind of buggy having a body with low sides, and side springs.

Con"dor (kn"dr; in defs. 2 & 3, kn"dr), n. 1. (Zoöl.) The California vulture. [Local, U. S.]

2. A gold coin of Chile, bearing the figure of a condor, and equal to twenty pesos. It contains 10.98356 grams of gold, and is equivalent to about $7.29. Called also colon.

3. A gold coin of Colombia equivalent to about $9.65. It is no longer coined.

Con*duct"ance (kn*dk"tans), n. [Conduct, v. + -ance.] (Elec.) Conducting power; -- the reciprocal of resistance. A suggested unit is the mho, the reciprocal of the ohm.

Conductance is an attribute of any specified conductor, and refers to its shape, length, and other factors. Conductivity is an attribute of any specified material without direct reference to its shape or other factors.

Sloane's Elec. Dict.

Con"duit sys"tem. (Elec.) A system of electric traction, esp. for light railways, in which the actuating current passes along a wire or rail laid in an underground conduit, from which the current is "picked up" by a plow or other device fixed to the car or electric locomotive. Hence Conduit railway.

Cone clutch. (Mach.) A friction clutch with conical bearing surfaces.

Cone"flow`er (?), n. Any plant of the genus Rudbeckia; -- so called from the cone-shaped disk of the flower head. Also, any plant of the related genera Ratibida and Brauneria, the latter usually known as purple coneflower.

Cone"-nose`, n. A large hemipterous insect of the family Reduviidæ, often found in houses, esp. in the southern and western United States. It bites severely, and is one of the species called kissing bugs. It is also called big bedbug.

{ Con`es*to"ga wag`on or wain (?) }. [From Conestoga, Pennsylvania.] A kind of large broad-wheeled wagon, usually covered, for traveling in soft soil and on prairies.

Con*fec"tion*ers' sug`ar. A highly refined sugar in impalpable powder, esp. suited to confectioners' uses.

Con*fed"er*a*cy, n. (Amer. Hist.) With the, the Confederate States of America.

||Con*fet"ti (?), n. pl.; sing. -fetto (&?;). [It. Cf. Comfit.] Bonbons; sweetmeats; confections; also, plaster or paper imitations of, or substitutes for, bonbons, often used by carnival revelers, at weddings, etc.

Con"for*ma`tor (?), n. [L., a framer.] An apparatus for taking the conformation of anything, as of the head for fitting a hat, or, in craniometry, finding the largest horizontal area of the head.

Con"go group. [From Congo red.] A group of artificial dyes with an affinity for vegetable fibers, so that no mordant is required. Most of them are azo compounds derived from benzidine or tolidine. Called also benzidine dyes.

Congo red. (Chem.) An artificial red dye from which the Congo group received its name. It is also widely used either in aqueous solution or as test paper (Congo paper) for the detection of free acid, which turns it blue.

Con"greve (?), n. [After Sir William Congreve, the inventor.] 1. Short for Cogreve rocket, a powerful form of rocket formerly used in war, either in the field or for bombardment. In the former case it was armed with shell, shrapnel, or other missiles; in the latter, with an inextinguishable explosive material, inclosed in a metallic case. It was guided by a long wooden stick.

2. Short for Congreve match, an early friction match, containing sulphur, potassium chlorate, and antimony sulphide.

Con"qui*an (?), n. (Card Playing) A game for two, played with 40 cards, in which each player tries to form three or four of a kind or sequences.

Con*sol" (?), n. A consolidated annuity (see Consols); -- chiefly in combination or attributively.

{ Con`so*la"tion game, match, pot, race, etc. } A game, match, etc., open only to losers in early stages of contests.

Con"stant, n. 1. (Astron.) A number whose value, when ascertained (as by observation) and substituted in a general mathematical formula expressing an astronomical law, completely determines that law and enables predictions to be made of its effect in particular cases.

2. (Physics) A number expressing some property or condition of a substance or of an instrument of precision; as, the dielectric constant of quartz; the collimation constant of a transit instrument.

Aberration constant, or Constant of aberration (Astron.), a number which by substitution in the general formula for aberration enables a prediction to be made of the effect of aberration on a star anywhere situated. Its value is 20″.47. -- Constant of integration (Math.), an undetermined constant added to every result of integration. -- Gravitation constant (Physics), the acceleration per unit of time produced by the attraction of a unit of mass at unit distance. When this is known the acceleration produced at any distance can be calculated. -- Solar constant (Astron.), the quantity of heat received by the earth from the sun in a unit of time. It is, on the C. G. S. system, 0.0417 small calories per square centimeter per second. Young.

Con*sum"er's goods (?). (Polit. Econ.) Economic goods that directly satisfy human wants or desires, such as food, clothes, pictures, etc.; -- called also consumption goods, or goods of the first order, and opposed to producer's goods.

Consumer's surplus. (Polit. econ.) The excess that a purchaser would be willing to pay for a commodity over that he does pay, rather than go without the commodity; -- called also consumer's rent.

The price which a person pays for a thing can never exceed, and seldom comes up to, that which he would be willing to pay rather than go without it. . . . The excess of the price which he would be willing to pay rather than go without it, over that which he actually does pay, is the economic measure of this surplus satisfaction. It has some analogies to a rent; but is perhaps best called simply consumer's surplus.

Alfred Marshall.

Con*ta"gious dis*ease". (Med.) A disease communicable by contact with a patient suffering from it, or with some secretion of, or object touched by, such a patient. Most such diseases have already been proved to be germ diseases, and their communicability depends on the transmission of the living germs. Many germ diseases are not contagious, some special method of transmission or inoculation of the germs being required.

||Conte (?), n.; pl. Contes (#). [F.] A short narrative or tale, esp. one dealing with surprising or marvelous events.

The conte (sic) is a tale something more than a sketch, it may be, and something less than a short story. . . . The "Canterbury Tales" are contes, most of them, if not all, and so are some of the "Tales of a Wayside Inn."

Brander Matthews.

Con`ti*nen"tal drive. (Automobiles) A transmission arrangement in which the longitudinal crank shaft drives the rear wheels through a clutch, change-speed gear, countershaft, and two parallel side chains, in order.

Continental glacier. A broad ice sheet resting on a plain or plateau and spreading outward from a central névé, or region of accumulation.

Continental pronunciation (of Latin and Greek.) A method of pronouncing Latin and Greek in which the vowels have their more familiar Continental values, as in German and Italian, the consonants being pronounced mostly as in English. The stricter form of this method of pronouncing Latin approaches the Roman, the modified form the English, pronunciation. The Continental method of Greek pronunciation is often called Erasmian.

Continental system. (Hist.) The system of commercial blockade aiming to exclude England from commerce with the Continent instituted by the Berlin decree, which Napoleon I. issued from Berlin Nov. 21, 1806, declaring the British Isles to be in a state of blockade, and British subjects, property, and merchandise subject to capture, and excluding British ships from all parts of Europe under French dominion. The retaliatory measures of England were followed by the Milan decree, issued by Napoleon from Milan Dec. 17, 1807, imposing further restrictions, and declaring every ship going to or from a port of England or her colonies to be lawful prize.

Con`tra*bass" (?), n. (Mus.) The lowest stringed instrument of the violin family.

Con"tract sys"tem. 1. The sweating system.

2. The system of employing convicts by selling their labor (to be performed inside the prison) at a fixed price per day to contractors who are allowed to have agents in the prison to superintend the work.

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Con"tract tablet. (Babylonian & Assyrian Antiq.) A clay tablet on which was inscribed a contract, for safe keeping. Such tablets were inclosed in an outer case (often called the envelope), on which was inscribed a duplicate of the inscription on the inclosed tablet.

Con"tra*plex (?), a. [Contra- + -plex as in duplex.] (Teleg.) Pertaining to the sending of two messages in opposite directions at the same time.

Con*trap"tion (?), n. A contrivance; a new-fangled device; -- used scornfully. [Colloq. or Dial.] -- Con*trap"tious (#), a.

We all remember some of the extraordinary contraptions which have been thus evolved and put upon the market.

F. M. Ware.

Con"tre*danse` (?), n. [Cf. F. contredanse (fr. E. Country-dance). ] 1. (a) A dance in which the partners are arranged face to face, or in opposite lines. (b) The quadrille. [Obs.]

2. (Music) A piece of music in the rhythm of such a dance.

Con`tri*bu"tion plan. (Life Insurance) A plan of distributing surplus by giving to each policy the excess of premiums and interest earned thereon over the expenses of management, cost of insurance, and the policy value at the date of computation. This excess is called the contribution of the policy.

Con*trol", n. 1. (Mach.) The complete apparatus used to control a mechanism or machine in operation, as a flying machine in flight; specifically (Aëronautics), the mechanism controlling the rudders and ailerons.

2. (Climatology) Any of the physical factors determining the climate of any particular place, as latitude,distribution of land and water, altitude, exposure, prevailing winds, permanent high- or low-barometric-pressure areas, ocean currents, mountain barriers, soil, and vegetation.

Con*trol"ler, n. 1. (Elec.) Any electric device for controlling a circuit or system; specif.: (a) An electromagnet, excited by the main current, for throwing a regulator magnet into or out of circuit in an automatic device for constant current regulation. (b) A kind of multiple switch for gradually admitting the current to, or shutting it off from, an electric motor; as, a car controller for an electric railway car.

2. (Mach.) A lever controlling the speed of an engine; -- applied esp. to the lever governing a throttle valve, as of a steam or gasoline engine, esp. on an automobile.

Con"voy pen"nant. A white pennant with red border, carried : (a) Forward on all vessels on convoy duty. (b) Alone by a senior officer present during evolutions or drills, when it commands "Silence." (c) Over a signal number, when it refers to the signal number of an officer in the Annual Navy Register.

{ Coo"ey, Coo"ee (?) }, n. [Of imitative origin.] A peculiar cry uttered by the Australian aborigines as a call to attract attention, and also in common use among the Australian colonists. In the actual call the first syllable is much prolonged (k"-) and the second ends in a shrill, staccato . To represent the sound itself the spelling cooee is generally used.

Within cooey, within earshot.

{ Coo"ey, Coo"ee }, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cooeyed or Cooeed (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Cooeying or Cooeeing.] To call out cooee. [Australia]

I cooeyed and beckoned them to approach.

E. Giles.

Coon"can (?), n. [Corrupt of conquian.] A game of cards derived from conquian, played by two or more players with one or two full packs of cards.

Co"palm` (?), n. The yellowish, fragrant balsam yielded by the sweet gum; also, the tree itself.

Co`pen*ha"gen (?), n. [From Copenhagen, Denmark.] 1. A sweetened hot drink of spirit and beaten eggs.

2. A children's game in which one player is inclosed by a circle of others holding a rope.

Cop"pice (kp"ps), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Coppiced (-pst); p. pr. & vb. n. Coppicing (?).] (Forestry) To cause to grow in the form of a coppice; to cut back (as young timber) so as to produce shoots from stools or roots.

Coptic Church. The native church of Egypt or church of Alexandria, which in general organization and doctrines resembles the Roman Catholic Church, except that it holds to the Monophysitic doctrine which was condemned (a. d. 451) by the council of Chalcedon, and allows its priests to marry. The "pope and patriarch" has jurisdiction over the Abyssinian Church. Since the 7th century the Coptic Church has been so isolated from modifying influences that in many respects it is the most ancient monument of primitive Christian rites and ceremonies. But centuries of subjection to Moslem rule have weakened and degraded it.

Coque (?), n. [F., prop., a shell.] A small loop or bow of ribbon used in making hats, boas, etc.

Co*quille" (k*kl"; F. k`k"y'), n. [F.] Lit., a shell; hence: (a) A shell or shell-like dish or mold in which viands are served. (b) The expansion of the guard of a sword, dagger, etc. (c) A form of ruching used as a dress trimming or for neckwear, and named from the manner in which it is gathered or fulled.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Co"rah (?), n. [Hind. kr virgin, plain.] Plain; undyed; -- applied to Indian silk. -- n. Corah silk.

{ Cor"bel*ing, Cor"bel*ling }, n. Corbel work or the construction of corbels; a series of corbels or piece of continuous corbeled masonry, sometimes of decorative purpose, as in the stalactite ornament of the Moslems.

Cord"ite (?), n. [From Cord, n.] (Mil.) A smokeless powder composed of nitroglycerin, guncotton, and mineral jelly, and used by the British army and in other services. In making it the ingredients are mixed into a paste with the addition of acetone and pressed out into cords (of various diameters) resembling brown twine, which are dried and cut to length. A variety containing less nitroglycerin than the original is known as cordite M. D.

Cór"do*ba (kôr"d*vä), n. [Prob. fr. the Spanish explorer Francisco Hernández de Córdoba.] The monetary unit of Nicaragua, equivalent to the United States gold dollar.

Cord"y (kôr"d), a. [Compar. Cordier (?); superl. Cordiest.] Of, or like, cord; having cords or cordlike parts.

Core, n. (Elec.) A mass of iron, usually made of thin plates, upon which the conductor of an armature or of a transformer is wound.

Core loss. (Elec.) Energy wasted by hysteresis or eddy currents in the core of an armature, transformer, etc.

Cor"e*plas`ty (kr"*pls`t), n. [Gr. ko`rh pupil + -plasty.] (Med.) A plastic operation on the pupil, as for forming an artificial pupil. -- Cor`e*plas"tic (- pls"tk), a.

Co*rin"thi*an, n. A man of fashion given to pleasuring or sport; a fashionable man about town; esp., a man of means who drives his own horse, sails his own yacht, or the like.

Cork"wood` (kôrk"wd`), n. 1. The wood of the cork oak. [Obs.]

2. Any one of several trees or shrubs having light or corky wood; esp.: (a) In the United States, the tree Leitneria floridana. (b) In the West Indies: (1) Either of the cotton trees Ochroma lagopus and Pariti tiliaceum. (2) The tree producing the aligator apple. (3) The blolly.

Cor"ner, n. (Association Football) [More fully corner kick.] A free kick from close to the nearest corner flag post, allowed to the opposite side when a player has sent the ball behind his own goal line.

Cor"o*na*ry bone. The small pastern bone of the horse and allied animals.

Coronary cushion. A cushionlike band of vascular tissue at the upper border of the wall of the hoof of the horse and allied animals. It takes an important part in the secretion of the horny walls.

Co*ro"ni*um (?), n. [NL. See Corona.] (Chem. & Astron.) The principal gaseous substance forming the solar corona, characterized by a green line in the coronal spectrum.

Corps (?), n. [Ger.] In some countries of Europe, a form of students' social society binding the members to strict adherence to certain student customs and its code of honor; -- Ger. spelling usually korps.

Cor"pus*cle (?), n. (Physics) An electron.

Cor`res*pond"ence school. A school that teaches by correspondence, the instruction being based on printed instruction sheets and the recitation papers written by the student in answer to the questions or requirements of these sheets. In the broadest sense of the term correspondence school may be used to include any educational institution or department for instruction by correspondence, as in a university or other educational bodies, but the term is commonly applied to various educational institutions organized on a commercial basis, some of which offer a large variety of courses in general and technical subjects, conducted by specialists.

Cor"ri*dor train. A train whose coaches are connected so as to have through its entire length a continuous corridor, into which the compartments open. [Eng.]

Cor*rob"o*ree` (?), n. [Also corrobboree, corrobori, etc.] [Native name.] 1. A nocturnal festivity with which the Australian aborigines celebrate tribal events of importance. Symbolic dances are given by the young men of the tribe, while the women act as musicians.

2. A song or chant made for such a festivity.

3. A festivity or social gathering, esp. one of a noisy or uproarious character; hence, tumult; uproar. [Australia]

Cor*rob"o*ry (?), n. & v. See Corroboree.

Cor"sair (?), n. (Zoöl.) A Californian market fish (Sebastichthys rosaceus).

||Cor"tes Ge*ra"es (?). [Pg.] See Legislature, Portugal.

||Cos"mos (?), n. (Bot.) A genus of composite plants closely related to Bidens, usually with very showy flowers, some with yellow, others with red, scarlet, purple, white, or lilac rays. They are natives of the warmer parts of America, and many species are cultivated. Cosmos bipinnatus and C. diversifolius are among the best-known species; C. caudatus, of the West Indies, is widely naturalized.

Cos"sack post. (Mil.) An outpost consisting of four men, forming one of a single line of posts substituted for the more formal line of sentinels and line of pickets.

||Cos*sette" (?), n. [F.] One of the small chips or slices into which beets are cut in sugar making.

Cos"ton lights (?). Signals made by burning lights of different colors and used by vessels at sea, and in the life-saving service; -- named after their inventor.

||Co`teau" (?), n.; pl. Coteaux (#). [F., a hill.] [Canada & U. S.] 1. A hilly upland including the divide between two valleys; a divide.

2. The side of a valley.

Cot"ta (?), n. [LL. See Coat.] 1. (Eccl.) A surplice, in England and America usually one shorter and less full than the ordinary surplice and with short sleeves, or sometimes none.

2. A kind of very coarse woolen blanket.

Cot"ton bat"ting. Cotton prepared in sheets or rolls for quilting, upholstering, and similar purposes.

{ Cotton seed, or, usually collectively, Cot"ton*seed` } (?), n. The seed of the cotton plant.

Cottonseed meal. A meal made from hulled cotton seeds after the oil has been expressed.

Cottonseed oil. A fixed, semidrying oil extracted from cottonseed. It is pale yellow when pure (sp. gr., .92-.93). and is extensively used in soap making, in cookery, and as an adulterant of other oils.

Cotton State. Alabama; -- a nickname.

||Cou`leur" (?), n. [F.] 1. Color; -- chiefly used in a few French phrases, as couler de rose, color of rose; and hence, adjectively, rose-colored; roseate.

2. A suit of cards, as hearts or clubs; -- used in some French games.

Cou*lisse" (?), n. 1. A fluting in a sword blade.

2. The outside stock exchange, or "curb market," of Paris. [French Use]

Cou`lomb" me"ter (?). (Elec.) Any instrument by which electricity can be measured in coulombs.

Cou`lomb's" law (?). (Physics) The law that the force exerted between two electric or magnetic charges is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely to the square of the distance between them.

Cou*lure" (?), n. [F., prop., a dropping.] (Hort.) A disease affecting grapes, esp. in California, manifested by the premature dropping of the fruit.

||Cou"ma*rou (?), n. [See Coumarin.] (Bot.) The tree (Dipteryx odorata) which bears the tonka bean; also, the bean itself.

Coun"ter, n. -- Over the counter (Stock Exchanges), in an office; -- said of business so done, as distinguished from that done at an exchange. [Cant]

Coun"ter*glow` (?), n. (Astron.) An exceedingly faint roundish or somewhat oblong nebulous light near the ecliptic and opposite the sun, best seen during September and October, when in the constellations Sagittarius and Pisces. Its cause is not yet understood. Called also Gegenschein.

Coun"ter*lath` (?), n. (Building) (a) A batten laid lengthwise between two rafters to afford a bearing for laths laid crosswise. (b) Any lath laid without actual measurement between two gauged laths. (c) Any of a series of laths nailed to the timbers to raise the sheet lathing above their surface to afford a key for plastering. (d) One of many laths used in preparing one side of a partition or framed wall, when the other side has been covered in and finished.

Coun"try bank. (Banking) A national bank not in a reserve city. [Colloq., U. S.]

Coun"try club. A club usually located in the suburbs or vicinity of a city or town and devoted mainly to outdoor sports.

Coun"try cousin. A relative from the country visiting the city and unfamiliar with city manners and sights.

||Coup (k), n. 1. A single roll of the wheel at roulette, or a deal at rouge et noir. [Cant]

2. Among some tribes of North American Indians, the act of striking or touching an enemy in warfare with the hand or at close quarters, as with a short stick, in such a manner as by custom to entitle the doer to count the deed an act of bravery; hence, any of various other deeds recognized by custom as acts of bravery or honor.

While the coup was primarily, and usually, a blow with something held in the hand, other acts in warfare which involved great danger to him who performed them were also reckoned coups by some tribes.

G. B. Grinnell.

Among the Blackfeet the capture of a shield, bow, gun, war bonnet, war shirt, or medicine pipe was deemed a coup.

G. B. Grinnell.

Coup. v. i. To make a coup.

Woe to the Sioux if the Northern Cheyennes get a chance to coup !

F. Remington.

Coup"stick` (k"stk`), n. [Coup + stick.] A stick or switch used among some American Indians in making or counting a coup.

Court, n. -- Court of claims (Law), a court for settling claims against a state or government; specif., a court of the United States, created by act of Congress, and holding its sessions at Washington. It is given jurisdiction over claims on contracts against the government, and sometimes may advise the government as to its liabilities.

||Cou`veuse" (?), n. [F.] (Med.) An incubator for sickly infants, esp. those prematurely born.

Cov"er*age (?), n. The aggregate of risks covered by the terms of a contract of insurance.

Cov"er crop. A catch crop planted, esp. in orchards. as a protection to the soil in winter, as well as for the benefit of the soil when plowed under in spring.

Cov"er*side` (?), n. A region of country having covers; a hunting country.

Cov"ing (?), n. (Arch.) (a) A cove or series of coves, as the concaved surface under the overhang of a projecting upper story. (b) The splayed jambs of a flaring fireplace.

Co`walk"er (?), n. A phantasmic or "astral" body deemed to be separable from the physical body and capable of acting independently; a doppelgänger.

Cow"pea`, n. (Bot.) A leguminous plant (Vigna Sinensis, syn. V. Catjang) found throughout the tropics of the Old World. It is extensively cultivated in the Southern United States for fodder, and the seed is used as food for man.

Coyote State. South Dakota; -- a nickname.

||Co`yo*til"lo (?), n. [Mex. Sp. dim. See Coyote.] A low rhamnaceous shrub (Karwinskia humboldtiana) of the southwestern United States and Mexico. Its berries are said to be poisonous to the coyote.

C Q D. In radiotelegraphy, the letters signified by the code call formerly used (cf. S O S) by ships in distress, formed by combining the code call C Q (formerly used as a general call for all stations) with D for distress.

Crack"a*jack` (?), n. 1. An individual of marked ability or excellence, esp. in some sport; as, he is a crackajack at tennis. [Slang]

2. A preparation of popped corn, candied and pressed into small cakes. [U. S.]

Crack"a*jack`, a. Of marked ability or excellence. [Slang]

Cracker State. Georgia; -- a nickname. See Cracker, n. 5.

{ Crack"-loo` (?), n. Also Crack"a*loo` }. A kind of gambling game consisting in pitching coins to or towards the ceiling of a room so that they shall fall as near as possible to a certain crack in the floor. [Gamblers' Cant, U. S.]

Cra"dle*land` (kr"d'l*lnd`), n. Land or region where one was cradled; hence, land of origin.

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Cramp, n. (Med.) A paralysis of certain muscles due to excessive use; as, writer's cramp; milker's cramp, etc.

Cram"pet, n. One of the plates of iron, with attached spikes, forming a pair of crampoons; hence (Curling), an iron plate for a player to stand on when delivering the stones.

Cran"dall (krn"dal), n. [Prob. from Crandall, a proper name.] (Stonecutting) A kind of hammer having a head formed of a group of pointed steel bars, used for dressing ashlar, etc. -- v. t. To dress with a crandall.

Crane, n. 1. Any arm which swings about a vertical axis at one end, used for supporting a suspended weight.

2. (Zoöl.) The American blue heron (Ardea herodias). [Local, U. S.]

Crap (krp), n. In the game of craps, a first throw of the dice in which the total is two, three, or twelve, in which case the caster loses.

Cra*paud" (?), n. [Written also crapawd, crapald, crepaud, etc.] [F. crapaud.] 1. A toad. [Obs.]

2. (Pronounced kr`p") As a proper name, Johnny Crapaud, or Crapaud, a nickname for a Frenchman.

Crap shooting. Same as Craps.

Crawl stroke. (Swimming) A racing stroke, in which the swimmer, lying flat on the water with face submerged, takes alternate overhand arm strokes while moving his legs up and down alternately from the knee.

Craze, n. (Ceramics) A crack in the glaze or enamel such as is caused by exposure of the pottery to great or irregular heat.

Craz"ing (?), p. pr. & vb. n. of Craze, v. Hence: n. Fine cracks resulting from shrinkage on the surface of glazed pottery, concrete, or other material. The admired crackle in some Oriental potteries and porcelains is crazing produced in a foreseen and regulated way. In common pottery it is often the result of exposure to undue heat, and the beginning of disintegration.

Crease (?), n. (Lacrosse) The combination of four lines forming a rectangle inclosing either goal, or the inclosed space itself, within which no attacking player is allowed unless the ball is there; -- called also goal crease.

Creep"ing Char"lie. The stonecrop (Sedum acre).

||Crême (?), n. [F.] Cream; - - a term used esp. in cookery, names of liqueurs, etc.

Creole State. Louisiana; -- a nickname. See Creole, n. & a.

Cre"o*sote bush. A shrub (Covillea mexicana) found in desert regions from Colorado to California and southward through Mexico. It has yellow flowers and very resinous foliage with a strong odor of creosote.

||Crêpe (krâp; Eng. krp), n. [F.] Any of various crapelike fabrics, whether crinkled or not.

Crêpe de Chine (&?;) [F. de Chine of China], Canton crape or an inferior gauzy fabric resembling it. -- C. lisse (ls) [F. lisse smooth], smooth, or unwrinkled, crape.

Cre*ta"ceous, a. Also Cre*tac"ic (&?;). (Geol.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, the period of time following the Jurassic and preceding the Eocene.

Crimp, v. t. (Firearms) In cartridge making, to fold the edge of (a cartridge case) inward so as to close the mouth partly and confine the charge.

Crip"ple, [Local. U. S.] (a) Swampy or low wet ground, often covered with brush or with thickets; bog.

The flats or cripple land lying between high- and low-water lines, and over which the waters of the stream ordinarily come and go.

Pennsylvania Law Reports.

(b) A rocky shallow in a stream; -- a lumberman's term.

Crof"ton sys"tem (?). [After Sir Walter Crofton, Irish penologist.] (Penology) A system of prison discipline employing for consecutive periods cellular confinement, associated imprisonment under the mark system, restraint intermediate between imprisonment and freedom, and liberation on ticket of leave.

Crookes space (krks). [After Sir William Crookes, English chemist, who first described it.] (Physics) The dark space within the negative-pole glow at the cathode of a vacuum tube, observed only when the pressure is low enough to give a striated discharge; -- called also Crookes layer.

Crook"neck` (?), n. Either of two varieties of squash, distinguished by their tapering, recurved necks. The summer crookneck is botanically a variety of the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and matures early in the season. It is pale yellow in color, with warty excrescences. The winter crookneck belongs to a distinct species (C. moschata) and is smooth and often striped. [U. S.]

||Cro`quante" (?), n. [F.] A brittle cake or other crisp pastry.

Cross, v. t. -- To cross a check (Eng. Banking), to draw two parallel transverse lines across the face of a check, with or without adding between them the words "and company", with or without the words "not negotiable", or to draw the transverse lines simply, with or without the words "not negotiable" (the check in any of these cases being crossed generally). Also, to write or print across the face of a check the name of a banker, with or without the words "not negotiable" (the check being then crossed specially). A check crossed generally is payable only when presented through a bank; one crossed specially, only when presented through the bank mentioned.

Cross"-but`tock, n. (Wrestling) A throw in which the wrestler turns his left side to his opponent, places his left leg across both legs of his opponent, and pulls him forward over his hip; hence, an unexpected defeat or repulse.

Crosse (?), n. [F., crosier, hooked stick.] The implement with which the ball is thrown and caught in the game of lacrosse.

Cross"-fer"ti*lize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cross-fertilized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cross-fertilizing (?).] (Bot.) To fertilize, as the stigmas of a flower or plant, with the pollen from another individual of the same species.

Crotch, n. (Billiards) In the three-ball carom game, a small space at each corner of the table. See Crotched, below.

Crotch, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Crotched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Crotch"ing.] 1. To provide with a crotch; to give the form of a crotch to; as, to crotch the ends of ropes in splicing or tying knots.

2. (Logging) To notch (a log) on opposite sides to provide a grip for the dogs in hauling. [Western, U. S.]

Crotch chain. (Logging) A form of tackle for loading a log sideways on a sled, skidway, etc.

Crotched (?), a. (Billiards) Lying within a crotch; -- said of the object balls in the three- ball carom game whenever the centers of both lie within a 4½- inch square at a corner of the table, in which case but three counts are allowed unless one or both balls be forced out of the crotch.

Crown colony. A colony of the British Empire not having an elective magistracy or a parliament, but governed by a chief magistrate (called Governor) appointed by the Crown, with executive councilors nominated by him and not elected by the people.

Crown"land` (?), n. [G. kronland.] In Austria-Hungary, one of the provinces, or largest administrative divisions of the monarchy; as, the crownland of Lower Austria.

Croy"don (?), n. [From Croydon, England.] 1. A kind of carriage like a gig, orig. of wicker-work.

2. A kind of cotton sheeting; also, a calico.

Cru"ci*ble steel. Cast steel made by fusing in crucibles crude or scrap steel, wrought iron, and other ingredients and fluxes.

Cruise (?), v. i. (Forestry) To inspect forest land for the purpose of estimating the quantity of lumber it will yield.

Cruise, v. t. 1. To cruise over or about.

2. (Forestry) To explore with reference to capacity for the production of lumber; as, to cruise a section of land.

Cruis"er (?), n. Specif.: (Nav.) A man-of-war less heavily armed and armored than a battle ship, having great speed, and generally of from two thousand to twelve thousand tons displacement.

||Crux an*sa"ta (?). [L., cross with a handle.] A cross in the shape of the ankh.

Cry*om"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; cold, frost + -meter.] (Physics) A thermometer for the measurement of low temperatures, esp. such an instrument containing alcohol or some other liquid of a lower freezing point than mercury.

Cu"bism (k"bz'm), n. (Painting) A movement or phase in post-impressionism (which see, below). -- Cu"bist (#), n.

||Cu*cul"lus (?), n.; pl. Cuculli (#). [L., a hood.] 1. (Bot.) A hood-shaped organ, resembling a cowl or monk's hood, as certain concave and arched sepals or petals.

2. (Zoöl.) A color marking or structure on the head somewhat resembling a hood.

||Cues"ta (?), n. [Sp.] A sloping plain, esp. one with the upper end at the crest of a cliff; a hill or ridge with one face steep and the opposite face gently sloping. [Southwestern U. S.]

||Cui` bo"no (?). [L.] Lit., for whose benefit; incorrectly understood, it came to be used in the sense, of what good or use; and hence, (what) purpose; object; specif., the ultimate object of life.

Cui`ras*sier" (?), n. (Mil.) In modern armies, a soldier of the heaviest cavalry, wearing a cuirass only when in full dress.

||Cuir" bou`illi" (?). [F.] In decorative art, boiled leather, fitted by the process to receive impressed patterns, like those produced by chasing metal, and to retain the impression permanently.

Cu"lex (?), n. [L., a gnat.] (Zoöl.) A genus of mosquitoes to which most of the North American species belong. Some members of this genus are exceedingly annoying, as C. sollicitans, which breeds in enormous numbers in the salt marshes of the Atlantic coast, and C. pipiens, breeding very widely in the fresh waters of North America. (For characters distinguishing these from the malaria mosquitoes, see Anopheles, above.) The yellow-fever mosquito is now placed in another genus, Stegomyia.

Cu"li*cid (?), a. [L. culex, - icis, gnat.] (Zoöl.) Like or pertaining to the Mosquito family (Culicidæ). -- n. A culicid insect.

Cultch (?), n. 1. Young or seed oysters together with the shells and other objects to which they are usually attached.

2. Rubbish; débris; refuse.

Cul"ture (?), n. 1. (Biol.) (a) The cultivation of bacteria or other organisms in artificial media or under artificial conditions. (b) The collection of organisms resulting from such a cultivation.

The word is used adjectively with the above senses in many phrases, such as: culture medium, any one of the various mixtures of gelatin, meat extracts, etc., in which organisms cultivated; culture flask, culture oven, culture tube, gelatin culture, plate culture, etc.

2. (Cartography) Those details of a map, collectively, which do not represent natural features of the area delineated, as names and the symbols for towns, roads, houses, bridges, meridians, and parallels.

Culture features. (Surv.) The artificial features of a district as distinguished from the natural.

Culture myth. A myth accounting for the discovery of arts and sciences or the advent of a higher civilization, as in the Prometheus myth.

Cul"tus (?), a. [See Cultus cod.] Bad, worth less; no good. [Northwestern U. S.]

"A bad horse, cultus [no good] !" he said, beating it with his whip.

F. H. Balch.

{ Cul"ver's phys"ic (?), or Cul"ver's root` (?) }. [So called after a Dr. Culver, who used it.] (Bot.) The root of a handsome erect herb (Leptandra, syn. Veronica, Virginica) common in most moist woods of North America , used as an active cathartic and emetic; also, the plant itself.

Cum"mer*bund` (?), n. [Written also kummerbund, cummerband, etc.] [Hind. kamarband, fr. Per. Kamar loins + band fastening.] A sash for the waist; a girdle. [India]

Cum"quat (?), n. (Bot.) See Kumquat.

Cup"py (?), a. 1. Hollow; cuplike; also, full of cups, or small depressions.

2. Characterized by cup shakes; -- said of timber.

Cup shake. (Forestry) A shake or fissure between the annual rings of a tree, found oftenest near the roots.

Cu*rette" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Curetted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Curetting.] (Med.) To scrape with a curette.

Cu"ri*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to the papal curia; as, the curial etiquette of the Vatican. -- n. A member of a curia, esp. of that of Rome or the later Italian sovereignties.

Cus"cus (?), n. [The same word as Couscous, fr. F. couscous couscous, Ar. kuskus.] (Bot.) A soft grass (Pennisetum typhoideum) found in all tropical regions, used as food for men and cattle in Central Africa.

Cuscus oil. Same as Vetiver oil.

Cushion tire. A thick solid-rubber tire, as for a bicycle, with a hollow groove running lengthwise on the inside.

Cuss"ed*ness (?), n. [Cussed (for cursed) + -ness.] Disposition to willful wrongdoing; malignity; perversity; cantankerousness; obstinacy. [Slang or Colloq., U. S.]

In her opinion it was all pure "cussedness."

Mrs. Humphry Ward.

Disputatiousness and perversity (what the Americans call "cussedness").

James Bryce.

Cut, v. t. 1. (Cricket) To deflect (a bowled ball) to the off, with a chopping movement of the bat.

2. (Billiards, etc.) To drive (an object ball) to either side by hitting it fine on the other side with the cue ball or another object ball.

3. (Lawn Tennis, etc.) To strike (a ball) with the racket inclined or struck across the ball so as to put a certain spin on the ball.

4. (Croqu&?;t) To drive (a ball) to one side by hitting with another ball.

Cut, v. t. -- To cut out, to separate from the midst of a number; as, to cut out a steer from a herd; to cut out a car from a train.

Cut, n. 1. (Lawn Tennis, etc.) A slanting stroke causing the ball to spin and bound irregularly; also, the spin so given to the ball.

2. (Cricket) A stroke on the off side between point and the wicket; also, one who plays this stroke.

Cu"tin (k"tn), n. [L. cutis skin, outside.] (PLant Physiol.) A waxy substance which, combined with cellulose, forms a substance nearly impervious to water and constituting the cuticle in plants.

Cy"cle, n. (a) (Thermodynamics) A series of operations in which heat is imparted to (or taken away from) a working substance which by its expansion gives up a part of its internal energy in the form of mechanical work (or being compressed increases its internal energy) and is again brought back to its original state. (b) (Elec.) A complete positive and negative wave of an alternating current; one period. The number of cycles (per second) is a measure of the frequency of an alternating current.

Cy"clone, n. 1. (Meteor.) In general, a condition of the atmosphere characterized by a central area of pressure much lower than that of surrounding areas, and a system of winds blowing inward and around (clockwise in the southern hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the northern); -- called also a low-area storm. It is attended by high temperature, moist air, abundant precipitation, and clouded sky. The term includes the hurricane, typhoon, and tropical storms; it should not be applied to the moderate disturbances attending ordinary areas of low pressure nor to tornadoes, waterspouts, or "twisters," in which the vertical motion is more important than the horizontal.

2. A tornado. See above, and Tornado. [Middle U. S.]

{ Cyclone cellar or pit }. A cellar or excavation used for refuge from a cyclone, or tornado. [Middle U. S.]

Cy*clo"no*scope (?), n. [Cyclone + -scope.] An apparatus to assist in locating the center of a cyclone.

Cy"mo*graph (?), n. [Cyma + - graph.] (a) An instrument for making tracings of the outline or contour of profiles, moldings, etc. (b) Var. of Kymograph. -- Cy`mo*graph"ic (#), a.

Cy"mo*graph, v. t. To trace or copy with a cymograph.

Cy*mom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; wave - meter.] An instrument for exhibiting and measuring wave motion; specif. (Elec.), an instrument for determining the frequency of electic wave oscillations, esp. in connection with wireless telegraphy.

Cy"mo*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; wave + - scope.] (Elec.) Any device for detecting the presence of electric waves. The influence of electric waves on the resistance of a particular kind of electric circuit, on the magnetization of steel, on the polarization of an electrolytic cell, or on the electric condition of a vacuum has been applied in the various cymoscopes.

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Da*hoon" (d*hn"), [Origin unknown.] An evergreen shrub or small tree (Ilex cassine) of the southern United States, bearing red drupes and having soft, white, close- grained wood; -- called also dahoon holly.

||Da"ï*ra (?), n. [Turk. daire circuit department, fr. Ar. daïrah circle.] Any of several valuable estates of the Egyptian khedive or his family. The most important are the Da"i*ra Sa"ni*eh (&?;), or Sa"ni*yeh, and the Da"i*ra Khas"sa, administered by the khedive's European bondholders, and known collectively as the Daira, or the Daira estates.

Dalles (dlz), n. pl. [F. dalle a tube, gutter, trough.] A rapid, esp. one where the channel is narrowed between rock walls. [Northwestern U. S. & Canada]

The place below, where the compressed river wound like a silver thread among the flat black rocks, was the far-famed Dalles of the Columbia.

F. H. Balch.

Da*ma"ra (?), n. [The name is supposed to be from Hottentot dama vanquished.] A native of Damaraland, German Southwest Africa. The Damaras include an important and warlike Bantu tribe, and the Hill Damaras, who are Hottentots and mixed breeds hostile to the Bantus.

Da*mas"cus steel. See Damask steel, under Damask.

{ Dan"die Din"mont (?), or Dan"die }, n. 1. In Scott's "Guy Mannering", a Border farmer of eccentric but fine character, who owns two terriers claimed to be the progenitors of the Dandie Dinmont terriers.

2. One of a breed of terriers with short legs, long body, and rough coat, originating in the country about the English and Scotch border.

Da`ri*ole" (?), n. [F.] 1. A crustade. [Obs.]

2. A shell or cup of pastry filled with custard, whipped cream, crushed macaroons, etc.

Dash`een" (?), n. A tropical aroid (of the genus Caladium, syn. Colocasia) having an edible farinaceous root. It is related to the taro and to the tanier, but is much superior to it in quality and is as easily cooked as the potato. It is a staple food plant of the tropics, being prepared like potatoes, and has been introduced into the Southern United States.

Date line. The hypothetical line on the surface of the earth fixed by international or general agreement as a boundary on one side of which the same day shall have a different name and date in the calendar from its name and date on the other side.

Speaking generally, the date line coincides with the meridian 180° from Greenwich. It deflects between north latitudes 80° and 45°, so that all Asia lies to the west, all North America, including the Aleutian Islands, to the east of the line; and between south latitudes 12° and 56°, so that Chatham Island and the Tonga group lie to the west of it. A vessel crossing this line to the westward sets the date forward by one day, as from Sunday to Monday. A vessel crossing the line to the eastward sets the date back by one day, as from Monday to Sunday. Hawaii has the same day name as San Francisco; Manila, the same day name as Australia, and this is one day later than the day of Hawaii. Thus when it is Monday May 1st at San Francisco it is Tuesday may 2d at Manila.

Dea"con (?), v. t. With humorous reference to hypocritical posing: To pack (fruit or vegetables) with the finest specimens on top; to alter slyly the boundaries of (land); to adulterate or doctor (an article to be sold), etc. [Colloq., U. S.]

Dead, a. 1. (Elec.) Carrying no current, or producing no useful effect; -- said of a conductor in a dynamo or motor, also of a telegraph wire which has no instrument attached and, therefore, is not in use.

2. Out of play; regarded as out of the game; -- said of a ball, a piece, or a player under certain conditions in cricket, baseball, checkers, and some other games.

[In golf], a ball is said to lie dead when it lies so near the hole that the player is certain to hole it in the next stroke.

Encyc. of Sport.

Dead"en, v. t. To render impervious to sound, as a wall or floor; to deafen.

De*ba"cle (?), n. A sudden breaking up or breaking loose; a violent dispersion or disruption; impetuous rush; outburst.

De*ben"ture, n. Any of various instruments issued, esp. by corporations, as evidences of debt. Such instruments (often called debenture bonds) are generally, through not necessarily, under seal, and are usually secured by a mortgage or other charge upon property; they may be registered or unregistered. A debenture secured by a mortgage on specific property is called a mortgage debenture; one secured by a floating charge (which see), a floating debenture; one not secured by any charge a naked debenture. In general the term debenture in British usage designates any security issued by companies other than their shares, including, therefore, what are in the United States commonly called bonds. When used in the United States debenture generally designates an instrument secured by a floating charge junior to other charges secured by fixed mortgages, or, specif., one of a series of securities secured by a group of securities held in trust for the benefit of the debenture holders.

Debenture stock. (Finance) The debt or series of debts, collectively, represented by a series of debentures; a debt secured by a trust deed of property for the benefit of the holders of shares in the debt or of a series of debentures. By the terms of much debenture stock the holders are not entitled to demand payment until the winding up of the company or default in payment; in the winding up of the company or default in payment; in the case of railway debentures, they cannot demand payment of the principal, and the debtor company cannot redeem the stock, except by authority of an act of Parliament. [Eng.]

De*bouch" (?), v. i. (Geog.) To issue; -- said of a stream passing from a gorge out into an open valley or a plain.

De*ca"dent (?), n. One that is decadent, or deteriorating; esp., one characterized by, or exhibiting, the qualities of those who are degenerating to a lower type; -- specif. applied to a certain school of modern French writers.

The decadents and æsthetes, and certain types of realists.

C. L. Dana.

The business men of a great State allow their State to be represented in Congress by "decadents".

The Century.

De*cath"lon (?), n. [See Deca-; Pentathlon.] In the modern Olympic Games, a composite contest consisting of a 100-meter run, a broad jump, putting the shot, a running high-jump, a 400-meter run, throwing the discus, a 100-meter hurdle race, pole vaulting, throwing the javelin, and a 1500-meter run.

De*cem"brist (?), n. (Russian Hist.) One of those who conspired for constitutional government against the Emperor Nicholas on his accession to the throne at the death of Alexander I., in December, 1825; -- called also Dekabrist.

He recalls the history of the decembrists . . . that gallant band of revolutionists.

G. Kennan.

Dec"i*are` (?), n. [F. déciare; pref. déci- tenth (fr. L. decimus) + are. See 2d Are.] (Metric System) A measure of area, the tenth part of an are; ten square meters.

Deck, n. (Aëronautics) A main aëroplane surface, esp. of a biplane or multiplane.

Dec"kle edge`. The rough, untrimmed edge of paper left by the deckle; also, a rough edge in imitation of this.

Dec"kle-edged` (?), a. Having a deckle edge; as, deckle-edged paper; a deckle-edged book.

De*class" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Declassed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Declassing.] [Cf. F. déclasser.] To remove from a class; to separate or degrade from one's class. North Am. Rev.

De`co*her"er (?), n. [Pref. de- + coherer.] (Elec.) A device for restoring a coherer to its normal condition after it has been affected by an electric wave, a process usually accomplished by some method of tapping or shaking, or by rotation of the coherer.

||Dé`col`le*tage" (d`k`l'*tzh), n. [F. See Décolleté.] (Costume) The upper border or part of a décolleté corsage.

||Dé`col`le*té" (d`kl`le*t"), a. Wearing a décolleté gown.

Decoration Day. = Memorial Day. [U. S.]

||Dé`cu`lasse`ment" (?), n. [F.] Also, sometimes, Anglicized Dec`u*lass"ment (&?;). (Ordnance) An accidental blowing off of, or other serious damage to, the breechblock of a gun; also, a removal of the breechblock for the purpose of disabling the gun.

Deer"stalk`er (?), n. A close- fitting hat, with a low crown, such as is worn in deerstalking; also, any stiff, round hat. [Eng.]

De*fect"ive (?), n. 1. Anything that is defective or lacking in some respect.

2. (Med.) One who is lacking physically or mentally.

Under the term defectives are included deaf-mutes, the blind, the feeble-minded, the insane, and sometimes, esp. in criminology, criminals and paupers.

||Dé`ga`gé" (?), a. [F., p. p. of dégager to disengage. See De-, lst Gage, and cf. Disgage.] Unconstrained; easy; free. Vanbrugh.

A graceful and dégagé manner.


De*germ" (?), v. t. (Milling) To extract the germs from, as from wheat grains.

De*ger"mi*na`tor (?), n. (Milling) A machine for breaking open the kernels of wheat or other grain and removing the germs.

De*glaze" (?), v. t. To remove the glaze from, as pottery or porcelain, so as to give a dull finish.

||Dé`gras" (?), Deg"ras (&?;), n. [F.; cf. F. gras, a. & n., fat.] A semisolid emulsion produced by the treatment of certain skins with oxidized fish oil, which extracts their soluble albuminoids. It was formerly solely a by-product of chamois leather manufacture, but is now made for its own sake, being valuable as a dressing for hides.

De*grease" (?), v. t. To remove grease or fatty matter from, as wool or silk.

De*gum" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Degummed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Degumming.] To deprive of, or free from, gum; as, to degum ramie.

Dek"a*brist (?), n. A Decembrist.

Del`i*ca*tes"sen (?), n. pl. [G., fr. F. délicatesse.] Relishes for the table; dainties; delicacies. "A dealer in delicatessen". G. H. Putnam.

De*lig"nate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Delignated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Delignating.] [Pref. de- + L. lignum wood.] 1. To clear or strip of wood (by cutting down trees). [R.] Fuller.

2. To strip or remove the wood from; as, to delignate ramie, in the preparation of ribbons of the fiber for further working.

Del*sarte" (?), n., or Delsarte system. A system of calisthenics patterned on the theories of François Delsarte (1811 -- 71), a French teacher of dramatic and musical expression.

Del"ta, n. 1. The fourth letter of the Greek alphabet ( δ), answering to D. Hence, an object having the shape of the capital .

2. (Elec.) The closed figure produced by connecting three coils or circuits successively, end for end, esp. in a three-phase system; -- often used attributively, as delta winding, delta connection (which see), etc.

Delta connection. (Elec.) One of the usual forms or methods for connecting apparatus to a three-phase circuit, the three corners of the delta or triangle, as diagrammatically represented, being connected to the three wires of the supply circuit.

Delta current. (Elec.) The current flowing through a delta connection.

De*mit" (?), v. i. [F. démettre to remove, se démettre to resign; dé- (L. dis-) + mettre to put, fr. L. mittere to send. Cf. Dismiss.] To lay down or relinquish an office, membership, authority, or the like; to resign, as from a Masonic lodge; -- generally used with an implication that the act is voluntary.

De*mit", n. The act of demitting; also, a letter, certificate, or the like, certifying that a person has (honorably) demitted, as from a Masonic lodge.

||De*mi"-tasse" (?), n. [F., half cup.] A small cup for, or of, black coffee.

Dem"o*crat, n. A large light uncovered wagon with two or more seats. [U. S.]

De*mote" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Demoted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Demoting (?).] [Pref. de- + mote, as in promote; cf. L. demovere to remove.] To reduce to a lower grade, as in school.

De*mot"ics (?), n. The department of knowledge relative to the care and culture of the people; sociology in its broadest sense; -- in library cataloguing.

De*mount"a*ble (?), [See De-; Mount.] Capable of being dismounted; -- said of a form of rim, for an automobile wheel, which can be removed with its tire from the wheel.

De*na"ture (?), v. t. [De- + nature.] To deprive of its natural qualities; change the nature of.

De*part"ment store. A store keeping a great variety of goods which are arranged in several departments, esp. one with dry goods as the principal stock.

De*phase" (?), v. t. (Elec.) To put out of phase, as two parts of a single alternating current.

Depth, n. (Aëronautics) The perpendicular distance from the chord to the farthest point of an arched surface.

De*queen" (?), v. t. (Apiculture) To remove the queen from (a hive of bees).

De*re"cho (?), n. [Sp. derecho straight.] A straight wind without apparent cyclonic tendency, usually accompanied with rain and often destructive, common in the prairie regions of the United States.

||De ri`gueur" (?). [F. See 2d Rigor.] According to strictness (of etiquette, rule, or the like); obligatory; strictly required.

Der`iva"tion, n. The formation of a word from its more original or radical elements; also, a statement of the origin and history of a word.

Der"rick, n. (Mining) The pyramidal structure or tower over a deep drill hole, such as that of an oil well.

Der"vish, n. One of the fanatical followers of the Mahdi, in the Sudan.

Des"ic*ca`tor (?), n. One that desiccates; specif.: (a) (Chem., etc.) A short glass jar fitted with an air-tight cover, and containing some desiccating agent, as calcium chloride, above which is placed the material to be dried or preserved from moisture. (b) A machine or apparatus for drying fruit, milk, etc., usually by the aid of heat; an evaporator.

De*stroy"er, n. = Torpedo-boat destroyer.

De*struct"or, n. A furnace or oven for the burning or carbonizing of refuse; specif. (Sewage Disposal), a furnace (called in full refuse destructor) in which the more solid constituents of sewage are burnt. Destructors are often so constructed as to utilize refuse as fuel.

De*tail", n. (Arch. & Mach.) (a) A minor part, as, in a building, the cornice, caps of the buttresses, capitals of the columns, etc., or (called larger details) a porch, a gable with its windows, a pavilion, or an attached tower. (b) A detail drawing.

In detail, in subdivisions; part by part; item by item; circumstantially; with particularity.

De*tect"or, n. Specifically: (a) An indicator showing the depth of the water in a boiler. (b) (Elec.) A galvanometer, usually portable, for indicating the direction of a current. (c) (Elec.) Any of various devices for detecting the presence of electric waves.

De*tect"or bar. (Railroads) A bar, connected with a switch, longer than the distance between any two consecutive wheels of a train (45 to 50 feet), laid inside a rail and operated by the wheels so that the switch cannot be thrown until all the train is past the switch.

Det"o*na`tor (?), n. One that detonates; specif.: (a) An explosive whose action is practically instantaneous. (b) Something used to detonate a charge, as a detonating fuse. (c) A case containing detonating powder, the explosion of which serves as a signal, as on railroads. (d) A gun fired by a percussion cap. [Obs.]

De*vel"op*er, n. One that develops; specif.: (a) (Photog.) A chemical bath or reagent used in developing photographs. (b) (Dyeing) A reagent used to produce an ingrain color by its action upon some substance on the fiber.

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Dew"ar ves`sel (d"r). [After Sir James Dewar, British physicist.] A double-walled glass vessel for holding liquid air, etc., having the space between the walls exhausted so as to prevent conduction of heat, and sometimes having the glass silvered to prevent absorption of radiant heat; -- called also, according to the particular shape, Dewar bulb, Dewar tube, etc.

Dex"ter, n. [Prob. so named after the original breeder.] One of a breed of small hardy cattle originating from the Kerry breed of Ireland, valuable both for beef and milk. They are usually chiefly black, sometimes red, and somewhat resemble a small shorthorn in build. Called also Dexter Kerry.

Di*ab"o*lo (d*b"*l), n. An old game or sport (revived under this name) consisting in whirling on a string, fastened to two sticks, a small somewhat spool-shaped object (called the diabolo) so as to balance it on a string, toss it in the air and catch it, etc.

{ Diamond anniversary, jubilee, etc. } One celebrated upon the completion of sixty, or, according to some, seventy-five, years from the beginning of the thing commemorated.

Diamond State. Delaware; -- a nickname alluding to its small size.

||Di*as"po*ra (?), n. [Gr. &?;. See Diaspore.] Lit., "Dispersion." -- applied collectively: (a) To those Jews who, after the Exile, were scattered through the Old World, and afterwards to Jewish Christians living among heathen. Cf. James i. 1. (b) By extension, to Christians isolated from their own communion, as among the Moravians to those living, usually as missionaries, outside of the parent congregation.

Dick"ey, 1. A hat; esp., in U. S., a stiff hat or derby; in Eng., a straw hat. [Slang]

2. One of various animals; specif.: (a) A donkey. (b) Any small bird; -- called also dickey bird. [Colloq.] (c) The hedge sparrow. [Dial. Eng.] (d) The haddock.

3. In a carriage: (a) A seat for the driver; -- called also dickey box. (b) A seat at the back for servants.

Dic"ta*graph (?). Var. of Dictograph.

Dic"ta*phone (?), n. [Dictate + -phone, as in telephone.] A form of phonographic recorder and reproducer adapted for use in dictation, as in business.

Dic"to*graph (?), n. [L. dictum a thing said + E. -graph.] A telephonic instrument for office or other similar use, having a sound-magnifying device enabling the ordinary mouthpiece to be dispensed with. Much use has been made of it for overhearing, or for recording, conversations for the purpose of obtaining evidence for use in litigation.

The makers of this instrument spell it dictograph.

{ Die"sel en`gine or mo`tor (?) }. [After Dr. Rudolf Diesel, of Munich, the inventor.] A type of internal- combustion engine in which the air drawn in by the suction stroke is so highly compressed that the heat generated ignites the fuel (usually crude oil), the fuel being automatically sprayed into the cylinder under pressure. The Diesel engine has a very high thermal efficiency.

Di"et, n. Specifically: Any of various national or local assemblies; as, (a) Occasionally, the Reichstag of the German Empire, Reichsrath of the Austrian Empire, the federal legislature of Switzerland, etc. (b) The legislature of Denmark, Sweden, Japan, or Hungary. (c) The state assembly or any of various local assemblies in the states of the German Empire, as the legislature (Landtag) of the kingdom of Prussia, and the Diet of the Circle (Kreistag) in its local government. (d) The local legislature (Landtag) of an Austrian province. (e) The federative assembly of the old Germanic Confederation (1815 -- 66). (f) In the old German or Holy Roman Empire, the great formal assembly of counselors (the Imperial Diet or Reichstag) or a small, local, or informal assembly of a similar kind (the Court Diet, or Hoftag). The most celebrated Imperial Diets are the three following, all held under Charles V.: Diet of Worms, 1521, the object of which was to check the Reformation and which condemned Luther as a heretic; D. of Spires, or Speyer, 1529, which had the same object and issued an edict against the further dissemination of the new doctrines, against which edict Lutheran princes and deputies protested (hence Protestants): D. of Augsburg, 1530, the object of which was the settlement of religious disputes, and at which the Augsburg Confession was presented but was denounced by the emperor, who put its adherents under the imperial ban.

Dig, v. i. 1. To work hard or drudge; specif. (U. S.): To study ploddingly and laboriously. [Colloq.]

Peter dug at his books all the harder.

Paul L. Ford.

2. (Mach.) Of a tool: To cut deeply into the work because ill set, held at a wrong angle, or the like, as when a lathe tool is set too low and so sprung into the work.

To dig out, to depart; to leave, esp. hastily; decamp. [Slang, U. S.]

Dig, n. 1. A tool for digging. [Dial. Eng.]

2. An act of digging.

3. An amount to be dug.

4. (Mining) = Gouge.

Di*he"dral (?), a. 1. Of a kite or an aëroplane, having wings that make with one another a dihedral angle, esp. when the angle between the upper sides is less than 180°.

2. (Aëronautics) Of wing pairs, inclined at an upward angle to each other.

Ding"dong` the"o*ry. (Philol.) The theory which maintains that the primitive elements of language are reflex expressions induced by sensory impressions; that is, as stated by Max Müller, the creative faculty gave to each general conception as it thrilled for the first time through the brain a phonetic expression; -- jocosely so called from the analogy of the sound of a bell induced by the stroke of the clapper.

||Di`o*ny"si*a (?), n. pl. [L., fr. Gr. &?;.] (Class. Antiq.) Any of the festivals held in honor of the Olympian god Dionysus. They correspond to the Roman Bacchanalia; the greater Dionysia were held at Athens in March or April, and were celebrated with elaborate performances of both tragedies and comedies.

Di`o*ny"si*ac (?), a. Of or pertaining to Dionysus or to the Dionysia; Bacchic; as, a Dionysiac festival; the Dionysiac theater at Athens.

Dip, n. 1. A gymnastic exercise on the parallel bars in which the performer, resting on his hands, lets his arms bend and his body sink until his chin is level with the bars, and then raises himself by straightening his arms.

2. In the turpentine industry, the viscid exudation, which is dipped out from incisions in the trees; as, virgin dip (the runnings of the first year), yellow dip (the runnings of subsequent years).

3. (Aëronautics) A sudden drop followed by a climb, usually to avoid obstacles or as the result of getting into an airhole.

Di"plex (?), a. [Pref. di- + - plex, as in duplex.] (Teleg.) Pertaining to the sending of two messages in the same direction at the same time. Diplex and contraplex are the two varieties of duplex.

Dip"lo*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; double + -graph.] An instrument used for double writing, as one for producing embossed writing for the blind and ordinary writing at the same time. -- Dip`lo*graph"ic*al (#), a. -- Dip*log"ra*phy (#), n.

{ Dip"sey, Dip"sie, Dip"sy } (?), a. Deep-sea; as, a dipsey line; a dipsy lead. [Sailor's Cant]

{ Dip"sey, Dip"sie, Dip"sy }, n. 1. A sinker attached to a fishing line; also, a line having several branches, each with such a sinker, used in deep-sea fishing. [Local, U. S.]

2. (Naut.) A deep-sea lead. [Rare]

Di*rect", a. (Political Science) Pertaining to, or effected immediately by, action of the people through their votes instead of through one or more representatives or delegates; as, direct nomination, direct legislation.

Direct action. (Trade unions) See Syndicalism, below.

Di*rect"-cou"pled (?), a. Coupled without intermediate connections, as an engine and a dynamo.

Direct-coupled antenna (Wireless Teleg.), an antenna connected electrically with one point of a closed oscillation circuit in syntony with it and earthed.

Direct current. (Elec.) (a) A current flowing in one direction only; -- distinguished from alternating current. When steady and not pulsating a direct current is often called a continuous current. (b) A direct induced current, or momentary current of the same direction as the inducing current, produced by stopping or removing the latter; also, a similar current produced by removal of a magnet.

Direct nomination. (Political Science) The nomination or designation of candidates for public office by direct popular vote rather than through the action of a convention or body of elected nominating representatives or delegates. The term is applied both to the nomination of candidates without any nominating convention, and, loosely, to the nomination effected, as in the case of candidates for president or senator of the United States, by the election of nominating representatives pledged or instructed to vote for certain candidates dssignated by popular vote.

Di`rec`toire" style (?). (Dressmaking) A style of dress prevalent at the time of the French Directory, characterized by great extravagance of design and imitating the Greek and Roman costumes.

Direct primary. (Political Science) A primary by which direct nominations of candidates for office are made.

Dis`ap*pear"ing, p. pr. & vb. n. of Disappear.

Disappearing carriage (Ordnance), a carriage for heavy coast guns on which the gun is raised above the parapet for firing and upon discharge is lowered behind the parapet for protection. The standard type of disappearing carriage in the coast artillery of the United States army is the Buffington-Crozier carriage, in which the gun trunnions are secured at the upper and after ends of a pair of heavy levers, at the lower ends of which is attached a counterweight of lead. The levers are pivoted at their middle points, which are, with the top carriage, permitted restrained motion along the slightly inclined chassis rails. The counterweight is held in place by a pawl and ratchet. When the gun is loaded the pawl is released and the counterweight sinks, raising the gun to the firing position above the parapet. The recoil following the discharge returns the gun to the loading position, the counterweight rising until the pawl engages the ratchet.

Dis*charge", v. t. (Textile Dyeing & Printing) To bleach out or to remove or efface, as by a chemical process; as, to discharge the color from a dyed fabric in order to form light figures on a dark ground.

Dis*charge", n. (Elec.) The equalization of a difference of electric potential between two points. The character of the discharge is mostly determined by the nature of the medium through which it takes place, the amount of the difference of potential, and the form of the terminal conductors on which the difference exists. The discharge may be alternating, continuous, brush, connective, disruptive, glow, oscillatory, stratified, etc.

Dis*cov"er*y Day. = Columbus Day, above.

Disk clutch. (Engin.) A friction clutch in which the gripping surfaces are disks or more or less resemble disks.

Dis*trib"u*tor (?), n. [L.] One that distributes; a distributer; specif.: (a) A machine for distributing type. (b) An appliance, as a roller, in a printing press, for distributing ink. (c) An apparatus for distributing an electric current, either to various points in rotation, as in some motors, or along two or more lines in parallel, as in a distributing system.

||Di"va (d"v), n.; It. pl. Dive (d"v). [It., prop. fem. of divo divine, L. divus.] A prima donna.

Di*vin"i*ty calf` (?). (Bookbinding) Calf stained dark brown and worked without gilding, often used for theological books.

Do (?), v. t. 1. To perform work upon, about, for, or at, by way of caring for, looking after, preparing, cleaning, keeping in order, or the like.

The sergeants seem to do themselves pretty well.

Harper's Mag.

2. To deal with for good and all; to finish up; to undo; to ruin; to do for. [Colloq. or Slang]

Sometimes they lie in wait in these dark streets, and fracture his skull, . . . or break his arm, or cut the sinew of his wrist; and that they call doing him.

Charles Reade.

Dob"by (?), n. (Weaving) An apparatus resembling a Jacquard for weaving small figures (usually about 12 - 16 threads, seldom more than 36 - 40 threads).

Do*bell's" so*lu"tion (?). (Med.) An aqueous solution of carbolic acid, borax, sodium bicarbonate, and glycerin, used as a spray in diseases of the nose and throat.

Doe, John. (Law) The fictitious lessee acting as plaintiff in the common-law action of ejectment, the fictitious defendant being usually denominated Richard Roe. Hence, a fictitious name for a party, real or fictitious, to any action or proceeding.

Doff"er (?), n. 1. (Mach.) A revolving cylinder, or a vibrating bar, with teeth, in a carding machine, which doffs, or strips off, the fiber from the cards.

2. (Spinning) A worker who replaces full bobbins by empty ones on the throstle or ring frames.

Dol"er*ite (?), n. [Gr. &?; deceptive, because easily confounded with diorite.] (Petrography) (a) A dark, crystalline, igneous rock, chiefly pyroxene with labradorite. (b) Coarse- grained basalt. (c) Diabase. (d) Any dark, igneous rock composed chiefly of silicates of iron and magnesium with some feldspar. -- Dol`er*it"ic (#), a.

Dol"man (?), n.; pl. Dolmans. 1. A woman's cloak with capelike pieces instead of sleeves.

2. The uniform jacket of many European hussar regiments, worn like a cloak, fastened with a cord or chain, and with sleeves hanging loose.

Dom"i*ne (?), n. A clergyman.

Do*min"ion Day. In Canada, a legal holiday, July lst, being the anniversary of the proclamation of the formation of the Dominion in 1867.

Dom"i*no whist. A game of cards in which the suits are played in sequence, beginning with a 5 or 9, the player who gets rid of his cards first being the winner.

Don"go*la (?), n. 1. A government of Upper Egypt.

2. Dongola kid.

Dongola kid, D. leather, leather made by the Dongola process. -- D. process, a process of tanning goatskin, and now also calfskin and sheepskin, with a combination of vegetable and mineral agents, so that it resembles kid. -- D. race, a boat race in which the crews are composed of a number of pairs, usually of men and women.

||Don`née" (?), n. [F., fr. donner to give.] Lit., given; hence, in a literary work, as a drama or tale, that which is assumed as to characters, situation, etc., as a basis for the plot or story. W. E. Henley.

That favorite romance donnée of the heir kept out of his own.


Dope (dp), n. [D. doop a dipping, fr. doopen to dip. Cf. Dip.] 1. Any thick liquid or pasty preparation, as of opium for medicinal purposes, of grease for a lubricant, etc.

2. Any preparation, as of opium, used to stupefy or, in the case of a race horse, to stimulate. [Slang or Cant]

3. An absorbent material; esp., in high explosives, the sawdust, infusorial earth, mica, etc., mixed with nitroglycerin to make a damp powder (dynamite, etc.) less dangerous to transport, and ordinarily explosive only by suitable fulminating caps.

4. Information concerning the previous performances of race horses, or other facts concerning them which may be of assistance in judging of their chances of winning future races; sometimes, similar information concerning other sports. [Sporting Slang]

Dope, v. t. 1. To treat or affect with dope; as, to dope nitroglycerin; specif.: (a) To give stupefying drugs to; to drug. [Slang] (b) To administer a stimulant to (a horse) to increase his speed. It is a serious offense against the laws of racing. [Race-track Slang]

2. To judge or guess; to predict the result of, as by the aid of dope. [Slang]

Dope"-book`, n. A chart of previous performances, etc., of race horses. [Race-track Slang]

Dop"ey (?), a. Affected by "dope"; esp., sluggish or dull as though under the influence of a narcotic. [Slang]

||Dop"pel*gäng`er (?), n. [G.] A spiritual or ghostly double or counterpart; esp., an apparitional double of a living person; a cowalker.

Dor"my (?), a. [Origin uncertain.] (Golf) Up, or ahead, as many holes as remain to be played; -- said of a player or side.

A player who is dormy can not be beaten, and at the worst must halve the match. Encyc. of Sport.

||Dos`-à-dos" (?), adv. [F.] Back to back; as, to sit dos-à-dos in a dogcart; to dance dos-à-dos, or so that two dancers move forward and pass back to back.

||Dos`-à-dos", n. A sofa, open carriage, or the like, so constructed that the occupants sit back to back.

Dos"age (ds"j), n. [Cf. F. dosage. See Dose, v.] 1. (Med.) The administration of medicine in doses; specif., a scheme or system of grading doses of medicine according to age, etc.

2. The process of adding some ingredient, as to wine, to give flavor, character, or strength.

Do*sim"e*try (?), n. [NL. dosis dose + -metry.] (Med.) Measurement of doses; specif., a system of therapeutics which uses but few remedies, mostly alkaloids, and gives them in doses fixed by certain rules. -- Do`si*met"ric (#), a. -- Do*sim"e*trist (#), n.

Doss (?), n. [Etym. uncertain.] A place to sleep in; a bed; hence, sleep. [Slang]

Doss house. A cheap lodging house.

They [street Arabs] consort together and sleep in low doss houses where they meet with all kinds of villainy.

W. Besant.

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||Dos`sier" (ds`sy"; E. ds"s*r), n. [F., back of a thing, bulging bundle of papers, fr. dos back.] A bundle containing the papers in reference to some matter.

Dot"ty (?), a. [From 2d Dot.] 1. Composed of, or characterized by, dots.

2. [Perh. a different word; cf. Totty.] Unsteady in gait; hence, feeble; half-witted. [Eng.]

Dou"ble (?), n. A person or thing that is the counterpart of another; a duplicate; copy; (Obs.) transcript; -- now chiefly used of persons. Hence, a wraith.

My charming friend . . . has, I am almost sure, a double, who preaches his afternoon sermons for him.

E. E. Hale.

Dou"ble-deck"er, n. (a) A tenement house having two families on each floor. [Local, U. S.] (b) A biplane aëroplane or kite. [Colloq.]

Dou"ble*gang`er (?), n. [G. doppelgänger; doppel double + gänger walker.] An apparition or double of a living person; a doppelgänger.

Either you are Hereward, or you are his doubleganger.

C. Kingsley.

Double pedro. Cinch (the game).

Dou"bler (?), n. 1. A part of a distilling apparatus for intercepting the heavier fractions and returning them to be redistilled.

2. (Calico Printing) A blanket or felt placed between the fabric and the printing table or cylinder.

Dou"ble-sur"faced (?), a. Having two surfaces; -- said specif. of aëroplane wings or aërocurves which are covered on both sides with fabric, etc., thus completely inclosing their frames.

||Dou`blure" (?), n. [F.] 1. (Bookbinding) The lining of a book cover, esp. one of unusual sort, as of tooled leather, painted vellum, rich brocade, or the like.

2. (Paleon.) The reflexed margin of the trilobite carapace.

Down"com`er (?), n. A pipe to conduct something downwards; specif.: (a) (Iron Manuf.) A pipe for leading the hot gases from the top of a blast furnace downward to the regenerators, boilers, etc. (b) (Steam Engin.) In some water-tube boilers, a tube larger in diameter than the water tubes to conduct the water from each top drum to a bottom drum, thus completing the circulation.

Down"-wind`, adv. With the wind.

||Doy`en" (?), n. [F. See Dean.] Lit., a dean; the senior member of a body or group; as, the doyen of French physicians. "This doyen of newspapers." A. R. Colquhoun.

{ Drag line or rope }. (Aëronautics) A guide rope.

Draw (?), v. t. 1. In various games: (a) (Cricket) To play (a short-length ball directed at the leg stump) with an inclined bat so as to deflect the ball between the legs and the wicket. (b) (Golf) To hit (the ball) with the toe of the club so that it is deflected toward the left. (c) (Billiards) To strike (the cue ball) below the center so as to give it a backward rotation which causes it to take a backward direction on striking another ball. (d) (Curling) To throw up (the stone) gently.

2. To leave (a contest) undecided; as, the battle or game was drawn.

Draw, n. 1. The result of drawing, or state of being drawn; specif.: (a) A drawn battle, game, or the like. (b) The spin or twist imparted to a ball, or the like, by a drawing stroke.

2. That which is drawn or is subject to drawing.

Dread"nought` (?), n. 1. A British battleship, completed in 1906 -- 1907, having an armament consisting of ten 12-inch guns, and of twenty-four 12-pound quick-fire guns for protection against torpedo boats. This was the first battleship of the type characterized by a main armament of big guns all of the same caliber. She has a displacement of 17,900 tons at load draft, and a speed of 21 knots per hour.

2. Any battleship having its main armament entirely of big guns all of one caliber. Since the Dreadnought was built, the caliber of the heaviest guns has increased from 12 in. to 13½ in., 14 in., and 15 in., and the displacement of the largest batteships from 18,000 tons to 30,000 tons and upwards. The term superdreadnought is popularly applied to battleships with such increased displacement and gun caliber.

||Drei"bund` (?), n. [G., fr. drei three + bund league.] A triple alliance; specif., the alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy, formed in 1882.

Dress circle. A gallery or circle in a theater, generally the first above the floor, in which originally dress clothes were customarily worn.

Dress"er, n. [F. dressoir. See Dress, v. t.] A piece of chamber furniture consisting of a chest of drawers, or bureau, with a mirror. [U. S.]

Drib"ble (?), v. t. In various games, to propel (the ball) by successive slight hits or kicks so as to keep it always in control.

Drib"ble, v. i. 1. In football and similar games, to dribble the ball.

2. To live or pass one's time in a trivial fashion.

Drib"ble, n. An act of dribbling a ball.

Drift, n. 1. (Phys. Geog.) One of the slower movements of oceanic circulation; a general tendency of the water, subject to occasional or frequent diversion or reversal by the wind; as, the easterly drift of the North Pacific.

2. (Aëronautics) The horizontal component of the pressure of the air on the sustaining surfaces of a flying machine. The lift is the corresponding vertical component, which sustains the machine in the air.

Drive, v. i. (Golf) To make a drive, or stroke from the tee.

Drive, v. t. Specif., in various games, as tennis, baseball, etc., to propel (the ball) swiftly by a direct stroke or forcible throw.

Drive, n. 1. In various games, as tennis, cricket, etc., the act of player who drives the ball; the stroke or blow; the flight of the ball, etc., so driven.

2. (Golf) A stroke from the tee, generally a full shot made with a driver; also, the distance covered by such a stroke.

6. An implement used for driving; as: (a) A mallet. (b) A tamping iron. (c) A cooper's hammer for driving on barrel hoops. (d) A wooden- headed golf club with a long shaft, for playing the longest strokes.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Drome (drm), n. Short for Aërodrome. [Slang]

Drove (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Droved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Droving (?).] [Cf. Drove, n., and Drover.] 1. To drive, as cattle or sheep, esp. on long journeys; to follow the occupation of a drover.

He's droving now with Conroy's sheep along the Castlereagh.


2. To finish, as stone, with a drove or drove chisel.

Drum winding. (Elec.) A method of armature winding in which the wire is wound upon the outer surface of a cylinder or drum from end to end of the cylinder; -- distinguished from ring winding, etc.

Du`chesse" lace (?). A beautiful variety of Brussels pillow lace made originally in Belgium and resembling Honiton guipure. It is worked with fine thread in large sprays, usually of the primrose pattern, with much raised work.

Duff (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Duffed; p. pr. & vb. n. Duffing.] [Etym. uncertain.] [Colloq. or Slang] 1. To treat or manipulate so as to give a specious appearance to; to fake; hence, to cheat.

2. In Australia, to alter the brands on (cattle, horses, etc.); to steal (cattle, etc.), and alter their brands.

Duf"fel, n. Outfit or suppplies, collectively; kit. [Colloq., U. S.]

Duffel bag. A sack to hold miscellaneous articles, as tools, supplies, or the like.

Duf"fer, n. 1. (Mining) See Shicer.

2. (Zoöl.) Any common domestic pigeon.

Duf"fer, n. One who duffs cattle, etc. [Australia]

Unluckily, cattle stealers are by no means so rare as would be desirable; they are locally known as duffers.


{ Du*kho*bors" (?), Du*kho*bor"tsy (?) }, n. pl. [Russ. dukhobortsy spirit wrestlers; dukh spirit + bortsy wrestlers.] A Russian religious sect founded about the middle of the 18th century at Kharkov. They believe that Christ was wholly human, but that his soul reappears from time to time in mortals. They accept the Ten Commandments and the "useful" portions of the Bible, but deny the need of rulers, priests, or churches, and have no confessions, icons, or marriage ceremonies. They are communistic, opposed to any violence, and unwilling to use the labor of animals. Driven out of Russia proper, many have emigrated to Cyprus and Canada. See Raskolnik, below.

Dum"dum bul"let (?). (Mil.) A kind of manstopping bullet; -- so named from Dumdum, in India, where bullets are manufactured for the Indian army.

Dump"y lev"el. (Surv.) A level having a short telescope (hence its name) rigidly fixed to a table capable only of rotatory movement in a horizontal plane. The telescope is usually an inverting one. It is sometimes called the Troughton level, from the name of the inventor, and a variety improved by one Gavatt is known as the Gavatt level.

Du"o*graph (?), n. [L. duo two + -graph.] (Photo-engraving) A picture printed from two half-tone plates made with the screen set at different angles, and usually printed in two shades of the same color or in black and one tint.

Du"o*tone (?), n. [L. duo two + tone.] (Photoengraving) Any picture printed in two shades of the same color, as duotypes and duographs are usually printed.

Du"o*type (?), n. [L. duo two + type.] (Photoengraving) A print made from two half- tone plates made from the same negative, but etched differently.

Du"plex (?), v. t. [See Duplex, a.] (Teleg.) To arrange, as a telegraph line, so that two messages may be transmitted simultaneously; to equip with a duplex telegraphic outfit.

Dys*pro"si*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. dyspro`sitos hard to get at.] (Chem.) An element of the rare earth-group. Symbol Dy; at. wt., 162.5.


Ear"-mind"ed (?), a. (Physiol. Psychol.) Thinking chiefly or most readily through, or in terms related to, the sense of hearing; specif., thinking words as spoken, as a result of familiarity with speech or of mental peculiarity; -- opposed to eye-minded.

Earth, n. (Elec.) The connection of any part an electric conductor with the ground; specif., the connection of a telegraph line with the ground through a fault or otherwise.

When the resistance of the earth connection is low it is termed a good earth.

Earth"light` (?), n. (Astron.) The sunlight reflected from the earth to the moon, by which we see faintly, when the moon is near the sun (either before or after new moon), that part of the moon's disk unillumined by direct sunlight, or "the old moon in the arms of the new."

East, a. (Eccl.) Designating, or situated in, that part of a church which contains the choir or chancel; as, the east front of a cathedral.

Eas"ter lil`y. (Bot.) Any one of various lilies or lilylike flowers which bloom about Easter; specif.: (a) The common white lily (Lilium candidum), called also Annunciation lily. (b) The larger white lily (Lilium longiflorum eximium, syn. L. Harrisii) called also Bermuda lily. (c) The daffodil (Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus). (d) The Atamasco lily.

Eastern Church. That portion of the Christian church which prevails in the countries once comprised in the Eastern Roman Empire and the countries converted to Christianity by missionaries from them. Its full official title is The Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Eastern Church. It became estranged from the Western, or Roman, Church over the question of papal supremacy and the doctrine of the filioque, and a separation, begun in the latter part of the 9th century, became final in 1054. The Eastern Church consists of twelve (thirteen if the Bulgarian Church be included) mutually independent churches (including among these the Hellenic Church, or Church of Greece, and the Russian Church), using the vernacular (or some ancient form of it) in divine service and varying in many points of detail, but standing in full communion with each other and united as equals in a great federation. The highest five authorities are the patriarch of Constantinople, or ecumenical patriarch (whose position is not one of supremacy, but of precedence), the patriarch of Alexandria, the patriarch of Jerusalem, the patriarch of Antioch, and the Holy Synod of Russia. The Eastern Church accepts the first seven ecumenical councils (and is hence styled only schismatic, not heretical, by the Roman Catholic Church), has as its creed the Niceno-Constantinopolitan (without the later addition of the filioque, which, with the doctrine it represents, the church decisively rejects), baptizes infants with trine immersion, makes confirmation follow immediately upon baptism, administers the Communion in both kinds (using leavened bread) and to infants as well as adults, permits its secular clergy to marry before ordination and to keep their wives afterward, but not to marry a second time, selects its bishops from the monastic clergy only, recognizes the offices of bishop, priest, and deacon as the three necessary degrees of orders, venerates relics and icons, and has an elaborate ritual.

||Eau` forte" (` frt"). [F., strong water, nitric acid (which is used in etching plates).] (Art) An etching or a print from an etched plate.

||É`car`té" (?), n. [F., prop. p. p. fr. écarter to reject, discard.] A game at cards for two persons, with 32 cards, ranking K, Q, J, A, 10, 9, 8, 7. Five cards are dealt each player, and the 11th turned as trump. Five points constitute a game.

Ech"o (?), n.; pl. Echoes (#). [L. echo, Gr. &?; echo.] (Whist) (a) A signal, played in the same manner as a trump signal, made by a player who holds four or more trumps (or as played by some exactly three trumps) and whose partner has led trumps or signaled for trumps. (b) A signal showing the number held of a plain suit when a high card in that suit is led by one's partner.

E*chop"a*thy (?), n. [Echo + -pathy, as in homeopathy.] (Med.) A morbid condition characterized by automatic and purposeless repetition of words or imitation of actions.

E"dam (?), n., or Edam cheese. A Dutch pressed cheese of yellow color and fine flavor, made in balls weighing three or four pounds, and usually colored crimson outside; -- so called from the village of Edam, near Amsterdam. Also, cheese of the same type, wherever made.

Ed"dy cur"rent (?). (Elec.) An induced electric current circulating wholly within a mass of metal; -- called also Foucault current.

Ed"dy kite (?). Called also Malay kite. [After William A. Eddy, American kite expert.] A quadrilateral, tailless kite, with convex surfaces exposed to the wind. This kite was extensively used by Eddy in his famous meteorological experiments. It is now generally superseded by the box kite.

Ef*fect"ive, n. The serviceable soldiers in a country; an army or any military body, collectively; as, France's effective.

Ef*fen"di (?), n., [Turk. efendi, fr. Modern Gr. &?;, fr. Gr. &?; a chief. See Authentic.] Master; sir; -- a Turkish title of respect, applied esp. to a state official or man of learning, as one learned in the law, but often simply as the courtesy title of a gentleman.

Ei*kon"o*gen (?), n. [Gr. e'ikw`n, e'iko`nos, image + root of gi`gnesqai to be born.] (Photog. & Chem.) The sodium salt of a sulphonic acid of a naphthol, C10H5(OH)(NH2)SO3Na used as a developer.

E"ject (?), n. [See Eject, v. t.] (Philos.) An object that is a conscious or living object, and hence not a direct object, but an inferred object or act of a subject, not myself; -- a term invented by W. K. Clifford.

||E*jec"ta (?), n. pl. [L., neut. pl. of ejectus cast out. See Eject.] Matter ejected; material thrown out; as, the ejecta of a volcano; the ejecta, or excreta, of the body.

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E*ject"or, n. That part of the mechanism of a breech-loading firearm which ejects the empty shell.

El"der*ber`ry (?), n. (Bot.) The berrylike drupe of the elder. That of the Old World elder (Sambucus nigra) and that of the American sweet elder (S. Canadensis) are sweetish acid, and are eaten as a berry or made into wine.

E*lec"tri*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Electrified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Electrifying (?).] [Electric + -fy.] To equip for employment of electric power; as, to electrify a railroad.

E*lec"tro*graph (?), n. [Pref. electro + -graph.] 1. An apparatus, controlled by electric devices, used to trace designs for etching.

2. An instrument for the reproduction at a distance of pictures, maps, etc., by means of electricity.

3. An image made by the Röntgen rays; a sciagraph.

4. A cinematograph using the arc light.

E*lec`tro*graph"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to an electrograph or electrography.

E*lec*trog"ra*phy (?), n. 1. The art or process of making electrographs or using an electrograph.

2. = Galvanography.

E*lec"tro*lyze (?), v. t. [See Electrolysis.] To subject to electrolysis. -- E*lec`tro*ly*za"tion (#), n.

E*lec"tron (?), [NL., fr. Gr. &?;. See Electric.] (Physics & Chem.) One of those particles, having about one thousandth the mass of a hydrogen atom, which are projected from the cathode of a vacuum tube as the cathode rays and from radioactive substances as the beta rays; -- called also corpuscle. The electron carries (or is) a natural unit of negative electricity, equal to 3.4 x 10-10 electrostatic units. It has been detected only when in rapid motion; its mass, which is electromagnetic, is practically constant at the lesser speeds, but increases as the velocity approaches that of light. Electrons are all of one kind, so far as known, and probably are the ultimate constituents of all atoms. An atom from which an electron has been detached has a positive charge and is called a coelectron.

E`lec*tron"ic (?), a. (Physics & Chem.) Of or pertaining to an electron or electrons.

||E*lec`tro*poi"on (?), n., or Electropoion fluid. [NL.; electro- + Gr. poiw^n, p. pr. of poiei^n to make.] (Elec.) An exciting and depolarizing acid solution used in certain cells or batteries, as the Grenet battery. Electropoion is best prepared by mixing one gallon of concentrated sulphuric acid diluted with three gallons of water, with a solution of six pounds of potassium bichromate in two gallons of boiling water. It should be used cold.

{ El"e*me, or El"e*mi, figs` } (l"*m). [Turk. eleme anything which has been sifted and freed from dust or broken parts.] A kind of figs of superior quality.

El"e*va`tor, n. (Aëronautics) A movable plane or group of planes used to control the altitude or fore-and-aft poise or inclination of an airship or flying machine.

||É`lite" (`lt"), n. See Army organization, Switzerland.

E. M. F. (Physics) An abbreviation for electro-motive force.

Em`is*siv"i*ty (?), n. Tendency to emission; comparative facility of emission, or rate at which emission takes place; specif. (Physics), the rate of emission of heat from a bounding surface per degree of temperature difference between the surface and surrounding substances (called by Fourier external conductivity).

Empire State. New York; -- a nickname alluding to its size and wealth.

Empire State of the South. Georgia; -- a nickname.

Empire State of the West. Missouri; -- a nickname.

Em*place" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Emplaced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Emplacing (?).] [Cf. F. emplacer. See En-; Place, v. & n.] To put into place or position; to fix on an emplacement.

Em*place"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. emplacement.] A putting in, or assigning to, a definite place; localization; as, the emplacement of a structure.

||Em`presse`ment" (?), n. [F., fr s'empresser to hasten.] Demonstrative warmth or cordiality of manner; display of enthusiasm.

He grasped my hand with a nervous empressement.


En*am"el, n. 1. Any one of various preparations for giving a smooth, glossy surface like that of enamel.

2. A cosmetic intended to give the appearance of a smooth and beautiful complexion.

||En` bloc" (?). [F. Cf. Block, n. ] In a lump; as a whole; all together. "Movement of the ossicles en bloc." Nature.

En bloc they are known as "the herd".

W. A. Fraser.

||En*cæ"ni*a (?), n. pl. = Encenia.

En*dem"ic, a. Belonging or native to a particular people or country; native as distinguished from introduced or naturalized; hence, regularly or ordinarily occurring in a given region; local; as, a plant endemic in Australia; -- often distinguished from exotic.

The traditions of folklore . . . form a kind of endemic symbolism.

F. W. H. Myers.

En`do*ther"mic (?), a. [Pref. endo- + thermic.] (Chem.) Designating, or pert. to, a reaction which occurs with absorption of heat; formed by such a reaction; as, an endothermic substance; -- opposed to exothermic.

En*face" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Enfaced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Enfacing.] [Pref. en- + face.] 1. To write or print on the face of (a draft, bill, etc.); as, to enface drafts with memoranda.

2. To write or print (a memorandum, direction, or the like) on the face of a draft, bill, etc.; as, to enface the words "Payable in Calcutta" upon the face of a draft.

Enfaced paper (Com.), Indian government securities the principal and interest of which are enfaced as payable in silver rupees. Dict. of Pol. Econ.

||En`fleu`rage" (?), n. [F., fr. en- (L. in) + fleur flower.] A process of extracting perfumes by exposing absorbents, as fixed oils or fats, to the exhalations of the flowers. It is used for plants whose volatile oils are too delicate to be separated by distillation.

En`gi*neer" Corps. (a) In the United States army, the Corps of Engineers, a corps of officers and enlisted men consisting of one band and three battalions of engineers commanded by a brigadier general, whose title is Chief of Engineers. It has charge of the construction of fortifications for land and seacoast defense, the improvement of rivers and harbors, the construction of lighthouses, etc., and, in time of war, supervises the engineering operations of the armies in the field. (b) In the United States navy, a corps made up of the engineers, which was amalgamated with the line by act of March 3, 1899. It consisted of assistant and passed assistant engineers, ranking with ensigns and lieutenants, chief engineers, ranking from lieutenant to captain, and engineer in chief, ranking with commodore and having charge of the Bureau of Steam Engineering.

En"gine-type` gen"er*a`tor. (Elec.) A generator having its revolving part carried on the shaft of the driving engine.

En*light"en*ment (?), n. = AufklÄrung.

||En` pas`sant" (?). [F.] In passing; in the course of any procedure; -- said specif. (Chess), of the taking of an adverse pawn which makes a first move of two squares by a pawn already so advanced as to threaten the first of these squares. The pawn which takes en passant is advanced to the threatened square.

||En` rap`port" (?). [F.] In accord, harmony, or sympathy; having a mutual, esp. a private, understanding; of a hypnotic subject, being in such a mental state as to be especially subject to the influence of a particular person or persons.

En*sile" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ensiled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ensiling (?).] [F. ensiler: cf. Sp. ensilar. See Silo.] To store (green fodder) in a silo; to prepare as silage. -- En"si*list (#), n.

En*tan"gle*ment, n. 1. (Mil.) An extensive low obstacle formed of stakes, stumps, or the like, connected by wires, ropes, or the like.

2. (Naut.) An obstruction of cables and spars across a river or harbor entrance.

{ En"ter*ing , or En"trant, edge }. = Advancing edge.

En*tire"-wheat", a. Designating, made of, or relating to, flour including a considerable part of the bran.

||En`tou`rage" (äN`t`rzh"), n. [F.] Surroundings; specif., collectively, one's attendants or associates.

The entourage and mode of life of the mikados were not such as to make of them able rulers.

B. H. Chamberlain.

Ep"worth League (?). A religious organization of Methodist young people, founded in 1889 at Cleveland, Ohio, and taking its name from John Wesley's birthplace, Epworth, Lincolnshire, England.

E"qual*iz`er (?), n. 1. = Equalizing bar.

2. A device, as a bar, for operating two brakes, esp. a pair of hub brakes for an automobile, with equal force.

3. (Elec.) Any device for equalizing the pull of electromagnets; also, a conductor of low resistance joining the armature ends of the series field coils of dynamos connected in parallel.

4. (Aëronautics) A sliding panel to preserve the lateral stability of an aëroplane.

E*ra"sure (?), n. An instance of erasing; also, the place where something has been erased.

Er"bi*um (?), n. [NL. Named from Ytterby, in Sweden, where gadolinite is found. Cf. Terbium, Yttrium, Ytterbium.] (Chem.) A metallic element of the rare earth group, found in gadolinite and some other minerals. Symbol, Er; at. wt. 167.4. Its salts are rose-colored and give characteristic spectra.

Er"gal (?), n. [G., fr. Gr. &?; work.] (Physics) Potential energy; negative value of the force function.

Erg"me`ter (?), n. [Erg + - meter.] (Physics) An instrument for measuring energy in ergs.

Er"go*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; work + - graph.] An instrument for measuring and recording the work done by a single muscle or set of muscles, the rate of fatigue, etc. -- Er`go*graph"ic (#), a.

Er*gom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; work + -meter.] (Physics) A device for measuring, or an instrument for indicating, energy expended or work done; a dynamometer. -- Er`go*met"ric (#), a.

Er"gon (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; work.] (Physics) (a) Work, measured in terms of the quantity of heat to which it is equivalent. (b) = Erg.

E*rode", v. t. (Geol. & Phys. Geog.) (a) To wear away; as, streams and glaciers erode the land. (b) To produce by erosion, or wearing away; as, glaciers erode U-shaped valleys.

E*ro"sion, n. The wearing away of the earth's surface by any natural process. The chief agent of erosion is running water; minor agents are glaciers, the wind, and waves breaking against the coast.

E*rupt" (?), v. i. [See Eruption.] 1. To eject something, esp. lava, water, etc., as a volcano or geyser.

2. To burst forth; to break out, as ashes from a volcano, teeth through the gums, etc.

When the amount and power of the steam is equal to the demand, it erupts with violence through the lava flood and gives us a small volcano.

H. J. W. Dam.

Es"ca*la`tor (?), n. [NL. Cf. Escalade.] A stairway or incline arranged like an endless belt so that the steps or treads ascend or descend continuously, and one stepping upon it is carried up or down; -- a trade term.

Es*cape", n. (Bot.) A plant which has escaped from cultivation.

Es`o*ter"ic (?), a. Marked by secrecy or privacy; private; select; confidential; as, an esoteric purpose; an esoteric meeting.

Es`o*ter"ic, n. (Philos.) (a) An esoteric doctrine or treatise; esoteric philosophy; esoterics. (b) One who believes, or is an initiate, in esoteric doctrines or rites.

Es`pe*ran"to (?), n. An artificial language, intended to be universal, devised by Dr. Zamenhof, a Russian, who adopted the pseudonym "Dr. Esperanto" in publishing his first pamphlet regarding it in 1887. The vocabulary is very largely based upon words common to the chief European languages, and sounds peculiar to any one language are eliminated. The spelling is phonetic, and the accent (stress) is always on the penult. -- Es`pe*ran"tist (#), n.

Es*tab"lished suit. (Whist) A plain suit in which a player (or side) could, except for trumping, take tricks with all his remaining cards.

||Es`ta`mi`net" (?), n. [F.] A café, or room in a café, in which smoking is allowed.

Et"a*mine (?), n. [F. élamine.] A light textile fabric, like a fine bunting.

||É`tape" (?), n. [F. Cf. Staple a mart.] 1. A public storehouse.

2. Supplies issued to troops on the march; hence (Mil.), the place where troops on the march halt over night; also, by extension, the distance marched during a day.

3. In Russia, a prison or stockade for the confinement of prisoners in transit.

E"thos (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?; character. See Ethic.] 1. The character, sentiment, or disposition of a community or people, considered as a natural endowment; the spirit which actuates manners and customs; also, the characteristic tone or genius of an institution or social organization.

2. (Æsthetics) The traits in a work of art which express the ideal or typic character -- character as influenced by the ethos (sense 1) of a people -- rather than realistic or emotional situations or individual character in a narrow sense; -- opposed to pathos.

Eth"y*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ethylated; p. pr. & vb. n. Ethylating.] [From Ethyl.] (Chem.) To treat in such a way as to cause the introduction of one or more ethyl groups, C2H5; as, to ethylate alcohol.

Eu*gen"e*sis (?), n. [Pref. eu- + genesis.] (Biol.) The quality or condition of having strong reproductive powers; generation with full fertility between different species or races, specif. between hybrids of the first generation.

{ Eur*af"ric (?), Eur*af"ri*can (?) }, a. [Europe + Afric, African.] 1. (Geog.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, the continents of Europe and Africa combined.

2. (Zoögeography) Pert. to or designating a region including most of Europe and northern Africa south to the Sahara.

3. Of European and African descent.

Eu*ro"pi*um (?), n. [NL.; Europe + -ium, as in aluminium.] (Chem.) A metallic element of the rare-earth group, discovered spectroscopically by Demarcay in 1896. Symbol, Eu; at. wt., 152.0.

Eu*tec"tic (?), a. [Gr. e'y`thktos easily melted; e'y^ well + th`kein to melt.] (Physics) Of maximum fusibility; -- said of an alloy or mixture which has the lowest melting point which it is possible to obtain by the combination of the given components.

||Eu*tex"i*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a being easily melted.] (Physics) The principle or process of forming from given components the eutectic alloy, or alloy of maximum fusibility.

E*vag"i*nate (?), a. [L. evaginatus, p. p., unsheathed. See Evagination.] Protruded, or grown out, as an evagination; turned inside out; unsheathed; evaginated; as, an evaginate membrane.

E*vag"i*nate (?), v. i. & t. [imp. & p. p. Evaginated; p. pr. & vb. n. Evaginating.] To become evaginate; to cause to be evaginate.

E*vag`i*na"tion, n. An outgrowth or protruded part.

Evergreen State. Washington; -- a nickname alluding to the abundance of evergreen trees.

Ex`al*ta"tion (?), n. (Med.) An abnormal sense of personal well-being, power, or importance, - - a symptom observed in various forms of insanity.

Ex*change" ed"i*tor. An editor who inspects, and culls from, periodicals, or exchanges, for his own publication.

Ex*cite", v. t. (Elec.) To energize (an electro-magnet); to produce a magnetic field in; as, to excite a dynamo.

||Ex` li"bris (?). [L. ex from + libris books.] An inscription, label, or the like, in a book indicating its ownership; esp., a bookplate.

Ex"moor (?), n. [From Exmoor, a district in Somersetshire and Devonshire.] 1. One of a breed of horned sheep of Devonshire, England, having white legs and face and black nostrils. They are esp. valuable for mutton.

2. A breed of ponies native to the Exmoor district.

Ex`o*ther"mic (?), a. [Pref. exo- + thermic.] (Chem.) Characterized by, or formed with, evolution of heat; as, an exothermic reaction; -- opposed to endothermic.

Ex*pe"ri*ence ta"ble. (Life Insurance) A table of mortality computed from the experience of one or more life- insurance companies.

Ex*press" ri"fle. A sporting rifle for use at short ranges, employing a large charge of powder and a light (short) bullet, giving a high initial velocity and consequently a flat trajectory. It is usually of moderately large caliber.

Express train. Formerly, a railroad train run expressly for the occasion; a special train; now, a train run at express or special speed and making few stops.

Ex*sert" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Exserted; p. pr. & vb. n. Exserting.] [See Exsert, a., Exert.] To thrust out; to protrude; as, some worms are said to exsert the proboscis.

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||Ex`terne" (ks`trn"), n. [F.] An extern; esp;, a doctor or medical student who is in attendance upon, or is assisting at, a hospital, but who does not reside in it.

Ex"tra (?), n. 1. Something in addition to what is due, expected, or customary; esp., an added charge or fee, or something for which an additional charge is made.

2. An edition of a newspaper issued at a time other than the regular one.

3. (Cricket) A run, as from a bye, credited to the general score but not made from a hit.

4. Something of an extra quality or grade.

Ex*tract"or, n. 1. A centrifugal drying machine.

2. (Apiculture) A machine for clearing combs of honey; also, a device for rendering wax.

Ex`tra*ju*di"cial (?), a. Out of or beyond the power authority of a court or judge; beyond jurisdiction; not valid as a part of a judicial proceeding; as, extrajudicial oaths, judgments, etc., are null and void. -- Ex`tra*ju*di"cial*ly, adv.

Extrajudicial conveyance. (Law) A conveyance, as by deed, effected by the act of the parties and not involving, as in the fine and recovery, judicial proceedings.

Ex*trav"a*sate (?), v. i. [See Extravasate, v. t.] (Physiol.) To pass by infiltration or effusion from the normal channel, such as a blood vessel or a lymphatic, into the surrounding tissue; -- said of blood, lymph, etc.

Ex*trav`a*sa"tion, n. (Geol.) The issue of lava and other volcanic products from the earth.

Ex*trude", v. t. (Metallurgy) To shape or form by forcing metal heated to a semi-plastic condition through dies by the use of hydraulic power; as, extruded metal, extruded rods, extruded shapes.

Ex*tru"sive (?), a. [See Extrude.] (Geol.) Forced out at the surface; as, extrusive rocks; -- contrasted with intrusive.

Ex*u"date (?), n. A product of exudation; an exuded substance.

Eye"-mind`ed, a. Having one's mental imagery prevailingly of the visual type; having one's thoughts and memories mainly in the form of visual images. -- Eye"- mind`ed*ness, n.

Eye opener. That which makes the eyes open, as startling news or occurrence, or (U. S. Slang), a drink of liquor, esp. the first one in the morning.


Fa"bi*an (?), n. A member of, or sympathizer with, the Fabian Society.

Fa"bi*an, a. 1. Of or pertaining to the Roman gens Fabia.

2. Designating, or pertaining to, a society of socialists, organized in England in 1884 to spread socialistic principles gradually without violent agitation.

The Fabian Society proposes then to conquer by delay; to carry its programme, not by a hasty rush, but through the slower, but, as it thinks, surer methods of patient discussion, exposition, and political action.

William Clarke.

Fac"ul*ta*tive (?), a. [L. facultas, -atis, faculty: cf. F. facultatif, G. fakultativ.] 1. Having relation to the grant or exercise faculty, or authority, privilege, license, or the like hence, optional; as, facultative enactments, or those which convey a faculty, or permission; the facultative referendum of Switzerland is one that is optional with the people and is necessary only when demanded by petition; facultative studies; -- opposed to obligatory and compulsory, and sometimes used with to.

2. Of such a character as to admit of existing under various forms or conditions, or of happening or not happening, or the like; specif.: (Biol.) Having the power to live under different conditions; as, a facultative parasite, a plant which is normally saprophytic, but which may exist wholly or in part as a parasite; -- opposed to obligate.

3. (Physiol.) Pertaining to a faculty or faculties.

In short, there is no facultative plurality in the mind; it is a single organ of true judgment for all purposes, cognitive or practical.

J. Martineau.

||Fa`daise" (?), n. [F.] A vapid or meaningless remark; a commonplace; nonsense.

{ Fai"ne*ance (?), Fai"ne*an*cy (?) }, n. [Cf. OF. faineance. See Fainéant.] Do-nothingness; inactivity; indolence.

The mask of sneering faineance was gone.

C. Kingsley.

Fainéant deity. A deity recognized as real but conceived as not acting in human affairs, hence not worshiped.

Fair catch. (Football) A catch made by a player on side who makes a prescribed signal that he will not attempt to advance the ball when caught. He must not then be interfered with.

Fak"er (?), n. [Often erroneously written fakir.] One who fakes something, as a thief, a peddler of petty things, a workman who dresses things up, etc. [Slang]

Fa"kir (?), n. [Prob. confused with Fakir an oriental ascetic.] See Faker.

Fan"-tan` (fn"tn`), n. [Chinese (of Canton) in an-tan-kun gambling house.] 1. A Chinese gambling game in which coins or other small objects are placed upon a table, usually under a cup, and the players bet as to what remainder will be left when the sum of the counters is divided by four.

2. A game with playing cards in which the cards are played in sequences upon the table, the one who first gets rid of his cards being the winner.

{ Fan*tigue" (?), Fan*tique" (?) }, n. [Written also fanteague, fanteeg, etc.] [Cf. Fantod.] State of worry or excitment; fidget; ill humor. [Prov. Eng.] Dickens.

{ Fan"tod (?), Fan"tad (?), } n. [Cf. Fantigue.] State of worry or excitement; fidget; fuss; also, indisposition; pet; sulks. [Slang]

Far"a*dize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Faradized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Faradizing (?).] (Med.) To stimulate with, or subject to, faradic, or inducted, electric currents. -- Far"a*diz`er (#), n.

||Fa`ran`dole" (?), n. [F. farandole, Pr. farandoulo.] A rapid dance in six- eight time in which a large number join hands and dance in various figures, sometimes moving from room to room. It originated in Provence.

I have pictured them dancing a sort of farandole.

W. D. Howells.

Fas"ci*cle, n. One of the divisions of a book published in parts; fasciculus.

Fas"ci*cule (?), n. [See Fascicle.] A small bunch or bundle; a fascicle; as, a fascicule of fibers, hairs, or spines.

Fast, a. In such a condition, as to resilience, etc., as to make possible unusual rapidity of play or action; as, a fast racket, or tennis court; a fast track; a fast billiard table, etc.

Fault, n. 1. (Elec.) A defective point in an electric circuit due to a crossing of the parts of the conductor, or to contact with another conductor or the earth, or to a break in the circuit.

2. (Geol. & Mining) A dislocation caused by a slipping of rock masses along a plane of facture; also, the dislocated structure resulting from such slipping.

The surface along which the dislocated masses have moved is called the fault plane. When this plane is vertical, the fault is a vertical fault; when its inclination is such that the present relative position of the two masses could have been produced by the sliding down, along the fault plane, of the mass on its upper side, the fault is a normal, or gravity, fault. When the fault plane is so inclined that the mass on its upper side has moved up relatively, the fault is then called a reverse (or reversed), thrust, or overthrust, fault. If no vertical displacement has resulted, the fault is then called a horizontal fault. The linear extent of the dislocation measured on the fault plane and in the direction of movement is the displacement; the vertical displacement is the throw; the horizontal displacement is the heave. The direction of the line of intersection of the fault plane with a horizontal plane is the trend of the fault. A fault is a strike fault when its trend coincides approximately with the strike of associated strata (i.e., the line of intersection of the plane of the strata with a horizontal plane); it is a dip fault when its trend is at right angles to the strike; an oblique fault when its trend is oblique to the strike. Oblique faults and dip faults are sometimes called cross faults. A series of closely associated parallel faults are sometimes called step faults and sometimes distributive faults.

Fa`vier" ex*plo"sive (?). [After the inventor, P. A. Favier, a Frenchman.] Any of several explosive mixtures, chiefly of ammonium nitrate and a nitrate derivative of naphthalene. They are stable, but require protection from moisture. As prepared it is a compressed cylinder of the explosive, filled with loose powder of the same composition, all inclosed in waterproof wrappers. It is used for mining.

Feath"er*bone` (?), n. A substitute for whalebone, made from the quills of geese and turkeys.

Feath"er*stitch` (?), n. A kind of embroidery stitch producing a branching zigzag line.

Feck (?), n. [Abbrev. fr. effect.] 1. Effect. [Obs.]

2. Efficacy; force; value. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

3. Amount; quantity. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

He had a feck o' books wi' him.

R. L. Stevenson.

The most feck, or The feck, the greater or larger part. "The feck o' my life." Burns.

||Fehm (?), n., ||Fehm"ge*richt` (&?;), n. Same as Vehm, Vehmgericht.

Fêng"-hwang` (?), n. [Chin. feng + 'huang.] (Chinese Myth.) A pheasantlike bird of rich plumage and graceful form and movement, fabled to appear in the land on the accession of a sage to the throne, or when right principles are about to prevail. It is often represented on porcelains and other works of art.

Fêng"-shu`i (?), n. [Chin. feng wind + shiu water.] A system of spirit influences for good and evil believed by the Chinese to attend the natural features of landscape; also, a kind of geomancy dealing with these influences, used in determining sites for graves, houses, etc.

Fer`men*ta"tion the"o*ry. (Med.) The theory which likens the course of certain diseases (esp. infectious diseases) to the process of fermentation, and attributes them to the organized ferments in the body. It does not differ materially from the accepted germ theory (which see).

Fer"me*ture (?), n. [F., fr. fermer to close.] (Mil.) The mechanism for closing the breech of a breech-loading firearm, in artillery consisting principally of the breechblock, obturator, and carrier ring.

{ Fer*ran"ti ca"bles (?), Fer*ran"ti mains" (?) }. (Elec.) A form of conductor, designed by Ferranti, for currents of high potential, and consisting of concentric tubes of copper separated by an insulating material composed of paper saturated with black mineral wax.

Fer*ran"ti phe*nom"e*non. (Elec.) An increase in the ratio of transformation of an alternating current converter, accompanied by other changes in electrical conditions, occurring when the secondary of the converter is connected with a condenser of moderate capacity; -- so called because first observed in connection with the Ferranti cables in London.

Fer"ris wheel (?). An amusement device consisting of a giant power-driven steel wheel, revolvable on its stationary axle, and carrying a number of balanced passenger cars around its rim; -- so called after G. W. G. Ferris, American engineer, who erected the first of its kind for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893.

Fer"ro-con"crete (?), n. (Arch. & Engin.) Concrete strengthened by a core or foundation skeleton of iron or steel bars, strips, etc. Floors, columns, piles, water pipes, etc., have been successfully made of it. Called also armored concrete steel, and reënforced concrete.

||Fies"ta (?), n. [Sp. See Feast, n.] Among Spanish, a religious festival; a saint's day or holiday; also, a holiday or festivity.

Even . . . a bullfight is a fiesta.

Am. Dialect Notes.

Some fiesta, when all the surrounding population were expected to turn out in holiday dress for merriment.

The Century.

Fig"u*line (?), a. [L. figulinus. See Figulate.] 1. Suitable for the making of pottery; fictile; -- said of clay.

2. Made of clay, as by the potter; -- said of vessels, ornamental figures, or the like; as, figuline ware.

Fi*la"ri*al (?), a. 1. (Zoöl. & Med.) Of, pertaining to, or caused by, filariæ and allied parasitic worms.

2. Straight, as if in a line; as, the filarial flight of birds.

||Fil`a*ri"a*sis (?), n. [NL.] (Med.) The presence of filariæ in the blood; infection with filariæ.

Fi*lasse" (?), n. [F., fr. fil thread, L. filum.] Vegetable fiber, as jute or ramie, prepared for manufacture.

File" clos`er. (Mil.) A commissioned or noncommissioned officer posted in the rear of a line, or on the flank of a column, of soldiers, to rectify mistakes and insure steadiness and promptness in the ranks.

Fil`i*a"tion (?), n. 1. Descent from, or as if from, a parent; relationship like that of a son; as, to determine the filiation of a language.

2. One that is derived from a parent or source; an offshoot; as, the filiations are from a common stock.

||Fil`i*o"que (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) The Latin for, "and from the Son," equivalent to et filio, inserted by the third council of Toledo (a. d. 589) in the clause qui ex Patre procedit (who proceedeth from the Father) of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (a. d. 381), which makes a creed state that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son as well as from the Father. Hence, the doctrine itself (not admitted by the Eastern Church).

Fil`i*pi"no (?), n.; pl. Filipinos (#). [Sp.] A native of the Philippine Islands, specif. one of Spanish descent or of mixed blood.

Then there are Filipinos, -- "children of the country," they are called, -- who are supposed to be pure-blooded descendants of Spanish settlers. But there are few of them without some touch of Chinese or native blood.

The Century.

Fill, n. That which fills; filling; specif., an embankment, as in railroad construction, to fill a hollow or ravine; also, the place which is to be filled.

Filled cheese. An inferior kind of cheese made from skim milk with a fatty "filling," such as oleomargarine or lard, to replace the fat removed in the cream.

Fill"er, n. 1. (Paint.) A composition, as of powdered silica and oil, used to fill the pores and grain of wood before applying paint, varnish, etc.

2. (Forestry) Any standing tree or standard higher than the surrounding coppice in the form of forest known as coppice under standards. Chiefly used in the pl.

Film (?), n. (Photog.) The layer, usually of gelatin or collodion, containing the sensitive salts of photographic plates; also, the flexible sheet of celluloid or the like on which this layer is sometimes mounted.

Celluloid film (Photog.), a thin flexible sheet of celluloid, coated with a sensitized emulsion of gelatin, and used as a substitute for photographic plates. -- Cut film (Photog.), a celluloid film cut into pieces suitable for use in a camera.

Fil`o*selle" (?), n. [F., floss silk.] A kind of silk thread less glossy than floss, and spun from coarser material. It is much used in embroidery instead of floss.

||Fils (?), n. [F., fr. L. filius. See Filial.] Son; -- sometimes used after a French proper name to distinguish a son from his father, as, Alexandre Dumas, fils.

Fin, n. (Aëronautics) A fixed stabilizing surface, usually vertical, similar in purpose to a bilge keel on a ship.

Fi"nal*ist (?), n. (Sports) Any of the players who meet in the final round of a tournament in which the losers in any round do not play again.

Fi*nance" (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Financed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Financing.] To conduct the finances of; to provide for, and manage, the capital for; to financier.

Securing foreign capital to finance multitudinous undertakings.

B. H. Chamberlain.

Fin"bat kite (?). = Eddy kite. [Eng.]

Find"er, n. (Micros.) A slide ruled in squares, so as to assist in locating particular points in the field of vision.

||Fin` de siè"cle (?). [F.] Lit., end of the century; -- mostly used adjectively in English to signify: belonging to, or characteristic of, the close of the 19th century; modern; "up- to-date;" as, fin-de-siècle ideas.

Fine (?), adv. 1. Finely; well; elegantly; fully; delicately; mincingly. [Obs., Dial., or Colloq.]

2. (Billiards & Pool) In a manner so that the driven ball strikes the object ball so far to one side as to be deflected but little, the object ball being driven to one side.

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Fine (fn), v. i. To become fine (in any one of various senses); as, the ale will fine; the weather fined.

To fine away, down, off, gradually to become fine; to diminish; to dwindle.

I watched her [the ship] . . . gradually fining down in the westward until I lost of her hull.

W. C. Russel.

Fin*jan" (?), n. [Also fingan, findjan, fingian, etc.] [Ar. finjn.] In the Levant, a small coffee cup without a handle, such as is held in a cup or stand called a zarf.

Fin keel. (Naut.) A projection downward from the keel of a yacht, resembling in shape the fin of a fish, though often with a cigar-shaped bulb of lead at the bottom, and generally made of metal. Its use is to ballast the boat and also to enable her to sail close to the wind and to make the least possible leeway by offering great resistance to lateral motion through the water.

Fin"sen light (?). [After Prof. Niels R. Finsen (b. 1860), Danish physician.] (Med.) Highly actinic light, derived from sunlight or from some form of electric lamp, used in the treatment of lupus and other cutaneous affections.

Fire"ball`, n. Ball, or globular, lightning.

Fire"room`, n. Same as Stokehold, below.

Fir"ing pin`. In the breech mechanism of a firearm, the pin which strikes the head of the cartridge and explodes it.

||Flache`rie" (flsh`r"), n. [F.] A bacterial disease of silkworms, supposed to be due to eating contaminated mulberry leaves.

||Fla"con (fl"kôn), n. [F. See Flagon.] A small glass bottle; as, a flacon for perfume. "Two glass flacons for the ink." Longfellow.

Flag, n. (Zoöl.) One of the wing feathers next the body of a bird; -- called also flag feather.

Flag, v. t. To decoy (game) by waving a flag, handkerchief, or the like to arouse the animal's curiosity.

The antelope are getting continually shyer and more difficult to flag.

T. Roosevelt.

Flair (flâr), n. [OE. flaireodor, fr. OF. & F. flair, fr. OF. flairier, F. flairer, to smell, LL. flagrare for L. fragrare. See Flagrant.] 1. Smell; odor. [Obs.]

2. Sense of smell; scent; fig., discriminating sense.

Flake (?), n. [Etym. uncertain; cf. 1st Fake.] A flat layer, or fake, of a coiled cable.

Flake after flake ran out of the tubs, until we were compelled to hand the end of our line to the second mate.

F. T. Bullen.

||Flam`bé" (?), a. [F., p.p. of flamber to singe, pass (a thing) through flame. Cf. Flambeau.] (Ceramics) Decorated by glaze splashed or irregularly spread upon the surface, or apparently applied at the top and allowed to run down the sides; -- said of pieces of Chinese porcelain.

||Flâ`ne*rie" (?), n. [F. flânerie. See Flaneur.] Lit., strolling; sauntering; hence, aimless; idleness; as, intellectual flânerie.

Flan"nel flow`er. (Bot.) (a) The common mullein. (b) A Brazilian apocynaceous vine (Macrosiphonia longiflora) having woolly leaves. (c) An umbelliferous Australian flower (Actinotus helianthi), often erroneously thought to be composite. The involucre looks as if cut out of white flannel.

Flare, n. (Photog.) A defect in a photographic objective such that an image of the stop, or diaphragm, appears as a fogged spot in the center of the developed negative.

Flare"-up`, n. A sudden bursting into flame; a flaring.

Flash boiler. A variety of water-tube boiler, used chiefly in steam automobiles, consisting of a nest of strong tubes with very little water space, kept nearly red hot so that the water as it trickles drop by drop into the tubes is immediately flashed into steam and superheated.

Flash burner. A gas burner with a device for lighting by an electric spark.

Flat, a. 1. (Golf) Having a head at a very obtuse angle to the shaft; -- said of a club.

2. (Gram.) Not having an inflectional ending or sign, as a noun used as an adjective, or an adjective as an adverb, without the addition of a formative suffix, or an infinitive without the sign to. Many flat adverbs, as in run fast, buy cheap, are from AS. adverbs in , the loss of this ending having made them like the adjectives. Some having forms in ly, such as exceeding, wonderful, true, are now archaic.

3. (Hort.) Flattening at the ends; -- said of certain fruits.

Flat"ware` (?), n. Articles for the table, as china or silverware, that are more or less flat, as distinguished from hollow ware.

Fleet, v. i. (Naut.) To move or change in position; -- said of persons; as, the crew fleeted aft.

Fleet", v. t. (Naut.) To move or change in position; used only in special phrases; as, of fleet aft the crew.

We got the long "stick" . . . down and "fleeted" aft, where it was secured.

F. T. Bullen.

||Fleu`ron" (?), n. [F., fr. OF. floron. Cf. Floroon.] A flower-shaped ornament, esp. one terminating an object or forming one of a series, as a knob of a cover to a dish, or a flower-shaped part in a necklace.

Flick (?), v. t. To throw, snap, or toss with a jerk; to flirt; as, to flick a whiplash.

Rude boys were flicking butter pats across chaos.


Flick, n. [See Flick, v. t.] A light quick stroke or blow, esp. with something pliant; a flirt; also, the sound made by such a blow.

She actually took the whip out of his hand and gave a flick to the pony.

Mrs. Humphry Ward.

Fli"er (?), n. An aëroplane or flying machine.

Flitch (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Flitched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flitching.] [See Flitch, n.] To cut into, or off in, flitches or strips; as, to flitch logs; to flitch bacon.

{ Flite, Flyte } (?), n. [AS. flt. See Flite.] Strife; dispute; abusive or upbraiding talk, as in fliting; wrangling. [Obs. or Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

The bird of Pallas has also a good "flyte" on the moral side . . . in his suggestion that the principal effect of the nightingale's song is to make women false to their husbands.


{ Flitt"ing, Flytt"ing } (?), n. Contention; strife; scolding; specif., a kind of metrical contest between two persons, popular in Scotland in the 16th century. [Obs. or Scot.]

These "flytings" consisted of alternate torrents of sheer Billingsgate poured upon each other by the combatants.


Float"er. (Politics) (a) A voter who shifts from party to party, esp. one whose vote is purchasable. [U. S.] (b) A person, as a delegate to a convention or a member of a legislature, who represents an irregular constituency, as one formed by a union of the voters of two counties neither of which has a number sufficient to be allowed a (or an extra) representative of its own. [U. S.] (c) A person who votes illegally in various polling places or election districts, either under false registration made by himself or under the name of some properly registered person who has not already voted. [U. S.]

Float"ing, n. The process of rendering oysters and scallops plump by placing them in fresh or brackish water; -- called also fattening, plumping, and laying out.

{ Floating charge, lien, etc. } (Law) A charge, lien, etc., that successively attaches to such assets as a person may have from time to time, leaving him more or less free to dispose of or encumber them as if no such charge or lien existed.

Floc"cu*late (?), v. t. To convert into floccules or flocculent aggregates; to make granular or crumbly; as, the flocculating of a soil improves its mechanical condition.

When applied to clay soils it [lime] binds the small particles together, or flocculates them.

I. P. Roberts.

Floc"cule (?), n. [See Flocculus.] 1. A detached mass of loosely fibrous structure like a shredded tuft of wool.

2. (Chem.) Specif.: A small particle of an insoluble substance formed in a liquid by the union of smaller particles.

Floc"cu*lent, a. (Chem.) Having a structure like shredded wool, as some precipitates.

Flong (?), n. [Of the same origin as flawn, flan, a metal disk.] (Stereotyping) A compressed mass of paper sheets, forming a matrix or mold for stereotype plates.

Flo`ri*a"tion (?), n. 1. Ornamentation by means of flower forms, whether closely imitated or conventionalized.

2. Any floral ornament or decoration. Rock.

Floss, n. A body feather of an ostrich. Flosses are soft, and gray from the female and black from the male.

Flo*ta"tion, n. (Com. & Finance) Act of financing, or floating, a commercial venture or an issue of bonds, stock, or the like.

Flotation process. A process of separating the substances contained in pulverized ore or the like by depositing the mixture on the surface of a flowing liquid, the substances that are quickly wet readily overcoming the surface tension of the liquid and sinking, the others flowing off in a film or slime on the surface, though, perhaps, having a greater specific gravity than those that sink.

Flow"er State. Florida; -- a nickname, alluding to sense of L. floridus, from florida flowery. See Florid.

Flue, n. In an organ flue pipe, the opening between the lower lip and the languet.

Flue pipe. (Music) A pipe, esp. an organ pipe, whose tone is produced by the impinging of a current of air upon an edge, or lip, causing a wave motion in the air within; a mouth pipe; - - distinguished from reed pipe. Flue pipes are either open or closed (stopped at the distant end). The flute and flageolet are open pipes; a bottle acts as a closed pipe when one blows across the neck. The organ has both open and closed flue pipes, those of metal being usually round in section, and those of wood triangular or square.

Fluff (?), v. t. & i. To make or become fluffy; to move lightly like fluff. Holmes.

Fluke (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Fluked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fluking (?).] To get or score by a fluke; as, to fluke a play in billiards. [Slang]

Flu`o*res"cence (?), n. A property possessed by fluor spar, uranium glass, sulphide of calcium, and many other substances, of glowing without appreciable rise of temperature when exposed to light or to ultra-violet rays, cathode rays, X rays, etc.

Flu*or"o*scope, n. (Physics) A fluorescent screen, with hood to protect the eyes, used for observing the shadows cast by objects placed in the path of the X rays. -- Flu*or`o*scop"ic (#), a.

Flu`or*os"co*py (?), n. Examination of an object, as the human body, by exposing it to the X rays and observing the shadow cast upon a fluorescent screen; cryptoscopy.

Flush, v. t. To cause by flow; to draw water from, or pour it over or through (a pond, meadow, sewer, etc.); to cleanse by means of a rush of water.

Flush, v. i. (Mining) (a) To operate a placer mine, where the continuous supply of water is insufficient, by holding back the water, and releasing it periodically in a flood. (b) To fill underground spaces, especially in coal mines, with material carried by water, which, after drainage, constitutes a compact mass.

Flu"vi*o*graph (?), n. [L. fluvius river + -graph.] An instrument for measuring and recording automatically the rise and fall of a river.

Flu`vi*om"e*ter (?), n. [L. fluvius river + -meter.] An instrument for measuring the height of water in a river; a river gauge.

Fly, v. t. To manage (an aircraft) in flight; as, to fly an aëroplane.

Fly, n. (Cotton Manuf.) Waste cotton.

{ Fly amanita, Fly fungus }. (Bot.) A poisonous mushroom (Amanita muscaria, syn. Agaricus muscarius), having usually a bright red or yellowish cap covered with irregular white spots. It has a distinct volva at the base, generally an upper ring on the stalk, and white spores. Called also fly agaric, deadly amanita.

Fly"a*way` (?), a. Disposed to fly away; flighty; unrestrained; light and free; -- used of both persons and things. -- n. A flyaway person or thing. "Truth is such a flyaway." Emerson.

Flyaway grass. (Bot.) The hair grass (Agrostis scabra). So called from its light panicle, which is blown to great distances by the wind.

Flying boat. A compact form of hydro-aëroplane having one central body, or hull.

||Foehn (?), n. [G. dial. (Swiss), fr. L. Favonius west wind. Cf. Favonian.] (Meteor.) (a) A warm dry wind that often blows in the northern valleys of the Alps, due to the indraught of a storm center passing over Central Europe. The wind, heated by compression in its descent from the mountains, reaches the base, particularly in winter, dry and warm. (b) Any similar wind, as the chinook, in other parts of the world.

Fog (?), n. (Photog.) Cloudiness or partial opacity of those parts of a developed film or a photograph which should be clear.

Fog, v. t. (Photog.) To render semiopaque or cloudy, as a negative film, by exposure to stray light, too long an exposure to the developer, etc.

Fog belt. A region of the ocean where fogs are of marked frequency, as near the coast of Newfoundland.

Fog"bow` (?), n. A nebulous arch, or bow, of white or yellowish light sometimes seen in fog, etc.

Fo"gy (?), n. (Mil.) In the United States service, extra pay granted to officers for length of service. [Colloq.]

||Fol"ke*thing` (?), n. [Dan. See Folk, and Thing.] The lower house of the Danish Rigsdag, or Parliament. See Legislature, below.

Fol"low (?), n. The art or process of following; specif., in some games, as billiards, a stroke causing a ball to follow another ball after hitting it. Also used adjectively; as, follow shot.

Following edge. (Aëronautics) See Advancing-edge, above.

Following surface. (Aëronautics) See Advancing-surface, above.

Fo"ment (?), n. 1. Fomentation.

2. State of excitation; -- perh. confused with ferment.

He came in no conciliatory mood, and the foment was kept up.

Julian Ralph.

Fond (?), n. [F., fr. L. fundus. See Fund.] [Obs., or used as a French word] 1. Foundation; bottom; groundwork; specif.: (a) (Lace Making) The ground. (b) (Cookery) The broth or juice from braised flesh or fish, usually served as a sauce.

2. Fund, stock, or store.

||Fon"dant (fn"dant; Fr. fôN`däN"), n. [F., lit., melting, p. pr. of fondre to melt, L. fundere. See Found to cast.] A kind of soft sweetmeat made by boiling solutions to the point of crystallization, usually molded; as, cherry fondant.

||Fon`du" (fn"d"), a. [F. fondu, p.p. of fondre to melt, blend. See Found to cast.] Blended; passing into each other by subtle gradations; -- said of colors or of the surface or material on which the colors are laid.

||Fon`due" (?), n. [Also erroneously Fon`du".] [F. See Fondu; cf. Fondant.] (Cookery) A dish made of cheese, eggs, butter, etc., melted together.

Foot candle. (Photom.) The amount of illumination produced by a standard candle at a distance of one foot.

Foot ton. (Mech.) A unit of energy or work, being equal to the work done in raising one ton against the force of gravity through the height of one foot.

Foot valve. (Mech.) A suction valve or check valve at the lower end of a pipe; esp., such a valve in a steam-engine condenser opening to the air pump.

Foo"zle (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Foozled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Foozling (?).] [Cf. G. fuseln to work badly or slowly.] To bungle; to manage awkwardly; to treat or play unskillfully; as, to foozle a stroke in golf.

She foozles all along the course.

Century Mag.

Foo"zle, n. 1. A stupid fellow; a fogy. [Colloq.]

2. Act of foozling; a bungling stroke, as in golf.

For"cite (?), n. [From 3d Force, n.] (Chem.) A gelatin dynamite in which the dope is composed largely of sodium nitrate.

||Fö"ren*di*ház` (?), n. [Hung., lit., House of Lords.] (Hungary) See Legislature.

Form, v. t. (Elec.) To treat (plates) so as to bring them to fit condition for introduction into a storage battery, causing one plate to be composed more or less of spongy lead, and the other of lead peroxide. This was formerly done by repeated slow alternations of the charging current, but now the plates or grids are coated or filled, one with a paste of red lead and the other with litharge, introduced into the cell, and formed by a direct charging current.

For"ma*lin (?), n. [Formic + aldehyde + -in.] (Chem.) An aqueous solution of formaldehyde, used as a preservative in museums and as a disinfectant.

||For`mat" (fr`m" or fr`mät"), n. [F. or G. Cf. Formation.] (Print.) The shape and size of a book; hence, its external form.

The older manuscripts had been written in a much larger format than that found convenient for university work.

G. H. Putnam.

One might, indeed, protest that the format is a little too luxurious.


<! p. 1983 !>

For"mi*cate (fôr"m*kt), v. i. [See Formication.] To creep or crawl like ants; swarm with, or as with, ants.

An open space which formicated with peasantry.


For`ty-nin"er (?), n. One of those who went to California in the rush for gold in 1849; an argonaut. [Colloq., U. S.]

Fos"sick (?), v. i. [Dial. E. fossick, fossuck, a troublesome person, fussick to potter over one's work, fussock to bustle about; of uncertain origin. Cf. Fuss.] 1. (Mining) To search for gold by picking at stone or earth or among roots in isolated spots, picking over abandoned workings, etc.; hence, to steal gold or auriferous matter from another's claim. [Australia]

2. To search about; to rummage.

A man who has fossicked in nature's byways.

D. Macdonald.

Fou`cault" cur`rent (?). [After J. B. L. Foucault (1819-68), French physicist.] (Elec.) An eddy current.

Foul, n. In various games or sports, an act done contrary to the rules; a foul stroke, hit, play, or the like.

||Four`chette" (?), n. (Card Playing) The combination of the card immediately above and the one immediately below a given card.

Four"-cy`cle, n. (Thermodynamics) A four-stroke cycle, as the Otto cycle, for an internal- combustion engine. -- Four"-cy`cle, a.

Four"some (?), a. [Four + 2d -some.] Consisting of four; requiring four participants. [Scot. or Golf]

Four"some, n. (Golf) A game between four players, with two on each side and each side playing but one ball, the partners striking alternately. It is called a mixed foursome when each side consists of a man and a woman.

Frame, n. In games: (a) In pool, the triangular form used in setting up the balls; also, the balls as set up, or the round of playing required to pocket them all; as, to play six frames in a game of 50 points. (b) In bowling, as in tenpins, one of the several innings forming a game.

Frame"-up`, n. A conspiracy or plot, esp. for a malicious or evil purpose, as to incriminate a person on false evidence. [Slang]

||Franc"-ti`reur" (?), n. [F., fr. franc free + tireur shooter, fr. tirer to shoot.] (Mil.) A French partisan soldier, or one belonging to a corps of detached light troops engaged in forays, skirmishes, scouting, etc.

||Frap`pé" (fr`p"), a. [F., p.p. of frapper to strike, to chill.] Iced; frozen; artificially cooled; as, wine frappé. -- n. A frappé mixture or beverage, as a water ice, variously flavored, frozen soft, and served in glasses.

Frap"ping (?), n. [From Frap.] (Naut.) A lashing binding a thing tightly or binding things together.

Fraz"zle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Frazzled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Frazzling (?).] [Cf. G. faseln, and E. fray.] To fray; to wear or pull into tatters or tag ends; to tatter; -- used literally and figuratively. [Prov. Eng. & U. S.]

Her hair was of a reddish gray color, and its frazzled and tangled condition suggested that the woman had recently passed through a period of extreme excitement.

J. C. Harris.

Fraz"zle, n. The act or result of frazzling; the condition or quality of being frazzled; the tag end; a frayed-out end. [Prov. Eng. & U. S.]

My fingers are all scratched to frazzles.


Gordon had sent word to Lee that he "had fought his corps to a frazzle."

Nicolay & Hay (Life of Lincoln).

||Frau (?), n.; pl. Frauen (#). [G. Cf. 1st Frow.] In Germany, a woman; a married woman; a wife; -- as a title, equivalent to Mrs., Madam.

||Fräu"lein (?), n.sing. & pl. [G., dim. of frau woman. See Frau.] In Germany, a young lady; an unmarried woman; -- as a title, equivalent to Miss.

Free coinage. In the fullest sense, the conversion of bullion (of any specified metal) into legal-tender coins for any person who chooses to bring it to the mint; in a modified sense, such coinage when done at a fixed charge proportionate to the cost of the operation.

Free silver. The free coinage of silver; often, specif., the free coinage of silver at a fixed ratio with gold, as at the ratio of 16 to 1, which ratio for some time represented nearly or exactly the ratio of the market values of gold and silver respectively.

Free"wheel` (?), n. (Mach.) A clutch fitted in the rear hub of a cycle, which engages the rear sprocket with the rear wheel when the pedals are rotated forwards, but permits the rear wheel to run on free from the rear sprocket when the pedals are stopped or rotated backwards. Freewheelcycles are usually fitted with hub brakes or rim brakes, operated by back pedaling.

Free"wheel`, v. i. 1. (a) Of a freewheel cycle, to run on while the pedals are held still. (b) Of a person, to ride a cycle of this manner. To ride a freewheel cycle.

2. (Mach.) To operate like a freewheel, so that one part moves freely over another which normally moves with it; -- said of a clutch.

Freeze, v. t. -- To freeze out, to drive out or exclude by cold or by cold treatment; to force to withdraw; as, to be frozen out of one's room in winter; to freeze out a competitor. [Colloq.]

A railroad which had a London connection must not be allowed to freeze out one that had no such connection.

A. T. Hadley.

It is sometimes a long time before a player who is frozen out can get into a game again.

R. F. Foster.

||Frei"herr` (?), n.; pl. Freiherrn (#). [G., lit., free lord.] In Germany and Austria, a baron.

Fre*mes"cent (?), a. [L. fremere to roar, murmur + -escent.] Becoming murmurous, roaring. "Fremescent clangor." Carlyle. -- Fre*mes"cence (#), n.

||Frem"i*tus (?), n., sing. & pl. [L., a murmuring, roaring.] (Med.) Palpable vibration or thrill; as, the rhonchial fremitus.

Friend"ly, n. A friendly person; -- usually applied to natives friendly to foreign settlers or invaders.

These were speedily routed by the friendlies, who attacked the small force before them in fine style.

E. N. Bennett.

{ Fri"jol, Fri"jole (?), n.; pl. Frijoles (&?;). Also Fre"jol }. [Sp. fríjol, fréjol.] 1. In Mexico, the southwestern United States, and the West Indies, any cultivated bean of the genus Phaseolus, esp. the black seed of a variety of P. vulgaris.

2. The beanlike seed of any of several related plants, as the cowpea. Frijoles are an important article of diet among Spanish-American peoples, being used as an ingredient of many dishes.

Fringe tree. A small oleaceous tree (Chionanthus virginica), of the southern United States, having clusters of white flowers with slender petals. It is often cultivated.

{ Fri*sette", Fri*zette" } (?), n. [F. frisette curl.] a fringe of hair or curls worn about the forehead by women.

Frit"fly` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small dipterous fly of the genus Oscinis, esp. O. vastator, injurious to grain in Europe, and O. Trifole, injurious to clover in America.

Friv"ol (?), v. i. To act frivolously; to trifle. Kipling. -- Friv"ol*er (#), Friv"ol*ler, n. [All Colloq.]

Frizz, v. t. & i. [Partly imitative, but cf. Fry.] To fry, cook, or sear with a sizzling noise; to sizzle.

Friz"zle (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Frizzled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Frizzling (?).] [Freq. of an imitative word frizz, in dial. use.] 1. To fry, toast, or broil with a sputtering sound to cook with a sizzling noise. Also fig. Hawthorne.

2. To cook, in certain way, so as to curl or crinkle up.

Drain and heat it [shaved smoked beef] in one tablespoonful of hot butter, to curl or frizzle it.

Mrs. Lincoln (Cook Book).

Froe*bel"i*an (?), a. Pertaining to, or derived from, Friedrich Froebel, or the kindergarten system of education, which he organized. -- n. One who teaches by, or advocates the use of, the kindergarten system.

Frog"-eyed` (?), a. Spotted with whitish specks due to a disease, or produced artificially by spraying; -- said of tobacco used for cigar wrappers.

Front (?), n. 1. (Fort.) All the works along one side of the polygon inclosing the site which is fortified.

2. (Phon.) The middle of the upper part of the tongue, -- the part of the tongue which is more or less raised toward the palate in the pronunciation of certain sounds, as the vowel i in machine, e in bed, and consonant y in you. See Guide to Pronunciation, §10.

3. The call boy whose turn it is to answer the call, which is often the word "front," used as an exclamation. [Hotel Cant]

Frost"bow` (?), n. A white arc or circle in the sky attending frosty weather and formed by reflection of sunlight from ice crystals floating in the air; the parhelic circle whose center is at the zenith.

Frost" sig`nal. (Meteor.) A signal consisting of a white flag with a black center, used by the United States Weather Bureau to indicate that a local frost is expected. It is used only in Florida and along the coasts of the Pacific and the Gulf Mexico.

||Frou"frou` (?), n. [F., of imitative origin.] A rustling, esp. the rustling of a woman's dress.

Fu (?), n. [Chin.] A department in China comprising several hsein; also, the chief city of a department; -- often forming the last part of a name; as, Paoting- fu.

Fudge, n. A kind of soft candy composed of sugar or maple sugar, milk, and butter, and often chocolate or nuts, boiled and stirred to a proper consistency.

Full house. (Poker) A hand containing three of a kind and a pair, as three kings and two tens. It ranks above a flush and below four of a kind.

||Fu`ma*to"ri*um (?), n.; L. pl. -ria (#). [NL., fr. L. fumare, fumatum, to smoke.] An air-tight compartment in which vapor may be generated to destroy germs or insects; esp., the apparatus used to destroy San José scale on nursery stock, with hydrocyanic acid vapor.

Fu"ma*to*ry (?), a. [See Fumatorium.] Pert. to, or concerned with, smoking. - - n.; pl. -ries (&?;). A place for subjecting things to smoke or vapor.

Fume, n. (Metal.) Solid material deposited by condensation of fumes; as, lead fume (a grayish powder chiefly lead sulphate).

Fumed oak (?). (Cabinetwork) Oak given a weathered appearance by exposure in an air-tight compartment to fumes of ammonia from uncorked cans, being first given a coat of filler.

||Fu`met" (?), n. [F.] A high- flavored substance, such as extract of game, for flavoring dishes of food; less properly, a ragout of partridge and rabbit braised in wine.

Func"tion (?), n. 1. (Eccl.) A religious ceremony, esp. one particularly impressive and elaborate.

Every solemn ‘function' performed with the requirements of the liturgy.

Card. Wiseman.

2. A public or social ceremony or gathering; a festivity or entertainment, esp. one somewhat formal.

This function, which is our chief social event.

W. D. Howells.

Fun"gi (?), n. pl. (Bot.) A group of thallophytic plants of low organization, destitute of chlorophyll, in which reproduction is mainly accomplished by means of asexual spores, which are produced in a great variety of ways, though sexual reproduction is known to occur in certain Phycomycetes, or so-called algal fungi.

The Fungi appear to have originated by degeneration from various algæ, losing their chlorophyll on assuming a parasitic or saprophytic life. By some they are divided into the subclasses Phycomycetes, the lower or algal fungi; the Mesomycetes, or intermediate fungi; and the Mycomycetes, or the higher fungi; by others into the Phycomycetes; the Ascomycetes, or sac-spore fungi; and the Basidiomycetes, or basidial-spore fungi.

||Fun"gi Im`per*fec"ti (?), pl. [L. imperfecti imperfect.] (Bot.) A heterogenous group of fungi of which the complete life history is not known. Some undoubtedly represent the conidium stages of various Ascomycetes. The group is divided into the orders Sphæropsidales, Melanconiales, and Moniliales.

Funk (?), n. One who funks; a shirk; a coward. [Colloq.]

Funk, v. t. 1. To funk at; to flinch at; to shrink from (a thing or person); as, to funk a task. [Colloq.]

2. To frighten; to cause to flinch. [Colloq.]

{ Fuse, or Fuze }, n. (Elec.) A wire, bar, or strip of fusible metal inserted for safety in an electric circuit. When the current increases beyond a certain safe strength, the metal melts, interrupting the circuit and thereby preventing possibility of damage.

Fu*see" (?), n. 1. (Railroads) A signal used principally for the protection of trains, consisting of a tube filled with a composition which burns with a bright colored light for a definite time.

2. (a) A friction match for smokers' use having a bulbous head which when ignited is not easily blown out even in a gale of wind. (b) A kind of match made of paper impregnated with niter and having the usual igniting tip.

Fu"se*lage (?), n. (Aëronautics) An elongated body or frame of an aëroplane or flying machine; sometimes, erroneously, any kind of frame or body. Many aëroplanes have no fuselage, properly so called.

{ Fuse, or Fuze, plug }. 1. (Ordnance) A plug fitted to the fuse hole of a shell to hold the fuse.

2. A fusible plug that screws into a receptacle, used as a fuse in electric wiring.

{ Fu"thorc Fu"thork } (?), n. [Written also futharc, futhark.] The Runic alphabet; -- so called from the six letters f, u, þ (th), o (or a), r, c (=k).

The letters are called Runes and the alphabet bears the name Futhorc from the first six letters.

I. Taylor.

The spelling futharc represents most accurately the original values of these six Runic letters.

Fu"tur*ism (?), n. (Painting) A movement or phase of post-impressionism (which see, below).


Ga*dhel"ic (g*dl"k; gd"el*k), a. [See Gael.] Of, belonging to, or designating, that division of the Celtic languages which includes the Irish, Gaelic, and Manx.

Gad`o*lin"i*a (?), n. [NL. See Gadolinite.] A rare earth associated with yttria and regarded as the oxide (Gd2O3) of a metallic element, Gad`o*lin"i*um (&?;), with an assigned atomic weight of 153.3.

Gaek"war (?), n. [Also Gaikwar, Guicowar.] [Marathi gekwr, prop., a cowherd.] The title of the ruling Prince of Baroda, in Gujarat, in Bombay, India.

Gag law. (Parliamentary Law) A law or ruling prohibiting proper or free debate, as in closure. [Colloq. or Cant]

Gains"borough hat (?). A woman's broad-brimmed hat of a form thought to resemble those shown in portraits by Thomas Gainsborough, the English artist (1727-88).

Gal`a*te"a (?), n. [After Galatea, a British man-of-war, the material being used for children's sailor suits.] A kind of striped cotton fabric, usually of superior quality and striped with blue or red on white.

||Galbe (?), n. [F.; OF. garbe, fr. It. garbo grace, gracefulness. See Garb dress.] (Art) The general outward form of any solid object, as of a column or a vase.

Gal"li*um (?), n. [NL.; perh. fr. L. Gallia France.] (Chem.) A rare metallic element, found combined in certain zinc ores. It is white, hard, and malleable, resembling aluminium, and remarkable for its low melting point (86° F., 30° C.). Symbol, Ga; at. wt., 69.9. Gallium is chiefly trivalent, resembling aluminium and indium. It was predicted with most of its properties, under the name eka-aluminium, by Mendelyeev on the basis of the periodic law. This prediction was verified in its discovery (in 1875) by its characteristic spectrum (two violet lines).

Gal"lize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gallized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gallizing (?).] [After Dr. L. Gall, a French chemist, who invented the process.] In wine making, to add water and sugar to (unfermented grape juice) so as to increase the quantity of wine produced. -- Gal`li*za"tion (#), n.

Ga*losh" (?), n. 1. Same as Galoche, Galoshe.

2. A strip of material, as leather, running around a shoe at and above the sole, as for protection or ornament.

Gam (?), n. [Orig. uncert.] (Naut.) (a) A herd, or school, of whales. (b) A visit between whalers at sea; a holding of social intercourse between those on different vessels at sea, or (Local U. S.) between persons ashore.

Gam, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gammed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gam"ming.] (Naut.) (a) To gather in a gam; -- said of whales. (b) To engage in a gam, or (Local, U. S.) in social intercourse anywhere.

Gam, v. t. (Naut.) To have a gam with; to pay a visit to, esp. among whalers at sea.

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Gam*beer" (?), v. t. [Cf. F. gambier a kind of hook.] (Fishing) To gaff, as mackerel.

Gam"ble (?), n. An act of gambling; a transaction or proceeding involving gambling; hence, anything involving similar risk or uncertainty. [Colloq.]

Gam"ete (gm"t; g*mt"; the latter usually in compounds), n. [Gr. gameth` wife, or game`ths husband, fr. gamei^n to marry.] (Biol.) A sexual cell or germ cell; a conjugating cell which unites with another of like or unlike character to form a new individual. In Bot., gamete designates esp. the similar sex cells of the lower thallophytes which unite by conjugation, forming a zygospore. The gametes of higher plants are of two sorts, sperm (male) and egg (female); their union is called fertilization, and the resulting zygote an oöspore. In Zoöl., gamete is most commonly used of the sexual cells of certain Protozoa, though also extended to the germ cells of higher forms.

Ga*me"to*phyte (?), n. [Gamete + Gr. fyto`n plant.] (Bot.) In the alternation of generations in plants, that generation or phase which bears sex organs. In the lower plants, as the algæ, the gametophyte is the conspicuous part of the plant body; in mosses it is the so-called moss plant; in ferns it is reduced to a small, early perishing body; and in seed plants it is usually microscopic or rudimentary.

Gam"ma rays. (Physics) Very penetrating rays not appreciably deflected by a magnetic or electric field, emitted by radioactive substances. The prevailing view is that they are non- periodic ether pulses differing from Röntgen rays only in being more penetrating.

Gamp (?), n. A large umbrella; -- said to allude to Mrs. Gamp's umbrella, in Dickens's "Martin Chuzzlewit."

Ga*nan"cial (?), a. [Sp., pertaining to gain, held in common, fr. ganancia gain.] (Law) Designating, pertaining to, or held under, the Spanish system of law (called ganancial system) which controls the title and disposition of the property acquired during marriage by the husband or wife.

Gange (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ganged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ganging (?).] [Of uncertain origin.] 1. To protect (the part of a line next a fishhook, or the hook itself) by winding it with wire.

2. To attach (a fishhook) to a line or snell, as by knotting the line around the shank of the hook.

Ganz system (?) A haulage system for canal boats, in which an electric locomotive running on a monorail has its adhesion materially increased by the pull of the tow rope on a series of inclined gripping wheels.

Gap, n. (Aëronautics) The vertical distance between two superposed surfaces, esp. in a biplane.

Gape"seed` (?), n. A person who looks or stares gapingly. -- To buy, or sow, gapeseed, to stare idly or in idle wonderment, instead of attending to business.

Ga`rage" (?), n. [F.] 1. A place for housing automobiles.

2. (Aëronautics) A shed for housing an airship or flying machine; a hangar.

3. A side way or space in a canal to enable vessels to pass each other; a siding.

Garage is recent in English, and has as yet acquired no settled pronunciation.

Ga`rage" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Garaged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Garaging (?).] To keep in a garage. [Colloq.]

||Gar`çon" (?), n. [F.] A boy; fellow; esp., a serving boy or man; a waiter; -- in Eng. chiefly applied to French waiters.

||Garde` ci`vique" (?). [F.] See Army organization, above.

Garter stitch. The simplest stitch in knitting.

Gas (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gassed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gassing.] 1. (Textiles) To singe, as in a gas flame, so as to remove loose fibers; as, to gas thread.

2. To impregnate with gas; as, to gas lime with chlorine in the manufacture of bleaching powder.

Gas, n. Gasoline. [Colloq.]

Gas`e*lier" (?), n. [Formed from gas, in imitation of chandelier.] A chandelier arranged to burn gas.

Gas engine. (Mach.) A kind of internal- combustion engine (which see) using fixed gas; also, broadly, any internal-combustion engine.

{ Gas"o*line, or Gas"o*lene, en"gine }. (Mach.) A kind of internal-combustion engine; -- in British countries called usually petrol engine.

||Gatch (?), n. [Per. gach mortar.] Plaster as used in Persian architecture and decorative art.

Gatch decoration, decoration in plaster often producing design of great beauty. -- Gatch work, work in which gatch is employed; also, articles of gatch ornamentation collectively.

||Gau"cho (?), n. A member of an Indian population, somewhat affected by Spanish blood, in the archipelagoes off the Chilean coast.

Gauss (gous), n. [So named after Karl F. Gauss, a German mathematician.] (Elec.) The C.G.S. unit of density of magnetic field, equal to a field of one line of force per square centimeter, being thus adopted as an international unit at Paris in 1900; sometimes used as a unit of intensity of magnetic field. It was previously suggested as a unit of magnetomotive force.

||Gauss"age (?), n. (Elec.) The intensity of a magnetic field expressed in C.G.S. units, or gausses.

||Ga`vage" (g`vzh"), n. [F., fr. gaver to gorge.] Forced feeding (as of poultry or infants) by means of a tube passed through the mouth down to the stomach.

Gay"ley proc"ess. (Med.) The process of removing moisture from the blast of an iron blast furnace by reducing its temperature so far that it will not remain suspended as vapor in the blast current, but will be deposited as snow in the cooling apparatus. The resultant uniformly dehydrated blast effects great economy in fuel consumption, and promotes regularity of furnace operation, and certainty of furnace control.

Gee"zer (?), n. [Dial. corrupt. of Guiser a mummer.] A queer old fellow; an old chap; an old woman. [Contemptuous, Slang or Dial.]

Gei"sha (g"sh), n.; pl. Geisha (-sh), Geishas (- shz). [Jap.] A Japanese singing and dancing girl.

Gen"er*a`tor, n. (Elec.) Any machine that transforms mechanical into electrical energy; a dynamo.

Gen"ip (?), n., or Genip tree. 1. Any tree or shrub of the genus Genipa.

2. The West Indian sapindaceous tree Melicocca bijuga, which yields the honeyberry; also, the related trees Exothea paniculata and E. trifoliata.

Gen"o*a cake (?). (Cookery) A rich glazed cake, with almonds, pistachios, filberts, or other nuts; also, a rich currant cake with almonds on the top.

||Gen"re (?), n. Kind; genus; class; form; style, esp. in literature.

French drama was lisping or still inarticulate; the great French genre of the fabliau was hardly born.


A particular demand . . . that we shall pay special attention to the matter of genres -- that is, to the different forms or categories of literature.

W. P. Trent.

Gen"tle*men's a*gree"ment (?). An agreement binding only as a matter of honor; often, specif., such an agreement among the heads of industrial or merchantile enterprises, the terms of which could not be included and enforced in a legal contract.

Gen*too" (jn*t"), n.; pl. Gentoos (-tz"). A penguin (Pygosceles tæniata). [Falkland Is.]

{ Ge`o*cen"tric (?), Ge`o*cen"tric*al (?) }, a. } Having, considering, or based on, the earth as center; as, the geocentric theory of the universe.

Ge`o*chem"is*try (j`*km"s*tr), n. [Gr. ge`a, gh^, the earth + chemistry.] The study of the chemical composition of, and of actual or possible chemical changes in, the crust of the earth. -- Ge`o*chem"ic*al (#), a. -- Ge`o*chem"ist (#), n.

Geor"gi*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Georgia, one of the United States.

Georgian architecture. British or British colonial architecture of the period of the four Georges, especially that of the period before 1800.

Germ, n. (Biol.) The germ cells, collectively, as distinguished from the somatic cells, or soma. Germ is often used in place of germinal to form phrases; as, germ area, germ disc, germ membrane, germ nucleus, germ sac, etc.

Germ cell. (Biol.) A cell, of either sex, directly concerned in the production of a new organism.

Ger"mi*nal, a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to the germ, or germ cells, as distinguished from the somatic cells.

Germ theory. 1. (Biol.) The theory that living organisms can be produced only by the development of living germs. Cf. Biogenesis, Abiogenesis.

2. (Med.) The theory which attributes contagious and infectious diseases, suppurative lesions, etc., to the agency of germs. The science of bacteriology was developed after this theory had been established.

||Ges"so (?), n. [It., chalk, plaster.] 1. Plaster of Paris, or gypsum, esp. as prepared for use in painting, or in making bas-reliefs and the like; by extension, a plasterlike or pasty material spread upon a surface to fit it for painting or gilding, or a surface so prepared.

2. A work of art done in gesso. [Obs.]

||Ges"so du"ro (?). [It., hard plaster.] A variety of gesso which when dried becomes hard and durable, often used in making bas-relief casts, which are colored and mounted in elaborate frames.

Geusd"ism (gd"z'm), n. The Marxian socialism and programme of reform through revolution as advocated by the French political leader Jules Basile Guesde (pron. gd) (1845- ). -- Guesd"ist (#), n. & a.

{ ||Ghaz"al (?), ||Ghaz"el (?) }, n. [Ar. ghazal.] A kind of Oriental lyric, and usually erotic, poetry, written in recurring rhymes.

||Gha"zi (?), n. [Ar. ghz.] Among Mohammedans, a warrior champion or veteran, esp. in the destruction of infidels.

Ghet"to (?), n. A quarter of a city where Jews live in greatest numbers.

Ghost dance. A religious dance of the North American Indians, participated in by both sexes, and looked upon as a rite of invocation the purpose of which is, through trance and vision, to bring the dancer into communion with the unseen world and the spirits of departed friends. The dance is the chief rite of the Ghost- dance, or Messiah, religion, which originated about 1890 in the doctrines of the Piute Wovoka, the Indian Messiah, who taught that the time was drawing near when the whole Indian race, the dead with the living, should be reunited to live a life of millennial happiness upon a regenerated earth. The religion inculcates peace, righteousness, and work, and holds that in good time, without warlike intervention, the oppressive white rule will be removed by the higher powers. The religion spread through a majority of the western tribes of the United States, only in the case of the Sioux, owing to local causes, leading to an outbreak.

Gi"ba*ro (?), n.; pl. Gibaros (#). [Amer. Sp. jíbaro wild.] (Ethnol.) The offspring of a Spaniard and an Indian; a Spanish-Indian mestizo. [Sp. Amer.]

Gi*bral"tar (?), n. 1. A strongly fortified town on the south coast of Spain, held by the British since 1704; hence, an impregnable stronghold.

2. A kind of candy sweetmeat, or a piece of it; -- called, in full, Gibraltar rock.

||Gigue (zhg), n. [F.] A piece of lively dance music, in two strains which are repeated; also, the dance.

{ ||Gi*ta"na (?), n. fem.; ||Gi*ta"no (?), n. masc. } [Sp., fr. (assumed) LL. Aegyptanus, fem. Aegyptana, Egyptian. Cf. Gypsy.] A Spanish gypsy.

Give (?), v. t. To afford a view of; as, his window gave the park.

||Gla`cé" (?), a. [F., p.p. of glacer to freeze, to ice. Cf. Glacier.] Coated with icing; iced; glazed; -- said of fruits, sweetmeats, cake, etc.

Gle"ba (?), n.; pl. Glebæ (#). [L., a clod.] (Bot.) The chambered sporogenous tissue forming the central mass of the sporophore in puff balls, stinkhorns, etc.

Glee club. A club or company organized for singing glees, and (by extension) part songs, ballads, etc.

{ Glen*gar"ry (?), n., or Glen*gar"ry bon"net (?) }. [Name of a valley in Scotland.] A kind of Highland Scotch cap for men, with straight sides and a hollow top sloping to the back, where it is parted and held together by ribbons or strings.

The long silk streamers of his Glengarry bonnet.

L. Hutton.

Glide, n. (Aëronautics) Movement of a glider, aëroplane, etc., through the air under gravity or its own movement.

Glide, v. i. (Aëronautics) To move through the air by virtue of gravity or momentum; to volplane.

Gliding angle. (Aëronautics) The angle, esp. the least angle, at which a gliding machine or aëroplane will glide to earth by virtue of gravity without applied power.

Gliding machine. (Aëronautics) A construction consisting essentially of one or more aëroplanes for gliding in an inclined path from a height to the ground.

Glis*sade" (?), n. [F., fr. glisser to slip.] 1. A sliding, as down a snow slope.

2. A dance step consisting of a glide or slide to one side.

Glock"en*spiel` (?), n. [G.; glocke bell + spiel play.] (Music) An instrument, originally a series of bells on an iron rod, now a set of flat metal bars, diatonically tuned, giving a bell-like tone when played with a mallet; a carillon.

Glost (?), n. [See 1st Gloss.] (Ceramics) The lead glaze used for pottery.

Gly"cose (?), n. [Gr. &?; sweet + - ose.] (Physiol. Chem.) One of a class of carbohydrates having from three to nine atoms of carbon in the molecules and having the constitution either of an aldehyde alcohol or of a ketone alcohol. Most glycoses have hydrogen and oxygen present in the proportion to form water, while the number of carbon atoms is usually equal to the number of atoms of oxygen.

Gly`co*som"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; sweet + -meter.] (Med.) An apparatus for determining the amount of sugar in diabetic urine.

Glyph (?), n. (Archæol.) A carved figure or character, incised or in relief; a carved pictograph; hence, a pictograph representing a form originally adopted for sculpture, whether carved or painted.

Go (?), n. Something that goes or is successful; a success; as, he made a go of it; also, an agreement.

"Well," said Fleming, "is it a go?"

Bret Harte.

Go*bang" (?), n. [Written also goban.] [Jap. goban checkerboard, fr. Chino-Jap. go checker + ban board.] A Japanese game, played on a checkerboard, in which the object of the game is to be the first in placing five pieces, or men, in a row in any direction.

Gob"stick` (?), n. [Gob mouth + stick.] 1. (Angling) A stick or device for removing the hook from a fish's gullet.

He . . . wrenched out the hook with the short wooden stick he called a "gobstick."


2. A spoon. [Prov. Eng. or Slang]

Go"-dev"il (?), n. (Mach.) (a) A weight which is dropped into a bore, as of an oil well, to explode a cartridge previously lowered. (b) A device, as a loosely fitted plug, which is driven through a pipe by the pressure of the contents behind the plug to clear away obstructions. (c) A rough sled or dray used for dragging logs, hauling stone, etc. [Local, U. S.]

Go"ing, p. pr. of Go. Specif.: (a) That goes; in existence; available for present use or enjoyment; current; obtainable; also, moving; working; in operation; departing; as, he is of the brightest men going; going prices or rate. (b) Carrying on its ordinary business; conducting business, or carried on, with an indefinite prospect of continuance; -- chiefly used in the phrases a going business, concern, etc. (c) Of or pert. to a going business or concern; as, the going value of a company.

Gold"en State. California; -- a nickname alluding to its rich gold deposits.

Golf (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Golfed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Golfing.] To play at golf.

Last mystery of all, he learned to golf.


Gon"do*la, n. (Aëronautics) An elongated car under a dirigible.

Gon"go*rism (?), n. An affected elegance or euphuism of style, for which the Spanish poet Gongora y Argote (1561-1627), among others of his time, was noted.

Gongorism, that curious disease of euphuism, that broke out simultaneously in Italy, England, and Spain.

The Critic.

The Renaissance riots itself away in Marinism, Gongorism, Euphuism, and the affectations of the Hôtel Rambouillet.

J. A. Symonds.

Good"y (?), a. Weakly or sentimentally good; affectedly good; -- often in the reduplicated form goody-goody. [Colloq.]

Goose egg. In games, a zero; a score or record of naught; -- so named in allusion to the egglike outline of the zero sign 0. Called also duck egg. [Slang]

Goose"-rumped` (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having the tail set low and buttocks that fall away sharply from the croup; -- said of certain horses.

Go"pher State. Minnesota; -- a nickname alluding to the abundance of gophers.

Gorge, n. (Angling) A primitive device used instead of a fishhook, consisting of an object easy to be swallowed but difficult to be ejected or loosened, as a piece of bone or stone pointed at each end and attached in the middle to a line.

Circle of the gorge (Math.), a minimum circle on a surface of revolution, cut out by a plane perpendicular to the axis. -- Gorge fishing, trolling with a dead bait on a double hook which the fish is given time to swallow, or gorge.

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||Gor`gon*zo"la (?), n. [It.] A kind of Italian pressed milk cheese; -- so called from a village near Milan.

Graf*fi"to (?), n. [It., fr. graffio a scratching.] (Art) Production of decorative designs by scratching them through a surface of layer plaster, glazing, etc., revealing a different-colored ground; also, pottery or ware so decorated; -- chiefly used attributively.

Graft, n. [Prob. orig. so called because illegitimate or improper profit was looked upon as a graft, or sort of excrescence, on a legitimate business undertaking, in distinction from its natural proper development.] 1. Acquisition of money, position, etc., by dishonest or unjust means, as by actual theft or by taking advantage of a public office or any position of trust or employment to obtain fees, perquisites, profits on contracts, legislation, pay for work not done or service not performed, etc.; illegal or unfair practice for profit or personal advantage; also, anything thus gained. [Colloq.]

2. A "soft thing" or "easy thing;" a "snap." [Slang]

Graft"age (?), n. (Hort.) The science of grafting, including the various methods of practice and details of operation.

Gram"o*phone (?), n. [Gr. &?; a thing drawn or written (fr. &?; write) + -phone, as in telephone.] An instrument for recording, preserving, and reproducing sounds, the record being a tracing of a phonautograph etched in some solid material. Reproduction is accomplished by means of a system attached to an elastic diaphragm.

{Gran"ger railroads, or Granger roads }. (Finance) Certain railroads whose traffic largely consists in carrying the produce of farmers or grangers; -- specifically applied to the Chicago & Alton; Chicago, Burlington & Quincey; Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul; and Chicago & Northwestern, railroads. [U. S.].

Granger stocks or shares. Stocks or shares of the granger railroads.

Gran"ite State. New Hampshire; -- a nickname alluding to its mountains, which are chiefly of granite.

Graph (?), n. [See -graph.] (Math.) 1. A curve or surface, the locus of a point whose coördinates are the variables in the equation of the locus.

2. A diagram symbolizing a system of interrelations by spots, all distinguishable from one another and some connected by lines of the same kind.

Gra*phol"o*gy. (Math.) The system or notation used in dealing with graphs.

Graph"o*phone (?), n. [Gr. &?; to write + -phone, as in telephone.] A kind of photograph.

Graph"o*scope (?), n. [Gr. gra`fein to write + -scope.] An optical device for showing (or photographing) an image when projected upon the atmosphere as a screen.

||Gra`tin" (?), n. [F.] (Cookery) The brown crust formed upon a gratinated dish; also, dish itself, as crusts bread, game, or poultry.

Grat"i*nate (?), v. t. [F. gratiner, v.i., to form a crust.] (Cookery) To cook, as macaroni, in a savory juice or sauce until juice is absorbed and a crisp surface forms.

Grat"ing (?), n. (Optics) A system of close equidistant parallel lines or bars, esp. lines ruled on a polished surface, used for producing spectra by diffraction. Gratings have been made with over 40,000 such lines to the inch, but those with a somewhat smaller number give the best definition.

{ Grease cock or cup }. (Mach.) A cock or cup containing grease, to serve as a lubricator.

Great White Way. Broadway, in New York City, in the neighborhood chiefly occupied by theaters, as from about 30th Street about 50th Street; -- so called from its brilliant illumination at night.

Greek calendar. 1. Any of various calendars used by the ancient Greek states. The Attic calendar divided the year into twelve months of 29 and 30 days, as follows:

1. Hecatombæon (July-Aug.). 2. Metageitnion (Aug.-Sept.). 3. Boëdromion (Sept.-Oct.). 4. Pyanepsion (Oct.-Nov.). 5. Mæmacterion (Nov.-Dec.). 6. Poseideon (Dec.-Jan.). 7. Gamelion (Jan.-Feb.). 8. Anthesterion (Feb.-Mar.). 9. Elaphebolion (Mar.-Apr.). 10. Munychion (Apr.-May). 11. Thargelion (May-June). 12. Scirophorion (June-July).

A fixed relation to the seasons was maintained by introducing an intercalary month, "the second Poseideon," at first in an inexact way, afterward in years 3, 5, 8, 11, 13, 16, 19 of the Metonic cycle. Dates were reckoned in Olympiads.

2. The Julian calendar, used in the Greek Church.

Greek calends or kalends. A time that will never come, as the Greeks had no calends.

Grey"hound`, n. A swift steamer, esp. an ocean steamer.

Grid, n. (Elec.) A plate or sheet of lead with perforations, or other irregularities of surface, by which the active material of a secondary battery or accumulator is supported.

Griff, n. A person of mixed blood.

Griffe, n. A person of mixed negro and American Indian blood.

Grif"fon (grf"fn), n. [F.] One of a European breed of rough-coated dogs, somewhat taller than the setter and of a grizzly liver color. They are used in hunt game birds. The Brussels griffon is a very small, wiry- coated, short-nosed pet dog of Belgian origin.

Grill (?), n. 1. A figure of crossed bars with interstices, such as those sometimes impressed upon postage stamps.

2. A grillroom.

Grill, v. t. To stamp or mark with a grill.

Grill, v. i. To undergo the process of being grilled, or broiled; to broil.

He had grilled in the heat, sweated in the rains.


Grill"room` (?), n. A room specially fitted for broiling food, esp. one in a restaurant, hotel, or club&?;house, arranged for prompt service.

Grin"go (?), n. [Amer. Sp., fr. Sp. gringo gibberish; cf. griego Greek, F. grigou wretch.] Among Spanish Americans, a foreigner, esp. an Englishman or American; -- often used as a term of reproach.

Grip, n. 1. Specif., an apparatus attached to a car for clutching a traction cable.

2. A gripsack; a hand bag; a satchel. [Colloq.]

3. (Med.) The influenza; grippe.

Grip car. A car with a grip to clutch a traction cable.

Griz"zle (?), v. t. & i. To make or become grizzly, or grayish.

Hardship of the way such as would grizzle little children.

R. F. Burton.

I foundgrizzling man whom men addressed as Collins Bey.

Pall Mall Mag.

Griz"zle, v. i. & t. [Etym. uncertain.] To worry; to fret; to bother; grumble. [Prov. Eng.] " Don't sit grizzling there." Charles Reade.

Gro"bi*an (?), n. [G., fr. grob rude. Cf. Gruff, a.] A rude or clownish person; boor; lout.

Gro"lier` (?), n. The name by which Jean Grolier de Servier (1479-1565), a French bibliophile, is commonly known; -- used in naming a certain style of binding, a design, etc.

Grolier binding, a book binding decorated with a pattern imitated from those given covers of books bound for Jean Grolier, and bearing his name and motto. -- Grolier design or school, the pattern of interlacing bars, bands, or ribbons, with little scrolls of slender gold lines, assumed to be an imitation of the designs on Jean Grolier's book bindings.

Gro*tesqu"er*y (?), n. [Written also grotesquerie.] [From Grotesque.] Grotesque action, speech, or manners; grotesque doings. "The sustained grotesquery of Feather-top." K. L. Bates.

Vileness, on the other hand, becomes grotesquerie, wonderfully converted into a subject of laughter.

George Gissing.

Grun"dy*ism (?), n. Narrow and unintelligent conventionalism. -- Grun"dy*ist, n.

Guai"a*col (?), n. [Guaiacum + -ol.] (Chem.) A colorless liquid, C7H8O2, with a peculiar odor. It is the methyl ether of pyrocatechin, and is obtained by distilling guaiacum from wood-tar creosote, and in other ways. It has been used in treating pulmonary tuberculosis.

Guest, n. (Zoöl.) (a) Any insect that lives in the nest of another without compulsion and usually not as a parasite. (b) An inquiline.

Guide rope. (Aëronautics) A rope hung from a balloon or dirigible so as trail along the ground for about half its length, used to preserve altitude automatically, by variation of the length dragging on the ground, without loss of ballast or gas.

||Guil`loche" (?), n. In ornamental art, any pattern made by interlacing curved lines.

||Guimpe (?), n. [F. See 2d Gimp.] A kind of short chemisette, worn with a low-necked dress.

Guin"ea-pig` di*rec"tor. A director (usually one holding a number of directorships) who serves merely or mainly for the fee (in England, often a guinea) paid for attendance. [Colloq.]

Gut"ter*snipe" (?), n. (Slang) (a) A small poster, suitable for a curbstone. (b) A curbstone broker. [U. S.]

{Gyp"sy, or Gip"sy, moth }. A tussock moth (Ocneria dispar) native of the Old World, but accidentally introduced into eastern Massachusetts about 1869, where its caterpillars have done great damage to fruit, shade, and forest trees of many kinds. The male gypsy moth is yellowish brown, the female white, and larger than the male. In both sexes the wings are marked by dark lines and a dark lunule. The caterpillars, when full-grown, have a grayish mottled appearance, with blue tubercles on the anterior and red tubercles on the posterior part of the body, all giving rise to long yellow and black hairs. They usually pupate in July and the moth appears in August. The eggs are laid on tree trunks, rocks, etc., and hatch in the spring.


Hack, v. i. To ride or drive as one does with a hack horse; to ride at an ordinary pace, or over the roads, as distinguished from riding across country or in military fashion.

Hack, v. t. (Football) To kick the shins of (an opposing payer).

Hack, n. (Football) A kick on the shins, or a cut from a kick.

Hade, n. (Geol. & Mining) The deviation of a fault plane from the vertical.

The direction of the hade is the direction toward which the fault plane descends from an intersecting vertical line.

||Hæm`a*tol"y*sis (?), n. [NL.; hæmato- + Gr. &?; a loosing, dissolving, fr. &?; to loose, dissolve.] (Physiol.) Dissolution of the red blood corpuscles with diminished coagulability of the blood; hæmolysis. -- Hæm`a*to*lyt"ic (#), a.

Hæ"mol (?), n. [Gr. &?; blood.] (Chem.) A dark brown powder containing iron, prepared by the action of zinc dust as a reducing agent upon the coloring matter of the blood, used medicinally as a hematinic.

||Hæ*mol"y*sis (?), n., Hæm`*lyt"ic (&?;), a. (Physiol.) Same as Hæmatolysis, Hæmatolytic.

Hague Tribunal (?). The permanent court of arbitration created by the "International Convention for the Pacific Settle of International Disputes.", adopted by the International Peace Conference of 1899. It is composed of persons of known competency in questions of international law, nominated by the signatory powers. From these persons an arbitration tribunal is chosen by the parties to a difference submitted to the court. On the failure of the parties to agree directly on the arbitrators, each chooses two arbitrators, an umpire is selected by them, by a third power, or by two powers selected by the parties.

Hai"kwan" (?), n. [Chin. 'hai- kuan.] Chinese maritime customs.

Haikwan tael. A Chinese weight ( catty) equivalent to 1 oz. or 37.801 g.

Half nelson. (Wrestling) A hold in which one arm is thrust under the corresponding arm of the opponent, generally behind, and the hand placed upon the back of his neck. In the full nelson both hands are so placed.

{ Half tone, or Half"-tone` }, n. 1. (Fine Arts) (a) An intermediate or middle tone in a painting, engraving, photograph, etc.; a middle tint, neither very dark nor very light. (b) A half-tone photo- engraving.

2. (Music) A half step.

Half"-tone` (?), a. Having, consisting of, or pertaining to, half tones; specif. (Photo- engraving), pertaining to or designating plates, processes, or the pictures made by them, in which gradation of tone in the photograph is reproduced by a graduated system of dotted and checkered spots, usually nearly invisible to the unaided eye, produced by the interposition between the camera and the object of a screen. The name alludes to the fact that this process was the first that was practically successful in reproducing the half tones of the photograph.

{ Hall"statt (?), Hall*stat"ti*an (?) }, a. Of or pert. to Hallstatt, Austria, or the Hallstatt civilization. -- Hallstatt, or Hallstattian, civilization, a prehistoric civilization of central Europe, variously dated at from 1000 to 1500 b. c. and usually associated with the Celtic or Alpine race. It was characterized by expert use of bronze, a knowledge of iron, possession of domestic animals, agriculture, and artistic skill and sentiment in manufacturing pottery, ornaments, etc.

The Hallstattian civilization flourished chiefly in Carinthia, southern Germany, Switzerland, Bohemia, Silesia, Bosnia, the southeast of France, and southern Italy.

J. Deniker.

-- H. epoch, the first iron age, represented by the Hallstatt civilization.

Hal"ma (?), n. A game played on a board having 256 squares, by two persons with 19 men each, or by four with 13 men each, starting from different corners and striving to place each his own set of men in a corresponding position in the opposite corner by moving them or by jumping them over those met in progress.

Halve (?), v. t. Of a hole, match, etc., to reach or play in the same number of strokes as an opponent.

||Ha*mal" (?), n. [Written also hammal, hummaul, hamaul, khamal, etc.] [Turk. & Ar. hamml, fr. Ar. hamala to carry.] In Turkey and other Oriental countries, a porter or burden bearer; specif., in Western India, a palanquin bearer.

Ham"fat`ter (?), n. [From a negro minstrel song called "The ham-fat man."] A low-grade actor or performer. [Theatrical Slang]

Ham"mer, n. (Athletics) A spherical weight attached to a flexible handle and hurled from a mark or ring. The weight of head and handle is usually not less than 16 pounds.

Ham"mer break. (Elec.) An interrupter in which contact is broken by the movement of an automatically vibrating hammer between a contact piece and an electromagnet, or of a rapidly moving piece mechanically driven.

Hammer lock. (Wrestling) A hold in which an arm of one contestant is held twisted and bent behind his back by his opponent.

Hand (?), n. A gambling game played by American Indians, consisting of guessing the whereabouts of bits of ivory or the like, which are passed rapidly from hand to hand.

Hand"ball` (?), n. 1. A ball for throwing or using with the hand.

2. A game played with such a ball, as by players striking it to and fro between them with the hands, or alternately against a wall, until one side or the other fails to return the ball.

Hang, v. i. (Cricket, Tennis, etc.) Of a ball: To rebound unexpectedly or unusually slowly, due to backward spin on the ball or imperfections of ground.

Hang (?), v. t. To prevent from reaching a decision, esp. by refusing to join in a verdict that must be unanimous; as, one obstinate juror can hang a jury.

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Hank (?), n. (Wrestling) A throw in which a wrestler turns his left side to his opponent, twines his left leg about his opponent's right leg from the inside, and throws him backward.

{ Ha"nuk*ka, or Ha"nuk*kah (?) }, n. [Heb. khanukkh.] The Jewish Feast of the Dedication, instituted by Judas Maccabæus, his brothers, and the whole congregation of Israel, in 165 b. c., to commemorate the dedication of the new altar set up at the purification of the temple of Jerusalem to replace the altar which had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes (1 Maccabees i. 58, iv. 59). The feast, which is mentioned in John x. 22, is held for eight days (beginning with the 25th day of Kislev, corresponding to December), and is celebrated everywhere, chiefly as a festival of lights, by the Jews.

||Haph*ta"rah (?), n.; pl. - taroth (#). [Heb. haphtrh, prop., valedictory, fr. ptar to depart.] One of the lessons from the Nebiim (or Prophets) read in the Jewish synagogue on Sabbaths, feast days, fasts, and the ninth of Ab, at the end of the service, after the parashoth, or lessons from the Law. Such a practice is evidenced in Luke iv.17 and Acts xiii.15.

Hard steel. Steel hardened by the addition of other elements, as manganese, phosphorus, or (usually) carbon.

Har"vey proc"ess (?). (Metal.) A process of hardening the face of steel, as armor plates, invented by Hayward A. Harvey of New Jersey, consisting in the additional carburizing of the face of a piece of low carbon steel by subjecting it to the action of carbon under long-continued pressure at a very high heat, and then to a violent chilling, as by a spray of cold water. This process gives an armor plate a thick surface of extreme hardness supported by material gradually decreasing in hardness to the unaltered soft steel at the back.

Haul"a*bout` (?), n. A bargelike vessel with steel hull, large hatchways, and coal transporters, for coaling war vessels from its own hold or from other colliers.

Hav"ier (?), n. [Formerly haver, prob. fr. Half; cf. L. semimas emasculated, prop., half male.] A castrated deer.

Haviers, or stags which have been gelded when young, have no horns.

Encyc. of Sport.

Hawk"eye` State. Iowa; -- a nickname of obscure origin.

Haz"ard, n. (Golf) Any place into which the ball may not be safely played, such as bunkers, furze, water, sand, or other kind of bad ground.

Head"wa`ter (?), n. The source and upper part of a stream; -- commonly used in the plural; as, the headwaters of the Missouri.

Hebrew calendar. = Jewish calendar.

Heck"er*ism (?), n. (R. C. Ch.) (a) The teaching of Isaac Thomas Hecker (1819- 88), which interprets Catholicism as promoting human aspirations after liberty and truth, and as the religion best suited to the character and institutions of the American people. (b) Improperly, certain views or principles erroneously ascribed to Father Hecker in a French translation of Elliott's Life of Hecker. They were condemned as "Americanism" by the Pope, in a letter to Cardinal Gibbons, January 22, 1899.

Hec"kle, v. t. To interrogate, or ply with questions, esp. with severity or antagonism, as a candidate for the ministry.

Robert bore heckling, however, with great patience and adroitness.

Mrs. Humphry Ward.

Hedge"hog`, n. (Elec.) A variety of transformer with open magnetic circuit, the ends of the iron wire core being turned outward and presenting a bristling appearance, whence the name.

Heel, n. 1. (Golf) The part of the face of the club head nearest the shaft.

2. In a carding machine, the part of a flat nearest the cylinder.

Heel, v. t. 1. (Golf) To hit (the ball) with the heel of the club.

2. (Football) To make (a fair catch) standing with one foot advanced, the heel on the ground and the toe up.

Heel"path` (?), n. [So called with a play upon the words tow and toe.] The bank of a canal opposite, and corresponding to, that of the towpath; berm. [U. S.]

The Cowles found convenient spiles sunk in the heelpath.

The Century.

Heem"raad` (?), n.; pl. - raaden (#). [Sometimes, incorrectly, Heemraat or even Heemrad.] [D. heem village + raad council, councilor.] In Holland, and, until the 19th century, also in Cape Colony, a council to assist a local magistrate in the government of rural districts; hence, also, a member of such a council.

||Heft (?), n.; G. pl. Hefte (#). [G.] A number of sheets of paper fastened together, as for a notebook; also, a part of a serial publication.

The size of "hefts" will depend on the material requiring attention, and the annual volume is to cost about 15 marks.

The Nation.

He"li*o*gram (?), n. [Helio- + -gram.] A message transmitted by a heliograph.

He"li*o*graph (?), v. t. 1. To telegraph, or signal, with a heliograph.

2. To photograph by sunlight.

He`li*o*graph"ic, a. (Astron.) Of or pertaining to a description of the sun.

Heliographic longitudes and latitudes of spots on the sun's surface are analogous to geographic longitudes and latitudes of places on the earth.

He`li*og"ra*phy, n. 1. The description of the sun.

2. The system, art, or practice of telegraphing, or signaling, with the heliograph.

3. An early photographic process invented by Nicéphore Niepce, and still used in photo-engraving. It consists essentially in exposing under a design or in a camera a polished metal plate coated with a preparation of asphalt, and subsequently treating the plate with a suitable solvent. The light renders insoluble those parts of the film which is strikes, and so a permanent image is formed, which can be etched upon the plate by the use of acid.

He`li*o*grav"ure, n. A plate or picture made by the process of heliogravure.

He"li*um (h"l*m), n. [NL., fr. Gr. "h`lios the sun.] (Chem.) An inert, monoatomic, gaseous element occurring in the atmosphere of the sun and stars, and in small quantities in the earth's atmosphere, in several minerals and in certain mineral waters. Symbol, He; at. wt., 4. Helium was first detected spectroscopically in the sun by Lockyer in 1868; it was first prepared by Ramsay in 1895. Helium has a density of 1.98 compared with hydrogen, and is more difficult to liquefy than the latter. Chemically, it belongs to the argon group and cannot be made to form compounds. It is a decomposition product of the radium emanation.

He`ma*tin"ic (?), n. [From Hematin.] (Med.) Any substance, such as an iron salt or organic compound containing iron, which when ingested tends to increase the hemoglobin contents of the blood.

Hen`ri*et"ta cloth` (?). A fine wide wooled fabric much used for women's dresses.

Hep"pel*white (?), a. (Furniture) Designating a light and elegant style developed in England under George III., chiefly by Messrs. A.Heppelwhite & Co.

Her"mit, n. (Cookery) A spiced molasses cooky, often containing chopped raisins and nuts.

||Her"ren*haus` (?), n. [G., House of Lords.] See Legislature, Austria, Prussia.

Hertz"i*an (?), a. Of or pert. to the German physicist Heinrich Hertz.

Hertzian telegraphy, telegraphy by means of the Hertzian waves; wireless telegraphy. -- H. waves, electric waves; -- so called because Hertz was the first to investigate them systematically. His apparatus consisted essentially in an oscillator for producing the waves, and a resonator for detecting them. The waves were found to have the same velocity as light, and to undergo reflection, refraction, and polarization.

||Her"zog (?), n. [G., akin to AS. heretoga, lit., army leader. See Harry, and Duke.] A member of the highest rank of nobility in Germany and Austria, corresponding to the British duke.

{ ||He*tæ"ra (?), ||He*tai"ra (?) }, n.; pl. -ræ (#). [NL. See Hetairism.] (Gr. Antiq.) A female paramour; a mistress, concubine, or harlot. -- He*tæ"ric, He*tai"ric (#), a.

Het`er*œ"cious (?), a. [Hetero- + Gr. &?; house.] (Bot.) Passing through the different stages in its life history on an alternation of hosts, as the common wheat-rust fungus (Puccinia graminis), and certain other parasitic fungi; -- contrasted with autœcious. -- Het`er*œ"cism (#), n.

Hex"a*gram (?), n. [Hexa- + - gram.] A figure of six lines; specif.: (a) A figure composed of two equal triangles intersecting so that each side of one triangle is parallel to a side of the other, and the six points coincide with those of a hexagon. (b) In Chinese literature, one of the sixty-four figures formed of six parallel lines (continuous or broken), forming the basis of the Yih King, or "Book of Changes." S. W. Williams.

Hex"ose (?), n. [Hexa- + - ose.] (Chem.) Any member of a group of sugars containing six carbon atoms in the molecule. Some are widely distributed in nature, esp. in ripe fruits.

||Hi*dro"sis (?), n. [Written also, but incorrectly, idrosis.] [NL., fr. Gr. &?; to sweat, &?; sweat.] 1. (Physiol.) Excretion of sweat; perspiration.

2. (Med.) Excessive perspiration; also, any skin disease characterized by abnormal perspiration.

Hi*drot"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; sudorific.] (Med.) Causing perspiration; diaphoretic or sudorific.

Hi*drot"ic, n. A medicine that causes perspiration; a diaphoretic or a sudorific.

High"boy`, n. 1. One who lives high; also, in politics, a highflyer.

2. A kind of set of drawers. [U. S.] "Mahogany highboys glittering with brass handles." K. L. Bates.

High"er crit"i*cism. Criticism which includes the study of the contents, literary character, date, authorship, etc., of any writing; as, the higher criticism of the Pentateuch. Called also historical criticism.

The comparison of the Hebrew and Greek texts . . . introduces us to a series of questions affecting the composition, the editing, and the collection of the sacred books. This class of questions forms the special subject of the branch of critical science which is usually distinguished from the verbal criticism of the text by the name of higher, or historical, criticism.

W. Robertson Smith.

High"er-up", n. A superior officer or official; -- used chiefly in pl. [Slang]

Higher thought. See New thought, below.

High five. See Cinch (the game).

High steel. Steel containing a high percentage of carbon; high-carbon steel.

Hike (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Hiked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Hiking.] [Cf. Hitch.] To move with a swing, toss, throw, jerk, or the like. [Dial. or Colloq.]

Hike (?), v. i. To hike one's self; specif., to go with exertion or effort; to tramp; to march laboriously. [Dial. or Colloq.] "If you persist in heaving and hiking like this." Kipling.

It's hike, hike, hike (march) till you stick in the mud, and then you hike back again a little slower than you went.

Scribner's Mag.

Hike, n. The act of hiking; a tramp; a march. [Dial. or Colloq.]

With every hike there's a few laid out with their hands crossed.

Scribner's Mag.

{Hin"doo, or Hindu, calendar }. A lunisolar calendar of India, according to which the year is divided into twelve months, with an extra month inserted after every month in which two new moons occur (once in three years). The intercalary month has the name of the one which precedes it. The year usually commences about April 11. The months are follows:

Hin"ter*land` (?), n. [G.; hinter behind + land land.] The land or region lying behind the coast district. The term is used esp. with reference to the so-called doctrine of the hinterland, sometimes advanced, that occupation of the coast supports a claim to an exclusive right to occupy, from time to time, the territory lying inland of the coast.

{Hipe (?), n. Also Hype }. [Etym. uncertain.] (Wrestling) A throw in which the wrestler lifts his opponent from the ground, swings him to one side, knocks up his nearer thigh from the back with the knee, and throws him on his back.

Hipe, v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Hiped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Hiping (?).] (Wrestling) To throw by means of a hipe. -- Hip"er (#), n.

Hip lock. (Wrestling) A lock in which a close grip is obtained and a fall attempted by a heave over the hip.

Hip"po*drome, n. (Sports) A fraudulent contest with a predetermined winner. [Slang, U. S.]

Hip"po*drome, v. i. [imp. & p. p. -dromed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. -droming.] (Sports) To arrange contests with predetermined winners. [Slang, U. S.]

{ Hire purchase, or, more fully, Hire purchase agreement, or Hire and purchase agreement}. (Law) A contract (more fully called contract of hire with an option of purchase) in which a person hires goods for a specified period and at a fixed rent, with the added condition that if he shall retain the goods for the full period and pay all the installments of rent as they become due the contract shall determine and the title vest absolutely in him, and that if he chooses he may at any time during the term surrender the goods and be quit of any liability for future installments upon the contract. In the United States such a contract is generally treated as a conditional sale, and the term hire purchase is also sometimes applied to a contract in which the hirer is not free to avoid future liability by surrender of the goods. In England, however, if the hirer does not have this right the contract is a sale.

Hit"tite (?), n. [From Heb. Khittm Hittites.] A member of an ancient people (or perhaps group of peoples) whose settlements extended from Armenia westward into Asia Minor and southward into Palestine. They are known to have been met along the Orontes as early as 1500 b. c., and were often at war with the Egyptians and Assyrians. Especially in the north they developed a considerable civilization, of which numerous monuments and inscriptions are extant. Authorities are not agreed as to their race. While several attempts have been made to decipher the Hittite characters, little progress has yet been made.

Hit"torf rays (?). (Elec.) Rays (chiefly cathode rays) developed by the electric discharge in Hittorf tubes.

Hit"torf tube. (Elec.) (a) A highly exhausted glass tube with metallic electrodes nearly in contact so as to exhibit the insulating effects of a vacuum. It was used by the German physicist W. Hittorf (b. 1824). (b) A Crookes tube.

Hob, n. A peg, pin, or mark used as a target in some games, as an iron pin in quoits; also, a game in which such a target is used.

Hob, n. (Zoöl.) The male ferret.

Hob"ble skirt. A woman's skirt so scant at the bottom as to restrain freedom of movement after the fashion of a hobble. -- Hob"ble-skirt`ed, a.

Ho"bo (?), n.; pl. Hobos or Hoboes (#). [Of uncertain origin.] A professional tramp; one who spends his life traveling from place to place, esp. by stealing rides on trains, and begging for a living. [U. S.] -- Ho"bo*ism (#), n.

Hol"arc*tic (?), a. [Holo- + arctic.] Of or pert. to the arctic regions collectively; specif. (Zoögeography), designating a realm or region including the northern parts of the Old and the New World. It comprises the Palearctic and Nearctic regions or subregions.

Hold, v. t. -- To hold up. To stop in order to rob, often with the demand to hold up the hands. [Colloq.]

Hole, n. (Games) (a) A small cavity used in some games, usually one into which a marble or ball is to be played or driven; hence, a score made by playing a marble or ball into such a hole, as in golf. (b) (Fives) At Eton College, England, that part of the floor of the court between the step and the pepperbox.

Hole in the air. (Aëronautics) = Air hole, above.

{ Hol`lan*daise" sauce, or Hol`lan*daise" } (?), n. [F. hollandaise, fem. of hollandais Dutch.] (Cookery) A sauce consisting essentially of a seasoned emulsion of butter and yolk of eggs with a little lemon juice or vinegar.

Hol"lus*chick`ie (?), n. sing. & pl. [Prob. of Russ. goluishka bare of possessions, offspring, etc., fr. golui naked.] (Zoöl.) A young male fur seal, esp. one from three to six years old; -- called also bachelor, because prevented from breeding by the older full- grown males.

The holluschickie are the seals that may legally be killed for their skins.

But he'll lie down on the killing grounds where the holluschickie go.


Hol"stein (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of a breed of cattle, originally from Schleswig- Holstein, valued for the large amount of milk produced by the cows. The color is usually black and white in irregular patches.

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Home, n. In various games, the ultimate point aimed at in a progress; goal; as: (a) (Baseball) The plate at which the batter stands. (b) (Lacrosse) The place of a player in front of an opponent's goal; also, the player.

Hom"ing (?), p.a. Home- returning.

Homing pigeon, a pigeon trained to return home from a distance. Homing pigeons are used for sending back messages or for flying races. By carrying the birds away and releasing them at gradually increasing distances from home, they may be trained to return with more or less certainty and promptness from distances up to four or five hundred miles. If the distance is increased much beyond this, the birds are unable to cover it without stopping for a prolonged rest, and their return becomes doubtful. Homing pigeons are not bred for fancy points or special colors, but for strength, speed, endurance, and intelligence or homing instinct.

Hone (?), v. i. [Cf. F. honger to grumble.] To grumble; pine; lament; long. [Dial.Eng. & Southern U. S.]

Hon"ey*ber`ry (?), n.; pl. - berries. The fruit of either of two trees having sweetish berries: (a) An Old World hackberry (Celtis australis). (b) In the West Indies, the genip (Melicocca bijuga).

||Hon"véd (?), n. [Hung. honvd; hon home + vd defense.] 1. The Hungarian army in the revolutionary war of 1848-49.

2. = Honvédség.

||Hon"véd*ség` (?), n. [Hung. honvdsg; honvd + sg, an abstract or collective suffix.] (Hungary) See Army organization, above.

Hoo"doo, v. t. To be a hoodoo to; to bring bad luck to by occult influence; to bewitch. [Colloq., U. S.]

Hoo"doo, n. A natural rock pile or pinnacle of fantastic shape. [Western U. S.]

Hoof, n. -- On the hoof, of cattle, standing (on the hoof); not slaughtered.

Hook, n. (Geog.) A spit or narrow cape of sand or gravel turned landward at the outer end; as, Sandy Hook.

Hook, v. i. To move or go with a sudden turn; hence [Slang or Prov. Eng.], to make off; to clear out; -- often with it. "Duncan was wounded, and the escort hooked it." Kipling.

Hook"y (?), n. [Written also hookey.] [Cf. Hook, v. t., 3.] A word used only in the expression to play hooky, to run away, to play truant.

This talk about boys . . . playing ball, and "hooky," and marbles, was all moonshine.

F. Hopkinson Smith.

Hoo"sier State. Indiana; -- a nickname of obscure origin.

Hop"per*doz`er (?), n. [Hopper (as in grasshopper) + doze or dose; because conceived as putting insects to sleep or as dosing them with poison.] (Agric.) An appliance for the destruction of insects, consisting of a shallow iron box, containing kerosene or coated with tar or other sticky substance, which may be mounted on wheels.

Hor"mone (hôr"mn), n. [From Gr. "orma`ein to excite.] (Physiol. Chem.) A chemical substance formed in one organ and carried in the circulation to another organ on which it exerts a stimulating effect; thus, according to Starling, the gastric glands are stimulated by a hormone from the pyloric mucous membrane.

||Hors` d'œuvre" (?); pl. Hors d'œuveres (#). [F., lit., outside of work.] 1. Something unusual or extraordinary. [R.]

2. A dish served as a relish, usually at the beginning of a meal.

Horse, n. (Student Slang) (a) A translation or other illegitimate aid in study or examination; -- called also trot, pony, Dobbin. (b) Horseplay; tomfoolery.

Horse"less, a. Being without a horse; specif., not requiring a horse; -- said of certain vehicles in which horse power has been replaced by electricity, steam, etc.; as, a horseless carriage or truck.

Host, n. (Biol.) Any animal or plant affording lodgment or subsistence to a parasitic or commensal organism. Thus a tree is a host of an air plant growing upon it.

Host plant. (Agric.) A plant which aids, shelters, or protects another plant in its growth, as those which are used for nurse crops.

{Hot bulb, Hot pot}. (Internal-combustion Engines) See Semi-diesel, below.

Hotch"kiss gun (?) [After Benjamin B. Hotchkiss (1826-85), American inventor.] A built-up, rifled, rapid-fire gun of oil-tempered steel, having a rectangular breechblock which moves horizontally or vertically in a mortise cut completely through the jacket. It is made in France.

Hot"-short`, a. [Cf. Cold-short.] (Metal.) Brittle when heated, esp. beyond a red heat; as, hot-short iron.

||Hous*to"ni*a (?), n. [NL. So named after Dr. William Houston, an English surgeon and botanist.] (Bot.) A genus of small rubiaceous herbs, having tetramerous salveform blue or white flower. There are about twenty species, natives of North America. Also, a plant of this genus.

Hsien (?), n. [Chin.] An administrative subdivision of a fu, or department, or of an independent chow; also, the seat of government of such a district.

||Hua*ra"cho (?), n.; pl. Huarachos (#). [Amer. Sp., also guaracha, guarache, huarache, prob. of Mexican origin.] A kind of sandal worn by Indians and the lower classes generally; -- usually used in pl. [Southern U. S. & Mex.]

Hump (?), v. t. 1. To form into a hump; to make hump-shaped; to hunch; -- often with up.

The cattle were very uncomfortable, standing humped up in the bushes.

T. Roosvelt.

2. To put or carry on the (humped) back; to shoulder; hence, to carry, in general. [Slang, Australia]

Having collected a sufficient quantity, we humped it out of the bush.

C. L. Money.

3. To bend or gather together for strenuous effort, as in running; to do or effect by such effort; to exert; -- usually reflexively or with it; as, you must hump yourself. [Slang, U. S.]

A half dozen other negroes, some limping and all scared, were humping it across a meadow.

McClure's Mag.

Hump"backed` salm"on. A small salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) which ascends the rivers of the Pacific coast from California to Alaska, and also on the Asiatic side. In the breeding season the male has a large dorsal hump and distorted jaws.

Hum"strum` (?), n. An instrument out of tune or rudely constructed; music badly played.

Hunch, n. A strong, intuitive impression that something will happen; -- said to be from the gambler's superstition that it brings luck to touch the hump of a hunchback. [Colloq. or Slang]

Hun"kers (?), n. pl. [See Hunker.] In the phrase on one's hunkers, in a squatting or crouching position. [Scot. & Local, U. S.]

Sit on your hunkers -- and pray for the bridge.


Hunk"y (?), a. [Perh. fr. Hunk.] All right; in a good condition; also, even; square. [Slang, U. S.]

He . . . began to shoot; began to get "hunky" with all those people who had been plugging at him.

Stephen Crane.

Hunt, v. i. 1. (Mach.) To be in a state of instability of movement or forced oscillation, as a governor which has a large movement of the balls for small change of load, an arc-lamp clutch mechanism which moves rapidly up and down with variations of current, or the like; also, to seesaw, as a pair of alternators working in parallel.

2. (Change Ringing) To shift up and down in order regularly.

Hunt, v. t. (Change Ringing) To move or shift the order of (a bell) in a regular course of changes.

Hus"ky (?), a. Powerful; strong; burly. [Colloq., U. S.]

A good, husky man to pitch in the barnyard.

Hamlin Garland.

Hus"ky (?), n.; pl. - kies (#). [Cf. Eskimo.] 1. An Eskimo; also, an Eskimo dog.

2. The Eskimo language.

Hut"ton*ing (?), n. [So named after two English bonesetters, Richard and Robert Hutton, who made it a part of their method.] (Med.) Forcible manipulation of a dislocated, stiff, or painful joint.

Hy"brid (?), n. (Philol.) A word composed of elements which belong to different languages.

Hy"brid*ize (?), v. i. (Biol.) To produce hybrid offspring; to interbreed; to cross.

Hy"dro (?), n. A hydro- aëroplane.

Hy"dro-a"ër*o*plane`. (Aëronautics) An aëroplane with a boatlike or other understructure that enables it to travel on, or to rise from the surface of, a body of water by its own motive power.

Hy"dro*bi"plane, n. A hydro- aëroplane having two supporting planes.

Hy*drol"y*sis (?), n. [Hydro-, 1 + -lysis.] (Chem.) A chemical process involving the addition of the elements of water.

Hy"dro*plane (?), n. [Pref. hydro- , 1 + plane.] 1. A plane, or any of a number of planes, projecting from the hull of a submarine boat, which by being elevated or depressed cause the boat, when going ahead, to sink or rise, after the manner of an aëroplane.

2. A projecting plane or fin on a gliding boat to lift the moving boat on top of the water; also, a gliding boat.

Hy"dro*plane, v. i. Of a boat, to plane (see Plane, below).

Hy`dro*pneu*mat"ic gun carriage. (Ordnance) A disappearing gun carriage in which the recoil is checked by cylinders containing liquid and air, the air when compressed furnishing the power for restoring the gun to the firing position. It is used with some English and European heavy guns.

Hy"dro*sphere (?), n. [Pref. hydro- , 1 + sphere.] 1. (Meteor.) The aqueous vapor of the entire atmosphere.

2. (Phys. Geog.) The aqueous envelope of the earth, including the ocean, all lakes, streams, and underground waters, and the aqueous vapor in the atmosphere.

Hy"dro*stat, n. A device, usually electrical, for indicating or regulating the height of water in a reservoir or receptacle.

Hy`dro*ther`a*peu"tics (?), n. [Hydro-, 1 + therapeutics.] (Med.) A system of treating disease by baths and mineral waters.

Hy*drot"ro*pism, n. (Bot.) In a broader sense, any curvature or turning induced in certain growing plant organs under the influence of moisture.

When the movement is toward the moisture, as is the case in most roots, the phenomenon is called positive hydrotropism; when away from the moisture, as in the case of hyphae of certain fungi, negative hydrotropism.

Hy`e*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; + rain -logy.] The science which treats of the precipitation of rain, snow, etc. -- Hy`e*to*log"ic*al (&?;), a.

Hyk"sos (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. Egypt. hikshasu chiefs of the Bedouins, shepherds.] A dynasty of Egyptian kings, often called the Shepherd kings, of foreign origin, who, according to the narrative of Manetho, ruled for about 500 years, forming the XVth and XVIth dynasties. It is now considered that the XVIth is merely a double of the XVth dynasty, and that the total period of the six Hyksos kings was little more than 100 years. It is supposed that they were Asiatic Semites.

Hyp`al*le"lo*morph, n. See Allelomorph.

Hyp"no*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; + - scope.] (Physiol.) An instrument for ascertaining the susceptibility of a person to hypnotic influences.

||Hyp*no"sis, n. The condition of being hypnotized.

Hys`ter*et"ic (?), a. (Elec.) Of or pert. to hysteresis. -- Hysteretic constant, the hysteretic loss in ergs per cubic centimeter per cycle.


Ib"sen*ism (?), n. The dramatic practice or purpose characteristic of the writings of Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), Norwegian poet and dramatist, whose best-known plays deal with conventional hypocrisies, the story in each play thus developing a definite moral problem.

Ich"thy*ol (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, a fish + (prob.) L. oleum oil; but cf. Ichthyolite.] (Chem.) An oily substance prepared by the dry distillation of a bituminous mineral containing fossil fishes. It is used in medicine as a remedy in some forms of skin diseases.

I"con, n. (Gr. Ch.) A sacred picture representing the Virgin Mary, Christ, a saint, or a martyr, and having the same function as an image of such a person in the Latin Church.

I*con"o*graph (?), n. [See Iconography.] An engraving or other picture or illustration for a book.

I`co*no*ma"ni*a (?), n. [NL. See Icon, and Mania.] A mania or infatuation for icons, whether as objects of devotion, bric-a-brac, or curios.

I*de"al*ism, n. The practice or habit of giving or attributing ideal form or character to things; treatment of things in art or literature according to ideal standards or patterns; -- opposed to realism.

{ I*den"tic, I*den"tic*al }, a. In diplomacy (esp. in the form identic), precisely agreeing in sentiment or opinion and form or manner of expression; -- applied to concerted action or language which is used by two or more governments in treating with another government.

I"do ("d), n. An artificial international language, selected by the "Delegation for the Adoption of an Auxillary International Language" (founded at Paris in 1901), made public in 1907, and subsequently greatly revised and extended by a permanent committee or "Academy." It combines systematically the advantages of previous schemes with a thoroughly logical word formation, and has neither accented constants nor arbitrarily coined pronominal words. For each idea that root is selected which is already most international, on the principle of the "greatest facility for the greatest number of people." The word "Ido" means in the language itself "offspring." The official name is: "Linguo Internaciona di la Delegitaro (Sistema Ido)." -- I"dism (#), n. -- I"dist (#), n.

||I*do"lum (?), ||I*do"lon (&?;), n.; pl. Idola (#). [L. See Idol; cf. Eidolon.] Appearance or image; a phantasm; a spectral image; also, a mental image or idea.

IHVH. [Written also JHVH, YHVH.] A transliteration of the four constants forming the Hebrew tetragrammaton or "incommunicable name" of the Supreme Being, which in latter Jewish tradition is not pronounced save with the vowels of adonai or elohim, so that the true pronunciation is lost.

Numerous attempts have been made to represent the supposed original form of the word, as Jahaveh, Jahvaj, Jahve, Jahveh, Yahve, Yahveh, Yahwe, Yahweh, etc.

Im*mune" (?), n. One who is immune; esp., a person who is immune from a disease by reason of previous affection with the disease or inoculation.

Im*mun"i*ty, n. The state of being insusceptible to poison, the contagion of disease, etc.

||Im`passe" (N`päs"; E. m*ps"), n. [F.] An impassable road or way; a blind alley; cul-de-sac; fig., a position or predicament affording no escape.

The issue from the present impasse will, in all probability, proceed from below, not from above.

Arnold White.

Im*ped"ance (?), n. [Impede + -ance.] (Elec.) The apparent resistance in an electric circuit to the flow of an alternating current, analogous to the actual electrical resistance to a direct current, being the ratio of electromotive force to the current. It is equal to R2 + X2, where R = ohmic resistance, X = reactance. For an inductive circuit, X = 2πfL, where f = frequency and L = self-inductance; for a circuit with capacity X = 1 ÷ 2πfC, where C = capacity.

||Im*ped`i*men"ta (?), n. pl. [L. See Impediment, Impede.] Things which impede or hinder progress; incumbrances; baggage; specif. (Mil.), the supply trains which must accompany an army.

On the plains they will have horses dragging travoises, dogs with travoises, women and children loaded with impedimenta.

Julian Ralph.

Im*pe"ri*al, n. A game at cards differing from piquet in some minor details, and in having a trump; also, any one of several combinations of cards which score in this game.

Im*pe"ri*al*ism, n. The policy, practice, or advocacy of seeking, or acquiescing in, the extension of the control, dominion, or empire of a nation, as by the acquirement of new, esp. distant, territory or dependencies, or by the closer union of parts more or less independent of each other for operations of war, copyright, internal commerce, etc.

The tide of English opinion began to turn about 1870, and since then it has run with increasing force in the direction of what is called imperialism.

James Bryce.

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||Im*pe"ri*um (?), n.; pl. Imperia (#). [L. See Empire.] 1. Supreme power; absolute dominion; empire.

2. (Law) The right to command, which includes the right to employ the force of the state to enforce the laws. It is one of the principal attributes of the executive power.

||Im"pi (m"p), n. [Zulu.] A body of Kaffir warriors; a body of native armed men. [South Africa]

As early as 1862 he crossed assagais with and defeated a Matabili impi (war band).

James Bryce.

In*au`gu*ra"tion Day. The day on which the President of the United States is inaugurated, the 4th of March in every year next after a year divisible by four.

||In`croy`a"ble (?), n. [F., lit., incredible.] A French fop or dandy of the time of the Directory; hence, any fop.

The name is said to have been given in allusion not only to the extravagant dress, but also to the frequent use of the phrase "C'est vraiment incroyable" (That is really incredible.).

In"cu*ba`tor (?), n. 1. A contrivance for the cultivation of microörganisms by maintaining a suitable temperature.

2. (Med.) An apparatus for rearing prematurely born babies.

In`de*pend"ence Day. In the United States, a holiday, the 4th of July, commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on that day in 1776.

In"dex, n. The ratio, or formula expressing the ratio, of one dimension of a thing to another dimension; as, the vertical index of the cranium.

In"di*a steel. Same as Wootz.

In`di*vid"u*al*ism, n. The principle, policy, or practice of maintaining individuality, or independence of the individual, in action; the theory or practice of maintaining the independence of individual initiative, action, and interests, as in industrial organization or in government.

In`do-Ar"yan, a. Pert. to the Indo- Aryans, or designating, or of, the Aryan languages of India.

In`do-Ar"yan, n. A member of one of the native races of India of Aryan speech and blood, characterized by tall stature, dolichocephaly, fair complexion with dark hair and eyes, plentiful beard, and narrow and prominent nose.

In`do-Chi*nese", a. 1. Of or pertaining to Indo-China.

2. Of or pert. to the Mongoloid races of India, esp. Farther India, or designating, or of, their languages.

Tradition and comparative philology agree in pointing to northwestern China, between the upper courses of the Yang-tsekiang and of the Ho-ang-ho, as the original home of the Indo-Chinese race.

Census of India, 1901.

In`do-do-Chinese languages. A family of languages, mostly of the isolating type, although some are agglutinative, spoken in the great area extending from northern India in the west to Formosa in the east and from Central Asia in the north to the Malay Peninsula in the south.

In`do-Eu`ro*pe"an. A member of one of the Caucasian races of Europe or India speaking an Indo-European language.

Professor Otto Schrader . . . considers that the oldest probable domicile of the Indo-Europeans is to be sought for on the common borderland of Asia and of Europe, -- in the steppe country of southern Russia.

Census of India, 1901.

In`do*ne"sian (?), a. [Indo- + Gr. &?; island.] Of or pertaining to Indonesia or Indonesians.

In`do*ne"sian, n. A member of a race forming the chief pre-Malay population of the Malay Archipelago, and probably sprung from a mixture of Polynesian and Mongoloid immigrants. According to Keane, the autochthonous Negritos were largely expelled by the Caucasian Polynesians, themselves followed by Mongoloid peoples of Indo-Chinese affinities, from mixture with whom sprang the Indonesian race.

The term Indonesian, introduced by Logan to designate the light-colored non-Malay inhabitants of the Eastern Archipelago, is now used as a convenient collective name for all the peoples of Malaysia and Polynesia who are neither Malay nor Papuans, but of Caucasic type. . . . The true Indonesians are of tall stature (5 ft. 10 in.), muscular frame, rather oval features, high, open forehead, large straight or curved nose, large full eyes always horizontal and with no trace of the third lid, light brown complexion (cinnamon or ruddy brown), long black hair, not lank but often slightly curled or wavy, skull generally brachycephalous like that of the melanochroic European.

A. H. Keane.

The Indonesians [of the Philippines], with the tribal population of some 251, 200, live almost exclusively on the great island of Mindanao. They are not only physically superior to the Negritos, but to the peoples of the Malayan race as well, and are, as a rule, quite intelligent.

Rep. Phil. Com. , 1902.

In*duced" cur"rent. (Elec.) A current due to variation in the magnetic field surrounding its conductor.

In*duc"tance (?), n. (Elec.) Capacity for induction; the coefficient of self- induction.

The unit of inductance is the henry.

In*duc"tance coil. (Elec.) A choking coil.

In*duc"tion gen"er*a`tor. A machine built as an induction motor and driven above synchronous speed, thus acting as an alternating-current generator; -- called also asynchronous generator. Below synchronism the machine takes in electrical energy and acts as an induction motor; at synchronism the power component of current becomes zero and changes sign, so that above synchronism the machine (driven for this purpose by mechanical power) gives out electrical energy as a generator.

Induction motor. (Elec.) A type of alternating-current motor comprising two wound members, one stationary, called the stator, and the other rotating, called the rotor, these two members corresponding to a certain extent to the field and armature of a direct-current motor.

In*ed"i*ble (?), a. [LL. inedibilis. See In- not, and Edible.] Not edible; not fit for food. -- In*ed`i*bil"i*ty (#), n.

In"fan*tile pa*ral"y*sis. (Med.) An acute disease, almost exclusively infantile, characterized by inflammation of the anterior horns of the gray substance of the spinal cord. It is attended with febrile symptoms, motor paralysis, and muscular atrophy, often producing permanent deformities. Called also acute anterior poliomyelitis.

In*farct" (?), n. [See Infarce.] (Med.) (a) An obstruction or embolus. (b) The morbid condition of a limited area resulting from such obstruction; as, a hemorrhagic infarct.

In*fec"tious dis*ease". (a) Any disease caused by the entrance, growth, and multiplication of bacteria or protozoans in the body; a germ disease. It may not be contagious. (b) Sometimes, as distinguished from contagious disease, such a disease communicated by germs carried in the air or water, and thus spread without contact with the patient, as measles.

In*fer"no (?), n. [It. See Infernal.] The infernal regions; hell. Also used fig.

At each sudden explosion in the inferno below they sprang back from the brink [of the volcanic crater].

D. C. Worcester.

In`fra-red" (?), a. [Infra- + red.] (Physics) Lying outside the visible spectrum at its red end; -- said of rays less refrangible than the extreme red rays.

||In`gé`nue" (N`zh`n"), n.; pl. -nues (#). [F., fem. of ingénu ingenious.] An ingenuous or naïve girl or young woman, or an actress representing such a person.

In"got steel. Steel cast in ingots from the Bessemer converter or open-hearth furnace.

In*i"ti*a*tive (?), n. (Political Science) The right or procedure by which legislation may be introduced or enacted directly by the people, as in the Swiss Confederation and in many of the States of the United States; -- chiefly used with the. The procedure of the initiative is essentially as follows: Upon the filing of a petition signed by a required number or percentage of qualified voters the desired measure must be submitted to a popular vote, and upon receiving the required majority (commonly a majority of those voting on the measure submitted) it becomes a law. In some States of the United States the initiative is only local; in others it is state-wide and includes the making of constitutional amendments.

In"pa`tient (?), n. A patient who receives lodging and food, as well as treatment, in a hospital or an infirmary; -- distinguished from outpatient.

||In rem (?). [L.] (Law) Lit., in or against a (or the) thing; -- used: (a) Of any right (called right, or jus, in rem) of such a nature as to be available over its subject without reference to one person more than another, or, as generally expressed, a right competent, or available, against all persons. Rights in rem include not alone rights over physical property, but all rights available against all persons indifferently, as those of life, liberty, and reputation. (b) Of actions for recovering or reducing to possession or enjoyment a specific object, as in the enforcement of maritime liens against a vessel, which is made the defendant by a sort of personification. Most actions for the specific recovery of property in English and American law are in the nature of actions in personam against a person alleged to be unlawfully withholding the property.

||In"ro (?), n. [Jap. inr; in seal + r box.] A small closed receptacle or set of receptacles of hard material, as lacquered wood, iron, bronze, or ivory, used by the Japanese to hold medicines, perfumes, and the like, and carried in the girdle. It is usually secured by a silk cord by which the wearer may grasp it, which cord passes through an ornamental button or knob called a netsuke.

||In si"tu (?). [L.] In its natural or original position or place; in position; -- said specif., in geology, of a rock, soil, or fossil, when in the situation in which it was originally formed or deposited.

In"stroke` (?), n. An inward stroke; specif., in a steam or other engine, a stroke in which the piston is moving away from the crank shaft; -- opposed to outstroke.

In`stru*men"tal*ism (?), n. (Philos.) The view that the sanction of truth is its utility, or that truth is genuine only in so far as it is a valuable instrument. -- In`stru*men"tal*ist, n.

Instrumentalism views truth as simply the value belonging to certain ideas in so far as these ideas are biological functions of our organisms, and psychological functions whereby we direct our choices and attain our successes.

Josiah Royce.

In*suf"flate (?), a. [See Insufflation.] To blow upon; to breath upon or into; to use insufflation upon.

In`su*la"tion, n. The material or substance used in insulating.

In"swept` (?), a. Narrowed at the forward end; -- said of an automobile frame when the side members are closer together at the forward end than at the rear.

In*ten"sive, a. (Agric.) Designating, or pertaining to, any system of farming or horticulture, usually practiced on small pieces of land, in which the soil is thoroughly worked and fertilized so as to get as much return as possible; -- opposed to extensive.

In"ter*crop` (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. -cropped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. -cropping.] (Agric.) To cultivate by planting simultaneous crops in alternate rows; as, to intercrop an orchard. Also, to use for catch crops at seasons when the ground is not covered by crops of the regular rotation.

In"ter*crop`, n. (Agric.) A crop grown among or between the rows of another crop; a catch crop.

In`ter*de*nom`i*na"tion*al (?), a. Occurring between or among, or common to, different denominations; as, interdenominational fellowship or belief.

In`ter*fe*rom"e*ter (?), n. [See Interfere and -meter.] (Physics) An instrument for measuring small movements, distances, or displacements by means of the interference of two beams of light; -- called also refractometer.

In*ter"nal-com*bus"tion, a. (Mach.) Designating, or pertaining to, any engine (called an Internal-combustion engine) in which the heat or pressure energy necessary to produce motion is developed in the engine cylinder, as by the explosion of a gas, and not in a separate chamber, as in a steam-engine boiler. The gas used may be a fixed gas, or one derived from alcohol, ether, gasoline (petrol), naphtha, oil (petroleum), etc. There are three main classes: (1) gas engines proper, using fixed gases, as coal, blast-furnace, or producer gas; (2) engines using the vapor of a volatile fluid, as the typical gasoline (petrol) engine; (3) oil engines, using either an atomized spray or the vapor (produced by heat) of a comparatively heavy oil, as petroleum or kerosene. In all of these the gas is mixed with a definite amount of air, the charge is composed in the cylinder and is then exploded either by a flame of gas (flame ignition -- now little used), by a hot tube (tube ignition) or the like, by an electric spark (electric ignition, the usual method is gasoline engines, or by the heat of compression, as in the Diesel engine. Gas and oil engines are chiefly of the stationary type. Gasoline engines are largely used for automobile vehicles, boats, etc. Most internal- combustion engines use the Otto (four-stroke) cycle, though many use the two-stroke cycle. They are almost universally trunk engines and single-acting. Because of the intense heat produced by the frequent explosions, the cylinders must be cooled by a water jacket (water-cooled) or by air currents (air cooled) to give the maximum thermodynamic efficiency and to avoid excessive friction or seizing.

In*terne" (?), n. [F.] (F. pron. N`târn") (Med.) A resident physician in a hospital; a house physician.

In`ter*ur"ban (n`tr*ûr"ban), a. Going between, or connecting, cities or towns; as, interurban electric railways.

In`ter*vo*cal"ic (?), a. (Phon.) Situated between vowels; immediately preceded and followed by vowel sounds, as, p in occupy, d in idea, etc.

In`ver*ness" (?), n., or In`ver*ness" cape". A kind of full sleeveless cape, fitting closely about the neck.

Robert's wind-blown head and tall form wrapped in an Inverness cape.

Mrs. Humphry Ward.

In*vert"ase (?), n. (Chem.) (a) An enzyme capable of effecting the inversion of cane suger, producing invert sugar. It is found in many plants and in the intestines of animals. (b) By extension, any enzyme which splits cane sugar, milk sugar, lactose, etc., into monosaccharides.

I`o*do*cre"sol (?), n. [Iodo- + cresol.] (Org. Chem.) Any of several isomeric iodine derivatives of the cresols, C6H3I(CH3)OH, esp. one, an odorless amorphous powder, used in medicine as a substitute for iodoform.

I`o*do*for"mo*gen (?), n. [Iodoform + -gen root of gi`gnesqai to be born.] (Pharm.) A light powder used as a substitute for iodoform. It is a compound of iodoform and albumin.

I"o*dol (?), n. [Iodo- + pyrrol.] (Chem.) A crystallized substance of the composition C4I4NH, technically tetra-iodo- pyrrol, used like iodoform.

I`o*do*thy"rin (?), n. [Iodo- + thyro- + -in.] (Physiol. Chem.) A peculiar substance obtained from the thyroid gland, containing from nine to ten per cent of iodine.

It is a very stable compound, and is believed to be active principle in thyroid extracts and in the internal secretion of the thyroid gland. It was originally called thyroiodin.

I"on, n. 1. One of the electrified particles into which, according to the electrolytic dissociation theory, the molecules of electrolytes are divided by water and other solvents. An ion consists of one or more atoms and carries a unit charge of electricity, 3.4 x 10-10 electrostatic units, or a multiple of this. Those which are positively electrified (hydrogen and the metals) are called cations; negative ions (hydroxyl and acidic atoms or groups) are called anions. Thus, hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissociates, in aqueous solution, into the hydrogen ion, H+, and the chlorine ion, Cl-; ferric nitrate, Fe(NO3)3, yields the ferric ion, Fe+++, and nitrate ions, NO3-, NO3- , NO3-. When a solution containing ions is made part of an electric circuit, the cations move toward the cathode, the anions toward the anode. This movement is called migration, and the velocity of it differs for different kinds of ions. If the electromotive force is sufficient, electrolysis ensues: cations give up their charge at the cathode and separate in metallic form or decompose water, forming hydrogen and alkali; similarly, at the anode the element of the anion separates, or the metal of the anode is dissolved, or decomposition occurs.

2. One of the small electrified particles into which the molecules of a gas are broken up under the action of the electric current, of ultraviolet and certain other rays, and of high temperatures. To the properties and behavior of ions the phenomena of the electric discharge through rarefied gases and many other important effects are ascribed. At low pressures the negative ions appear to be electrons; the positive ions, atoms minus an electron. At ordinary pressures each ion seems to include also a number of attached molecules. Ions may be formed in a gas in various ways.

I"on*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ionized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ionizing (?).] (Elec. Chem.) To separate (a compound) into ions, esp. by dissolving in water. -- I`on*i*za"tion (#), n.

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I"ris, n. (Zoöl.) Inner circle of an oscillated color spot.

I"ris di"a*phragm. An adjustable diaphragm, suggesting the iris of the eye in its action, for regulating the aperture of a lens, consisting of a number of thin pieces fastened to a ring. It is used in cameras and microscopes.

I"rish A*mer"i*can. A native of Ireland who has become an American citizen; also, a child or descendant of such a person.

I"ron ("rn), n. (Golf) An iron-headed club with a deep face, chiefly used in making approaches, lifting a ball over hazards, etc.

Ir`o*quoi"an (r`*kwoi"an), a. Of, pertaining to, or designating, one of the principal linguistic stocks of the North American Indians. The territory of the northern Iroquoian tribes, of whom the Five Nations, or Iroquois proper, were the chief, extended from the shores of the St. Lawrence and of Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Erie south, through eastern Pennsylvania, to Maryland; that of the southern tribes, of whom the Cherokees were chief, formed part of Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, Tennessee, and Kentucky. All of the tribes were agricultural, and they were noted for large, communal houses, palisaded towns, and ability to organize, as well as for skill in war. -- n. An Indian of an Iroquoian tribe.

Ir`re*vers"i*ble steering gear. (Mach.) A steering gear, esp. for an automobile, not affected by the road wheels, as when they strike an obstacle side ways, but easily controlled by the hand wheel or steering lever.

I"so*bront ("s*brnt), n. [Iso- + Gr. bronth` thunder.] (Meteor.) An imaginary line, or a line on a chart, marking the simultaneous development of a thunderstorm, as noted by observing the time when the thunder is heard at different places.

I"so*chor (?), n. [Iso- + Gr. xhw`ra space.] (Physics) A line upon a thermodynamic diagram so drawn as to represent the pressures corresponding to changes of temperature when the volume of the gas operated on is constant. -- I`so*chor"ic (#), a.

I*soch"ro*nize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. -nized; p. pr. & vb. n. -nizing.] [See Isochronous.] To make, or tend to make (the motion of a moving body), uniform in rate of rotation, or in frequency of vibration.

I"so*drome (?), n. [Iso- + Gr. &?; course.] (Nav.) A method of moving a fleet from one formation to another, the direction usually being changed eight points (90°), by means of paths of equal length for each ship. It is prohibited in the United States navy.

I"so*mere (?), n. [Iso- + - mere.] (Zoöl.) 1. A homologous or corresponding part or segment.

2. (Chem.) = Isomer.

I"so*morph (?), n. (Biol.) An animal, plant, or group having superficial similarity to another, although phylogenetically different.

I`so*mor"phic (?), a. (Biol.) Alike in form; exhibiting isomorphism.

I"so*spore (?), n. (Biol.) (a) One of the spores produced by an isosporous organism. (b) A zygospore.

I*sos"po*rous (?), a. [Iso- + Gr. &?; fruit.] (Biol.) Producing but one kind of spore, as the ferns.

I*sos"ta*sy (?), n. [See Iso-; Stasis.] The state or quality of being isostatic. Specif. (Geol.), general equilibrium in the earth's crust, supposed to be maintained by the yielding or flow of rock material beneath the surface under gravitative stress. By the theory of isostasy each unit column of the earth, from surface to center, has approximately the same weight, and the continents stand higher than the ocean beds chiefly because the material of the crust has there less density.

I`so*stat"ic (?), a. [Iso- + static.] (Physics & Geol.) Subjected to equal pressure from every side; being in hydrostatic equilibrium, as a body submerged in a liquid at rest; pertaining to, or characterized by, isostasy.

I. W. W. (Abbrev.) Industrial Workers of the World (the name of two American labor organizations, one of which advocates syndicalism).

{ Ix"tle Ix"til} (?), n. The fine, soft fiber of the bromeliaceous plant Bromelia sylvestris.


Ja*cal" (hä*käl"; 239), n. [Amer. Sp., fr. Mex. xacalli.] In Mexico and the southwestern United States, a kind of plastered house or hut, usually made by planting poles or timber in the ground, filling in between them with screen work or wickerwork, and daubing one or both sides with mud or adobe mortar; also, this method of construction.

{ Jack`a*roo" (?), n. Also Jack`e*roo"}. [Jack + kangaroo.] A young man living as an apprentice on a sheep station, or otherwise engaged in acquainting himself with colonial life. [Colloq., Australia]

Jack`a*roo", v. i. To be a jackaroo; to pass one's time as a jackaroo. [Colloq., Australia]

Jack"y (?), n.; pl. Jackies (#). Dim. or pet from Jack. Hence: (a) A landsman's nickname for a seaman, resented by the latter. (b) English gin. [Dial. Eng.]

Jag, n. 1. A leather bag or wallet; pl., saddlebags. [Scot.]

2. Enough liquor to make a man noticeably drunk; a small "load;" a time or case of drunkeness; -- esp. in phr. To have a jag on, to be drunk. [Slang, U. S. & Dial. Eng.]

{ Jag"an*nath (?), Jag`an*na"tha (?), n. Also Jug"ger*naut}. [Hind. Jagan- nth lord of the world, Skr. jaganntha.] (Hinduism) A particular form of Vishnu, or of Krishna, whose chief idol and worship are at Puri, in Orissa. The idol is considered to contain the bones of Krishna and to possess a soul. The principal festivals are the Snanayatra, when the idol is bathed, and the Rathayatra, when the image is drawn upon a car adorned with obscene paintings. Formerly it was erroneously supposed that devotees allowed themselves to be crushed beneath the wheels of this car. It is now known that any death within the temple of Jagannath is considered to render the place unclean, and any spilling of blood in the presence of the idol is a pollution.

Jag"ger*y palm (?). An East Indian palm (Caryota urens) having leaves pinnate with wedge-shaped divisions, the petiole very stout. It is the principal source of jaggery, and is often cultivated for ornament.

Jah"vist (?), n., Jah*vis"tic (&?;), a. See Jehovist, Jehovistic.

{ Jam"bool, Jam"bul (?) }, n. [Hind. jamb, jambl, prop., the rose-apple tree or its fruit, fr. Skr. jambu, jamb.] The Java plum; also, a drug obtained from its bark and seeds, used as a remedy for diabetes.

Jam`boo*ree" (?), n. [Etym. uncertain. Cf. Jambone.] A noisy or unrestrained carousal or frolic; a spree. [Slang] Kipling.

A Calcutta-made pony cart had been standing in front of the manager's bungalow when Raja Singh started on his jamboree.

W. A. Fraser.

Japan current. A branch of the equatorial current of the Pacific, washing the eastern coast of Formosa and thence flowing northeastward past Japan and merging into the easterly drift of the North Pacific; -- called also Kuro-Siwo, or Black Stream, in allusion to the deep blue of its water. It is similar in may ways to the Gulf Stream.

Jap"o*nism (?), n. [F. japonisme, fr. Japon Japan.] A quality, idiom, or peculiarity characteristic of the Japanese or their products, esp. in art.

||Jar`di`nière" (?), n. (Cookery) A preparation of mixed vegetables stewed in a sauce with savory herbs, etc.; also, a soup made in this way.

||Ja`spé" (?), a. [F., p.p. of jasper to mottle. See Jasper.] (Ceramics) Having the surface decorated with cloudings and streaks, somewhat as if imitating jasper.

Jef`fer*so"ni*an (?), a. Pert. to, or characteristic of, Thomas Jefferson (third President of the United States) or his political doctrines, which were those of the Republicanism of his time, as opposed to those of the Federalists. -- n. An adherent of Jefferson or his doctrines. -- Jef`fer*so"ni*an*ism (#), n.

Jeffersonian simplicity. The absence of pomp or display which Jefferson aimed at in his administration as President (1801-1809), eschewing display or ceremony tending to distinguish the President from the people, as in going to the capital on horseback and with no escort, the abolition of court etiquette and the weekly levee, refusal to recognize titles of honor, etc.

Jel"li*fy (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Jellified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jellifying (?).] To make, or to become, gelatinous; to jelly. -- Jel`li*fi*ca"tion (#), n.

{ Je*quir"i*ty (?), n., or Je*quir"i*ty bean` }. [Prob. fr. a native name.] (Bot.) The seed of the wild licorice (Abrus precatorius) used by the people of India for beads in rosaries and necklaces, as a standard weight, etc.; -- called also jumble bead.

Jer"ry (?), a. Flimsy; jerry- built. -- Jer"ry*ism (#), n. [Both Builder's Cant]

Jer"ry-build`er (?), n. [Prob. fr. the proper name Jerry, familiar form of Jeremiah.] A professional builder who erects cheap dwellings of poor materials and unsubstantial and slovenly construction.

Je"su (?), n. [L., vocative and oblique cases of Jesus.] Jesus. [Poetical]

Jesu, give the weary
Calm and sweet repose.

S. Baring-Gould.

||Jet` d'eau" (?); pl. Jets d'eau (#). [F., a throw of water.] A stream of water spouting, esp. upward, from a fountain or pipe for ornament; also, the fountain or pipe from which it issues.

||Jeu`nesse" do`rée" (?). [F.] Lit., gilded youth; young people of wealth and fashion, esp. if given to prodigal living; -- in the French Revolution, applied to young men of the upper classes who aided in suppressing the Jacobins after the Reign of Terror.

Jew"ish cal"en*dar. A lunisolar calendar in use among Hebraic peoples, reckoning from the year 3761 b. c., the date traditionally given for the Creation. It received its present fixed form from Hillel II. about 360 a. d. The present names of the months, which are Babylonian-Assyrian in origin, replaced older ones, Abib, Bul, etc., at the time of the Babylonian Exile. Nineteen years constitute a lunar cycle, of which the 3d, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th, and 19th years are leap years. The year 5663 [1902-3 a. d.] was the first year of the 299th lunar cycle. The common year is said to be defective, regular, or perfect (or abundant) according as it has 353, 354, or 355 days. The leap year has an intercalary month, and a total of 383 (defective), 384 (regular), or 385 (perfect, or abundant) days. The calendar is complicated by various rules providing for the harmonious arrangement of festivals, etc., so that no simple perpetual calendar can be constructed. The following table gives the months in order, with the number of days assigned to each. Only three months vary in length. They are: Heshvan, which has 30 days in perfect years; Kislev, which has 30 days in regular and perfect years; and Adar, which has 30 days in leap years. The ecclesiastical year commences with Nisan and the civil year with Tishri. The date of the first of Tishri, or the Jewish New Year, is also given for the Jewish years 5661-5696 (1900- 1935 a. d.). From these tables it is possible to transform any Jewish date into Christian, or vice versa, for the years 1900-1935 a. d.

Months of the Jewish Year.

 1 Tishri . . . . . . 30
 2 Heshvan . . . . .  29 (r. & d.)
                                or 30 (p.)
 3 Kislev . . . . . . 29 (d.) or
                                   30 (r. & p.)
 4 Tebet . . . . . .  29
 5 Shebat . . . . . . 30
 6 Adar . . . . . . . 29 or
                                   30 (l.)
 -- Veadar . . . . .  29
    (occuring only in leap years)
 7 Nisan . . . . . . .30
 8 Ivar . . . . . . ..29
 9 Sivan . . . . . . .30
10 Tammux . . . . . . 29
11 Ab . . . . . . . . 30
12 Elul . . . . . . ..29

Jewish Year a. d.

5661 p. begins Sept. 24, 1900 5662 d.l. " " 14, 1901 5663 p. " Oct. 2, 1902 5664 r. " Sept. 22, 1903 5665 p.l. " " 10, 1904 5666 p. " " 30, 1905 5667 r. " " 20, 1906 5668 d.l. " " 6, 1907 5669 p. " " 26, 1908 5670 d.l. " " 16, 1909 5671 r. " Oct. 4, 1910 5672 p. " Sept. 23, 1911 5673 p.l. " " 12, 1912 5674 r. " Oct. 2, 1913 5675 d. " Sept. 21, 1914 5676 p.l. " " 9, 1915 5677 r. " " 28, 1916 5678 p. " " 17, 1917 5679 d.l. begins Sept. 7, 1918 5680 r. " " 25, 1919 5681 p.l. " " 13, 1920 5682 p. " Oct. 3, 1921 5683 d. " Sept. 23, 1922 5684 r.l. " " 11, 1923 5685 p. " " 29, 1924 5686 p. " " 19, 1925 5687 d.l. " " 9, 1926 5688 r. " " 27, 1927 5689 p.l. " " 15, 1928 5690 d. " Oct. 5, 1929 5691 r. " Sept. 23, 1930 5692 p.l. " " 12, 1931 5693 p. " Oct. 1, 1932 5694 r. " Sept. 23, 1933 5695 d.l. " " 10, 1934 5696 p. " " 28, 1935

d. = defective year; d.l. = defective leap year; p. = perfect year; p.l. = perfect leap year; r. = regular year; r.l. = regular leap year.

Jib (?), n. 1. One that jibs, or balks; a jibber.

2. A stationary condition; a standstill.

Jib, v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Jibbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jibbing.] Also Jibb. [Cf. Jib a sail, Gybe.] (Chiefly Naut.) To shift, or swing round, as a sail, boom, yard, etc., as in tacking.

Jig, v. i. To move with a skip or rhythm; to move with vibrations or jerks.

The fin would jig off slowly, as if it were looking for nothing at all.


Jig"ger (jg"gr), n. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of small red mites (esp. Tetranychus irritans and T. Americanus) which, in the larval or leptus stage, burrow beneath the skin of man and various animals, causing great annoyance. [Southern U. S.]

Jig"ger (?), v. t. [Cf. Jiggle.] To move, send, or drive with a jerk; to jerk; also, to drive or send over with a jerk, as a golf ball.

He could jigger the ball o'er a steeple tall as most men would jigger a cop.

Harper's Mag.

{Ji*had", Je*had"} (?), n. [Ar. jihd.] (Moham.) A religious war against infidels or Mohammedan heretics; also, any bitter war or crusade for a principle or belief.

[Their] courage in war . . . had not, like that of the Mohammedan dervishes of the Sudan, or of Mohammedans anywhere engaged in a jehad, a religious motive and the promise of future bliss behind it.

James Bryce.

Jim Crow. A negro; -- said to be so called from a popular negro song and dance, the refrain of which is "Wheel about and turn about and jump Jim Crow," produced in 1835 by T. D. Rice, a famous negro minstrel. [Slang, U. S.]

Jink (?), v. i. [Cf. Jig, v. i.] 1. To move quickly, esp. with a sudden turn; hence, to dodge; to escape by a quick turn; -- obs. or dial., except as a hunting term in pig-sticking.

2. (Card Playing) In the games of spoilfive and forty-five, to win the game by taking all five tricks; also, to play to win all five tricks, losing what has been already won if unsuccessful.

Jinx (?), n. A person, object, influence, or supernatural being which is supposed to bring bad luck or to cause things to go wrong. [Slang]

Joint, n. 1. [Jag a notch.] A projecting or retreating part in something; any irregularity of line or surface, as in a wall. [Now Chiefly U. S.]

2. (Theaters) A narrow piece of scenery used to join together two flats or wings of an interior setting.

3. A place of low resort, as for smoking opium. [Slang]

Jol"ly (?), v. t. To cause to be jolly; to make good-natured; to encourage to feel pleasant or cheerful; -- often implying an insincere or bantering spirit; hence, to poke fun at. [Colloq.]

We want you to jolly them up a bit.

Brander Matthews.

At noon we lunched at the tail of the ambulance, and gently "jollied" the doctor's topography.

F. Remington.

Jol"ly, n.; pl. Jollies (#). [Prob. fr. Jolly, a.] A marine in the English navy. [Sailor's Slang]

I'm a Jolly -- 'Er Majesty's Jolly -- soldier an' sailor too!


Joss paper. Gold and silver paper burned by the Chinese, in the form of coins or ingots, in worship and at funerals.

Joule"me`ter (?), n. An integrating wattmeter for measuring the energy in joules expended in an electric circuit or developed by a machine.

<! p. 1990 !>

Joule's cycle (?). (Thermodynamics) The cycle for the air engine proposed by Joule. In it air is taken by a pump from a cold chamber and compressed adiabatically until its pressure is eqal to that of the air in a hot chamber, into which it is then delivered, thereby displacing an equal amount of hot air into the engine cylinder. Here it expands adiabatically to the temperature of the cold chamber into which it is finally exhausted. This cycle, reversed, is used in refrigerating machines.

Joule's law. 1. (Elec.) The law that the rate at which heat is produced in any part of an electric circuit is measured by the product of the square of the current into the resistance of that part of the circuit. If the current (i) is constant for an interval of time (t), the energy (H) in heat units equals i2Rt, R being resistance.

2. (Thermodynamics) The law that there is no change of temperature when a gas expands without doing external work and without receiving or rejecting heat.

{ Jub"bah (?), n. Also Jub"beh, Joob"beh (?) }. [Hind. jubba, fr. Ar. jubbah.] A long outer garment worn by both sexes of Mohammedans of the better class.

Ju"da*iz`ers (j"d*z`rz), n. pl. See Raskolnik.

Judge"-made`, a. Created by judges or judicial decision; -- applied esp. to law applied or established by the judicial interpretation of statutes so as extend or restrict their scope, as to meet new cases, to provide new or better remedies, etc., and often used opprobriously of acts of judicial interpretation considered as doing this.

The law of the 13th century was judge-made law in a fuller and more literal sense than the law of any succeeding century has been.

Sir Frederick Pollock.

Ju"jube (?), n. A lozenge made of or in imitation of, or flavored with, the jujube fruit.

{ ||Ju"jut`su (?), n. Also Ju"jit`su (?), Jiu"jut`su, Jiu"jit`su (?) }. [Jap. jjutsu; j soft (prob. because no weapons are used) + jutsu art.] The Japanese art of self- defense without weapons, now widely used as a system of physical training. It depends for its efficiency largely upon the principle of making use of an opponent's strength and weight to disable or injure him, and by applying pressure so that his opposing movement will throw him out of balance, dislocate or break a joint, etc. It opposes knowledge and skill to brute strength, and demands an extensive practical knowledge of human anatomy.

Jukes, The (?) A pseudonym used to designate the descendants of two sisters, the "Jukes" sisters, whose husbands were sons of a backwoodsman of Dutch descent. They lived in the State of New York, and their history was investigated by R. L. Dugdale as an example of the inheritance of criminal and immoral tendencies, disease, and pauperism. Sixty per cent of those traced showed, degeneracy, and they are estimated to have cost society $1,308,000 in 75 years.

||Ju`melle" (?), a. [F., fem. of jumeau, fr. L. gemellus. Cf. Gemel, a.] Twin; paired; -- said of various objects made or formed in pairs, as a binocular opera glass, a pair of gimmal rings, etc.

Ju`melle", n. A jumelle opera glass, or the like.

Jump"er, n. A thing that jumps; esp., any of various tools or other contrivances operating with a jumping motion; as, (Mining, Quarrying, etc.), an instrument for boring holes in rocks by percussion without hammering, consisting of a bar of iron with a chisel-edged steel tip at one or both ends, operated by striking it against the rock, turning it slightly with each blow.

Jump"ing dis*ease". A convulsive tic similar to or identical with miryachit, observed among the woodsmen of Maine.

Jump spark. A spark produced by the jumping of electricity across a permanent gap.

Jump"y (?), a. [Compar. Jumpier (?); superl. Jumpiest.] Jumping, or inducing to jump; characterized by jumps; hence, extremely nervous.

Junc"tion box. (Elec.) A box through which the main conductors of a system of electric distribution pass, and where connection is made with branch circuits.

Ju"ry mast. (a) A temporary mast, in place of one that has been carried away, or broken. (b) (Med.) An apparatus to support the trunk and head in spinal disease.

Ju"ry-rigged`, a. (Naut.) Rigged for temporary service.

Jus"ti*fy, v. t. (Law) (a) To show (a person) to have had a sufficient legal reason for an act that has been made the subject of a charge or accusation. (b) To qualify (one's self) as a surety by taking oath to the ownership of sufficient property.

The production of bail in court, who there justify themselves against the exception of the plaintiff.

Bouvier's Law Dict.


||Ka"ma (kä"mä), n. (Theosophy) Desire; animal passion; -- supposed to create the ka"ma ru"pa (rp) [Skr. rpa shape, image], a kind of simulacrum or astral likeness of a man which exists after his death in an invisible plane of being, called ka"ma lo"ca (l"k) [Skr. lka space, world], until the impulses which created it are exhausted and it finally fades away.

Ka*pok" (?), n. [Prob. fr. the native name.] (Bot.) A silky wool derived from the seeds of Ceiba pentandra (syn. Eriodendron anfractuosum), a bombaceous tree of the East and West Indies.

||Ka`ra*kul" (?), n. [Russ. karakul' curly fleece of Bokhara and Khiva sheep.] Astrakhan, esp. in fine grades. Cf. Caracul.

Ka*ross" (?), n. [Native name.] A native garment or rug of skin sewed together in the form of a square. [South Africa]

The wants of a native . . . are confined to a kaross (skin cloak) or some pieces of cotton cloth.

James Bryce.

Kau"ri (?), n. (a) Kauri resin. (b) By extension, any of various species of Dammara; as, the red kauri (D. lanceolata).

{ Kauri resin, gum, or copal }. A resinous product of the kauri, found in the form of yellow or brown lumps in the ground where the trees have grown. It is used for making varnish, and as a substitute for amber.

Ka*zoo" (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] A kind of toy or rude musical instrument, as a tube inside of which is a stretched string made to vibrate by singing or humming into the tube.

Ke"a (k"; colloq. k"), n. [Maori.] (Zoöl.) A large New Zealand parrot (Nestor notabilis), notorious for having acquired the habit of killing sheep; -- called also mountain parrot.

||Ked"dah (?), n. [Malay kedah, fr. Ar. qadah hole.] An inclosure constructed to entrap wild elephants; an elephant trap. [India]

Keel, n. (Aëronautics) In a dirigible, a construction similar in form and use to a ship's keel; in an aëroplane, a fin or fixed surface employed to increase stability and to hold the machine to its course.

Kef"ir (?), n. An effervescent liquor like kumiss, made from fermented milk, used as a food and as a medicine in the northern Caucasus. -- Ke*fir"ic (#), a.

Kefir grains. Small hard yellowish aggregations found in the Caucasus region, and containing various yeasts and bacteria. They are used as a ferment in preparing kefir.

Ke"loid (?), a. [Gr. &?; crab's claw + -oid: cf. F. kéloïde, chéloïde.] (Med.) Applied to a variety of tumor forming hard, flat, irregular excrescences upon the skin.

Ke"loid, n. A keloid tumor.

Kep"i (?), n. [F. képi, of G. origin.] A military cap having a close-fitting band, a round flat top sloping toward the front, and a visor. As originally worn by the French in Algeria about 1830 it was tall and stiff with a straight visor. It is now lower, has a curved visor, and is frequently soft.

||Kép"vi*se*lö*ház` (?), n. [Hung., fr. képviselö representative + ház house.] (Hungary) See Legislature.

Ker"mes (?), n. (Zoöl.) [NL.] A genus of scale insects including many species that feed on oaks. The adult female resembles a small gall.

Kern (?), n. [Written also kirn.] [Cf. D. & G. kern kernal, E. kern to harden, kernel.] [Obs. or Prov. Eng. & Scot.] 1. Kernel; corn; grain.

2. The last handful or sheaf reaped at the harvest.

3. The harvest-home.

Kern baby. A doll or image decorated with corn (grain) flowers, etc., carried in the festivals of a kern, or harvest- home. Called also harvest queen.

Ker"seys, n. pl. Varieties of kersey; also, trousers made of kersey.

Ke"ta (?), n. [Perh. of Amer. Indian origin.] (Zoöl.) A small salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) of inferior value, which in the autumn runs up all the larger rivers between San Francisco and Kamchatka.

Key, n. (Teleg.) A metallic lever by which the circuit of the sending or transmitting part of a station equipment may be easily and rapidly opened and closed; any device for closing or opening an electric circuit.

Key, n. A simplified version or analysis which accompanies something as a clue to its explanation, a book or table containing the solutions to problems, ciphers, allegories, or the like, or a table or synopsis of conspicuous distinguishing characters of members of a taxonomic group.

Key fruit. (Bot.) A samara.

Key"stone` State. Pennsylvania; -- a nickname alluding to its having been the central one of the 13 original United States.

Kha"ki (kä"k), a. [Hind. khk, lit., dusty, dust-colored, fr. Per. khk dust.] Of a dull brownish yellow, or drab color; -- applied to cloth, originally to a stout brownish cotton cloth, used in making uniforms in the Anglo-Indian army. In the United States service the summer uniform of cotton is officially designated khaki; the winter uniform of wool, olive drab.

Kha"ki, n. Any kind of khaki cloth; hence, a uniform of khaki or, rarely, a soldier clad in khaki. In the United States and British armies khaki or cloth of a very similar color is almost exclusively used for service in the field.

Khond (?), n. A Dravidian of a group of tribes of Orissa, India, a section of whom were formerly noted for their cruel human sacrifices to the earth goddess, murder of female infants, and marriage by capture.

Ki"bosh (?), n. 1. Nonsense; stuff; also, fashion; style. [Slang]

2. Portland cement when thrown or blown into the recesses of carved stonework to intensify the shadows.

To put the kibosh on, to do for; to dispose of. [Slang]

Kid, n. Among pugilists, thieves, etc., a youthful expert; -- chiefly used attributively; as, kid Jones. [Cant]

Kil"erg` (?), n. [Kilo- + erg.] (Physics) A unit of work equal to one thousand ergs.

Kil*ken"ny cats (?). Two cats fabled, in an Irish story, to have fought till nothing was left but their tails. It is probably a parable of a local contest between Kilkenny and Irishtown, which impoverished both towns.

Kill (?), n. 1. The act of killing.

"There is none like to me!" says the cub in the pride of his earliest kill.


2. An animal killed in the hunt, as by a beast of prey.

If ye plunder his kill from a weaker, devour not all in thy pride.


Kil"o- (?). [F. kilo-. See Kilogram.] A combining form used to signify thousand in forming the names of units of measurement; as, kilogram, kilometer, kilowatt, etc.

Kil"o*volt` (?), n. [Kilo- + volt.] (Elec.) A unit of electromotive force equal to one thousand volts.

Kil"o*watt` hour. (Elec.) A unit of work or energy equal to that done by one kilowatt acting for one hour; -- approx. = 1.34 horse-power hour.

Ki*mo"no (?), n.; pl. - nos (#). [Jap.] 1. A kind of loose robe or gown tied with a sash, worn as an outer garment by Japanese men and women.

2. A similar gown worn as a dressing gown by women of Western nations.

{ Kin (kn), n. Also Kine (kn) }. [Gr. kinei^n to move.] (Physics) The unit velocity in the C.G.S. system -- a velocity of one centimeter per second.

{ Kin`æs*thet"ic (?), Kin`es*thet"ic }, a. Of, pertaining to, or involving, kinæsthesis.

Ki*ne"to*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; movable + -graph.] (Physics) (a) A camera for making chronophotographs. (b) A machine for the projection of chronophotographs upon a screen for the purpose of producing the effect of an animated picture. (c) A combined animated-picture machine and phonograph in which sounds appropriate to the scene are automatically uttered by the latter instrument.

Ki*ne"to*phone (?), n. [See Kinetic, Phone.] A machine combining a kinetoscope and a phonograph synchronized so as to reproduce a scene and its accompanying sounds.

Ki*ne"to*scope (?), n. A machine, for the production of animated pictures, in which a film carrying successive instantaneous views of a moving scene travels uniformly through the field of a magnifying glass. The observer sees each picture, momentarily, through a slit in a revolving disk, and these glimpses, blended by persistence of vision, give the impression of continuous motion.

Kin"it (?), n. [Gr. &?; to move.] (Physics) A unit of force equal to the force which, acting for one second, will give a pound a velocity of one foot per second; - - proposed by J.D.Everett, an English physicist.

Ki*osk" (?), n. A light ornamental structure used as a news stand, band stand, etc.

Kip (?), n. [Cf. G. kippe.] 1. A sharp-pointed hill; a projecting point, as on a hill. [Scot.]

2. (Gymnastics) A method or feat of raising the body when hanging or swinging by the arms, as for the purpose of mounting upon the horizontal bar. The legs are swung forward and upward by bending the hips, then suddenly down again, which gives the upward impulse to the body.

Kiss"ing bug`. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of blood-sucking, venomous Hemiptera that sometimes bite the lip or other parts of the human body, causing painful sores, as the cone-nose (Conorhinus sanguisuga). [U. S.]

Kiss"ing strings` (?). Cap or bonnet strings made long to tie under the chin.

One of her ladyship's kissing strings, once pink and fluttering and now faded and soiled.

Pall Mall Mag.

Kitch`en*ette" (?), n. [Kitchen + -ette.] A room combining a very small kitchen and a pantry, with the kitchen conveniences compactly arranged, sometimes so that they fold up out of sight and allow the kitchen to be made a part of the adjoining room by opening folding doors.

Kite, n. (Naut.) A form of drag to be towed under water at any depth up to about forty fathoms, which on striking bottom is upset and rises to the surface; -- called also sentry.

Kit"ty (?), n. 1. A kitten; also, a pet name or calling name for the cat.

2. [Etym. uncertain.] (Gaming) The percentage taken out of a pool to pay for refreshments, or for the expenses of the table. R. F. Foster.

Ki"va (?), n. [Hopi name, sacred chamber.] A large chamber built under, or in, the houses of a Pueblo village, used as an assembly room in religious rites or as a men's dormitory. It is commonly lighted and entered from an opening in the roof.

Knee jerk. (Physiol.) A jerk or kick produced by a blow or sudden strain upon the patellar tendon of the knee, which causes a sudden contraction of the quadriceps muscle.

Kneipp"ism (?), n. Also Kneipp's, or Kneipp, cure (&?;). Treatment of disease by forms of hydrotherapy, as walking barefoot in the morning dew, baths, wet compresses, cold affusions, etc.; -- so called from its originator, Sebastian Kneipp (1821-97), a German priest.

Knick"er*bock`er, n. A linsey- woolsey fabric having a rough knotted surface on the right side; used for women's dresses.

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Knife, v. t. Fig.: To stab in the back; to try to defeat by underhand means, esp. in politics; to vote or work secretly against (a candidate of one's own party). [Slang, U. S.]

Knife switch. (Elec.) A switch consisting of one or more knifelike pieces hinged at one end and making contact near the other with flat gripping springs.

Knight service. Also Knight's service (&?;). 1. (Feud. Law) The military service by rendering which a knight held his lands; also, the tenure of lands held on condition of performing military service.

By far the greater part of England [in the 13th century] is held of the king by knight's service. . . . In order to understand this tenure we must form the conception of a unit of military service. That unit seems to be the service of one knight or fully armed horseman (servitium unius militis) to be done to the king in his army for forty days in the year, if it be called for. . . . The limit of forty days seems to have existed rather in theory than practice.

Pollock & Mait.

2. Service such as a knight can or should render; hence, good or valuable service.

Knight's fee. (Feudal Law) The fee of a knight; specif., the amount of land the holding of which imposed the obligation of knight service, being sometimes a hide or less, sometimes six or more hides.

Knob"ker`rie (?), n. [Boer D. knopkirie, fr. D. knop-hout, knotty stick + Hottentot kïrri club.] A short club with a knobbed end used as a missile weapon by Kafir and other native tribes of South Africa.

Knob"stick` (?), n. A stick, cane, or club terminating in a knob; esp., such a stick or club used as a weapon or missile; a knobkerrie.

Knock, v. i. To practice evil speaking or fault-finding; to criticize habitually or captiously. [Vulgar Slang, U. S.]

Knock, v. t. To impress strongly or forcibly; to astonish; to move to admiration or applause. [Slang, Eng.]

Knock"a*bout` (?), n. 1. (Naut.) A small yacht, generally from fifteen to twenty- five feet in length, having a mainsail and a jib. All knockabouts have ballast and either a keel or centerboard. The original type was twenty-one feet in length. The next larger type is called a raceabout.

2. A knockabout performer or performance. [Theat. Slang]

3. A man hired on a sheep station to do odd jobs. [Colloq., Australia]

Knock"a*bout` (?), a. 1. Marked by knocking about or roughness.

2. Of noisy and violent character. [Theat. Slang]

3. Characterized by, or suitable for, knocking about, or traveling or wandering hither and thither.

4. That does odd jobs; -- said of a class of hands or laborers on a sheep station. [Collog., Australia]

Knock"down` (?), a. 1. Of such force as to fell or overthrow; overwhelming; as, a knockdown blow.

2. Designating a rivet end to be formed into a head by upsetting in fastening.

3. Of or pertaining to the act of knocking down at an auction; specif., designating the price below which an article will not be disposed by the auctioneer.

4. Made or constructed so as to be capable of being knocked down or taken apart, as for transportation.

Knock"down`, n. 1. That which knocks one down; something that overpowers or overwhelms, as strong liquor; specif., a kind of ale or beer that is very strong. [Slang.]

2. A knocking down; a felling by a knock; a blow that overwhelms; also, a fist fight.

3. Something that knocks down, or takes apart, for packing or removal, as a piece of furniture; also, state of being knocked down, or taken apart.

Knock"er (?), n. 1. A person strikingly handsome, beautiful, or fine; one who wins admiration; a "stunner." [Slang.]

2. A species of large cockroach, esp. Blabera gigantea, of semitropical America, which is able to produce a loud knocking sound.

Knock"-off`, n. Act or place of knocking off; that which knocks off; specif. (Mach.), a cam or the like for disconnecting something, as a device in a knitting machine to remove loops from the needles.

Knock"-off`, a. That knocks off; of or pertaining to knocking off.

Knock"-out`, a. That knocks out; characterized by knocking out; as, a knock-out blow; a knock-out key for knocking out a drill from a collet.

Knock"-out` (?), n. Act of knocking out, or state of being knocked out.

Knock-out drops. Drops of some drug put in one's drink to stupefy him for purpose of robbery, etc. [Slang, U. S.]

Ko"dak (?), n. [An invented name.] 1. A kind of portable photographic camera, esp. adapted for snapshot work, in which a succession of negatives is made upon a continuous roll of sensitized film; -- a trade-mark name of the Eastman Kodak Company, but now popularly applied to almost any hand camera.

2. A photograph taken with a kodak.

Ko"dak, v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Kodaked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Kodaking.] To photograph with a kodak; hence, to describe or characterize briefly and vividly.

||Koft`ga*ri" (?), a. [Hind. koft garï goldbeating. fr. Per. koft beating + garï trade.] Ornamental work produced by inlaying steel with gold, -- a variety of damascening much used in the arts of India.

{ Ko"la (?), Kola nut }. Same as Cola, Cola nut.

Ko*lin"sky (?), n. [Russ. kolinski of Kola, a district in northeasten Russia where the finest minks abound.] Among furriers, any of several Asiatic minks; esp., Putorius sibiricus, the yellowish brown pelt of which is valued, esp. for the tail, used for making artists' brushes. Trade names for the fur are red sable and Tatar sable.

{ Ko*lusch"an, Ko*lush"an } (?), a. [From Russ. kalyushka piece of wood (worn in the nether lip).] Designating, or pert. to, a linguistic stock of North American Indians comprising the Tlinkit tribes of the Alexander Archipelago of southeastern Alaska and adjacent coast lands. Their language bears some affinity to Mexican tongues.

Kon*seal" (?), n. [Prob. formed from conceal.] (Med.) A form of capsule for inclosing a dose of medicine that is offensive, caustic, or the like.

||Kop (?), n. [South Afr. D., fr. D. kop head, akin to G. kopf and prob. to E. cop top.] Hill; mountain. [South Africa]

||Kop"je (?), n. [South African D., dim. of kop. See Kop.] A hillock; a small kop. [South Africa]

The colloqual Dutch pronunciation as here given is the usual one in South Africa.

Ko"sher (?), a. [heb. koshër fit, proper.] Ceremonially clean, according to Jewish law; -- applied to food, esp. to meat of animals slaughtered according to the requirements of Jewish law. Opposed to tref. Hence, designating a shop, store, house, etc., where such food is sold or used.

Ko"sher, n. Kosher food; also, a kosher shop.

Ko"sher, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Koshered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Koshering.] To prepare in conformity with the requirements of the Jewish law, as meat.

Krupp"ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Kruppized (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Kruppizing.] (Metal.) To treat by, or subject to, the Krupp process.

Krupp process (?). (Iron Metal.) (a) A process practiced by Friedrich Krupp, Essen, Germany, for washing pig iron, differing from the Bell process in using manganese as well as iron oxide, and performed in a Pernot furnace. Called also the Bell-Krupp process. (b) A process for the manufacture of steel armor plates, invented or practiced by Krupp, the details of which are secret. It is understood to involve the addition of chromium as well as nickel to the metal, and to include a treatment like that of the Harvey process with unknown variations or additions. The product is mentioned by some authors, as improved Harvey, or Harvey-Krupp armor plate.

Kryp"ton (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; , neut. of &?; hidden.] (Chem.) An inert gaseous element of the argon group, occurring in air to the extent of about one volume in a million. It was discovered by Ramsay and Travers in 1898. Liquefying point, -- 152° C.; symbol, Kr; atomic weight, 83.0.

Kul*tur"kampf` (?), n. [G., fr. kultur, cultur, culture + kampf fight.] (Ger. Hist.) Lit., culture war; -- a name, originating with Virchow (1821 -- 1902), given to a struggle between the the Roman Catholic Church and the German government, chiefly over the latter's efforts to control educational and ecclesiastical appointments in the interest of the political policy of centralization. The struggle began with the passage by the Prussian Diet in May, 1873, of the so-called May laws, or Falk laws, aiming at the regulation of the clergy. Opposition eventually compelled the government to change its policy, and from 1880 to 1887 laws virtually nullifying the May laws were enacted.

||Ku"ro-Siwo (?), n. [Jap. kuroshio; kuro black + shio tide.] See Japan Current, above.

Ky"ack (?), n. A pack sack to be swung on either side of a packsaddle. [Western U. S.]


L, a. 1. Having the general shape of the (capital) letter L; as, an L beam, or L-beam.

2. Elevated; -- a symbol for el. as an abbreviation of elevated in elevated road or railroad. -- n. An elevated road; as, to ride on the L. [Colloq., U. S.]

Laa"ger (l"gr or lä"gr), n. [D., also leger. Cf. 2d Leaguer, Lair.] A camp, esp. one with an inclosure of travelers' wagons for temporary defense. [South Africa]

Wagons . . . can be readily formed into a laager, a camp, by being drawn into a circle, with the oxen placed inside and so kept safe from the attacks of wild beasts.

James Bryce.

Laa"ger, v. t. & i. [From Laager, n.] To form into, or camp in, a laager, or protected camp.

La"bi*o*plas`ty (l"b**pls`t), n. [Labium + -plasty.] (Surg.) A plastic operation for making a new lip, or for replacing a lost tissue of a lip.

La"bi*palp (?), n. (Zoöl.) A labial palp.

La"bor, n. (Mining.) A stope or set of stopes. [Sp. Amer.]

Labor Day. In most of the States and Territories of the United States, a day, usually the first Monday of September, set aside as a legal holiday, in honor of, or in the interest of, workingmen as a class. Also, a similar holiday in Canada, Australia, etc.

La"bret (?), n. [L. labrum lip.] (Anthropology) A piece of wood, shell, stone, or other substance, worn in a perforation of the lip or cheek by many savages.

Lace, v. t. To twine or draw as a lace; to interlace; to intertwine.

The Gond . . . picked up a trail of the Karela, the vine that bears the bitter wild gourd, and laced it to and fro across the temble door.


Lach"ry*mals (?), n. pl. [See Lachrymal.] Tears; also, lachrymal feelings or organs. [Colloq.]

People go to the theaters to have . . . their risibles and lachrymals set agoing.

The Lutheran.

La*din" (?), n. A person speaking Ladin as a mother tongue.

La*di"no (?), n.; pl. - nos (&?;) 1. The mixed Spanish and Hebrew language spoken by Sephardim.

2. A cunningly vicious horse. [Southeastern U. S.]

3. A ladin.

La"dy's cloth` (?) A kind of broadcloth of light weight, used for women's dresses, cloaks, etc.

Lag, n. The failing behind or retardation of one phenomenon with respect to another to which it is closely related; as, the lag of magnetization compared with the magnetizing force (hysteresis); the lag of the current in an alternating circuit behind the impressed electro-motive force which produced it.

{ La*gniappe (?), La*gnappe" (?) }, n. [Etym. uncertain.] In Louisiana, a trifling present given to customers by tradesmen; a gratuity.

Lagniappe . . .is something thrown in, gratis, for good measure.

Mark Twain.

||Lag"thing (?), n. [Norw. lagting, lagthing; lag company, society (akin to E. law, lay) + ting, thing, parliament. See Thing.] See Legislatature, below.

Lak"er (?), n. One that is connected with a lake or lakes, as in habitation, toil, etc.: (a) One of the poets of the Lake school. See Lake poets, under Lake, n. (b) (Zoöl.) A fish living in, or taken from, a lake, esp. the namaycush. (c) A lake steamer or canal boat.

The bridge tender . . . thought the Cowies "a little mite" longer than that laker.

The Century.

Lamb"kill` (?), n. (Bot.) A small American ericaceous shrub (Kalmia angustifolia); -- called also calfkill, sheepkill, sheep laurel, etc. It is supposed to poison sheep and other animals that eat it at times when the snow is deep and they cannot find other food.

||Land"drost` (?), n.; pl. - drosten (#). Sometimes incorrectly Landtrost. [D., fr. land land + drost a kind of official; akin to G. truchsess.] In Cape Colony: (a) A chief magistrate in rural districts. He was replaced in 1827 by "resident magistrates." (b) The president of the Heemraad.

Land League. In Ireland, a combination of tenant farmers and other, organized, with Charles Stewart Parnell as president, in 1879 with a view to the reduction of farm rents and a reconstruction of the land laws. -- Land"*lea`guer (#), n. -- Land"*lea`guism (#), n.

The Land League, of which Machael Davitt was the founder, originated in Mayo in August, and at a Dublin in October the organization was extended to all Ireland, with Parnell as president.

Encyc. Brit.

Land of Steady Habits. Connecticut; -- a nickname alluding to the moral character of its inhabitants, implied by the rigid laws (see Blue laws) of the early period.

||Lands"thing` (?), n. [Dan. landsthing, landsting, fr. land land + thing, ting, parliament. See Land; Thing.] (Denmark.) See Legislature, below.

||Land"storm` (?), n. [Sw.] See Varnpligtige.

||Land"sturm` (?), n. [G. See Land; Storm.] In Germany and other European nations, and Japan: (a) A general levy in time of war. (b) The forces called out on such levy, composed of all men liable to service who are not in the army, navy, or Landwehr; the last line of defense, supposed to be called out only in case of invasion or other grave emergency. See Army organization, above.

||Land"tag` (?), n. [G. See Land; Day.] (Prussia.) See Legislasture, below.

Lar"ri*kin (?), n. [Cf. E. dial. larrikin a mischievous or frolicsome youth, larrick lively, careless, larack to trolic, to romp.] A rowdy street loafer; a rowdyish or noisy ill-bred fellow; -- variously applied, as to a street blackguard, a street Arab, a youth given to horse-play, etc. [Australia & Eng.] -- a. Rowdy; rough; disorderly. [Australia & Eng.]

Mobs of unruly larrikins.

Sydney Daily Telegraph.

Larrikin is often popularly explained by the following anecdote (which is without foundation): An Irish policeman at Melbourne, on bringing a notorious rough into court, was asked by the magistrate what the prisoner had been doing, and replied, "He was a-larrikin' [i. e., a-larking] about the streets."

Lar"vate (?), a. [L. larva mask.] Masked; hence, concealed; obscure; -- applied in medicine to doubtful cases of some diseases; as, larvate pneumonis; larvate epilepsy.

Lar`yn*gec"to*my (?), n. [Larynx + Gr. &?; to cut out.] (Surg.) Excision of the larynx.

La*ryn"go*graph (?), n. [larynx + -graph.] An instrument for recording the larynx movements in speech.

{ La"ta, La"tah } (?), n. [Malay.] A convulsive tic or hysteric neurosis prevalent among Malays, similar to or identical with miryachit and jumping disease, the person affected performing various involuntary actions and making rapid inarticulate ejaculations in imitation of the actions and words of another person.

||La"ti*go (?), n. [Sp. látigo.] A strap for tightening a saddle girth. [Western U. S. & Sp. Amer.]

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La"ti*go hal"ter (?). A kind of halter usually made of raw hide.

Lat"ter*day`, a. Belonging to present times or those recent by comparison.

||Laut"ver*schie`bung (?), n.; pl. -schiebungen (&?;). [G.; laut sound + verschiebung shifting.] (Philol.) (a) The regular changes which the primitive Indo-European stops, or mute consonants, underwent in the Teutonic languages, probably as early as the 3d century b. c. , often called the first Lautverschiebung, sound shifting, or consonant shifting. (b) A somewhat similar set of changes taking place in the High German dialects (less fully in modern literary German) from the 6th to the 8th century, known as the second Lautverschiebung, the result of which form the striking differences between High German and The Low German Languages. The statement of these changes is commonly regarded as forming part of Grimm's law, because included in it as originally framed.

{ La val`liere", or La`val`liere" } (?), n. A neck ornament consisting of a chain and single pendant, or drop.

Lay*ette" (?), n. [F.] (Med.) The outfit of clothing, blankets, etc., prepared for a newborn infant, and placed ready for used.

Lay" read"er. (Eccl.) A layman authorized to read parts of the public service of the church.

{ Lay shaft, or Lay"shaft` } (?), n. (Mach.) A secondary shaft, as in a sliding change gear for an automobile; a cam shaft operated by a two- to-one gear in an internal-combustion engine. It is generally a shaft moving more or less independently of the other parts of a machine, as, in some marine engines, a shaft, driven by a small auxiliary engine, for independently operating the valves of the main engine to insure uniform motion.

{ ||Laz`a*ret" (?), Laz`a*ret"to (?) } n. (Naut.) (Pronounced by seamen &?;) A low space under the after part of the main deck, used as a storeroom.

Lazaret fever. (Med.) Typhus fever.

Lead (?), n. 1. (Music.) (a) The announcement by one voice part of a theme to be repeated by the other parts. (b) A mark or a short passage in one voice part, as of a canon, serving as a cue for the entrance of others.

2. In an internal-combustion engine, the distance, measured in actual length of piston stroke or the corresponding angular displacement of the crank, of the piston from the end of the compression stroke when ignition takes place; -- called in full lead of the ignition. When ignition takes place during the working stroke the corresponding distance from the commencement of the stroke is called negative lead.

3. (Mach.) The excess above a right angle in the angle between two consecutive cranks, as of a compound engine, on the same shaft.

4. (Mach.) In spiral screw threads, worm wheels, or the like, the amount of advance of any point in the spiral for a complete turn.

5. (Elec.) (a) A conductor conveying electricity, as from a dynamo. (b) The angle between the line joining the brushes of a continuous-current dynamo and the diameter symmetrical between the poles. (c) The advance of the current phase in an alternating circuit beyond that of the electromotive force producing it.

6. (Theat.) A rôle for a leading man or leading woman; also, one who plays such a rôle.

Lead"ing edge (?). (Aëronautics) same as Advancing edge, above.

Leak (?), n. (Elec.) A loss of electricity through imperfect insulation; also, the point at which such loss occurs.

Leak"age (?), n. (Elec.) A leak; also; the quantity of electricity thus wasted.

{ Lee"an`gle, Li"an`gle } (?), n. [From native name.] A heavy weapon of the Australian aborigines with a sharp-pointed end, about nine inches in length, projecting at right angles from the main part.

Left, a. Situated so that the left side of the body is toward it; as, the left side of a deliberative meeting is that to the left of the presiding officer; the left wing of an army is that to the left of the center to one facing an enemy.

Leg, n. 1. (Math.) Either side of a triangle of a triangle as distinguished from the base or, in a right triangle, from the hypotenuse; also, an indefinitely extending branch of a curve, as of a hyperbola.

2. (Telephony) A branch or lateral circuit connecting an instrument with the main line.

3. (Elec.) A branch circuit; one phase of a polyphase system.

Leg bridge. A type of bridge for small spans in which the floor girders are rigidly secured at their extremities to supporting steel legs, driven into the round as piling, or resting on mudsills.

Legislature, n. -- The legislatures of some of the more important states having constitutional government are as follows, the general name (or a translation of it) of the legislative body collectively being given under the heading legislature, or parliament:

---------------------------------------------------------------- *In the self-governing colonies of Great Britain the legislative body usually consists of two chambers, the names of the legislature and the chambers varying. Thus in Australia the Federal Parliament is composed of the Senate and the House of Commons, in New Zealand the General Assembly is composed of the Legislative Council and the House of Representatives, etc.

#Members of the Storthing are chosen for three years by direct election by manhood suffrage, forty-one being elected from the towns and eighty-two from the rural districts. The Storthing on assembling divides into the Lagthing including one fourth and the Odelsthing including three fourths of the total membership of the Storthing. All new laws are laid first before the Odelsthing. If the two houses do not agree they vote in joint session, a majority of two thirds of those voting being necessary to a decision.

§ While theoretically general, the suffrage is so classified as often practically to disfranchise those who are not property holders.

Leg"-of-mut"ton (?), a. Having the general shape or outline of a leg of mutton; as, a leg-of- mutton, or shoulder-of-mutton, sail.

Le*nard" rays (?). (Physics.) Rays emanating from the outer surface of a plate composed of any material permeable by cathode rays, as aluminium, which forms a portion of a wall of a vacuum tube, or which is mounted within the tube and exposed to radiation from the cathode. Lenard rays are similar in all their known properties to cathode rays. So called from the German physicist Philipp Lenard (b. 1862), who first described them.

Lenard tube. (Elec.) A tube for producing Lenard rays.

Les"bi*an, a. Amatory; erotic; -- in allusion to the reputed sensuality of the Lesbian people and literature; as, Lesbian novels.

Les"bi*an*ism (?), n. (Med.) Unnatural sexual relations between women.

Lesbian love. See Lesbianism.

||Les"ter (?), n. [Pg., prob. fr. Fr. l'est the east.] (Meteor.) A dry sirocco in the Madeira Islands.

Let"ter, n. (Teleg.) A telegram longer than an ordinary message sent at rates lower than the standard message rate in consideration of its being sent and delivered subject to priority in service of regular messages. Such telegrams are called by the Western Union Company day, or night, letters according to the time of sending, and by The Postal Telegraph Company day, or night, lettergrams.

Let"ter*gram (?), n. See Letter, above.

||Le*ve"che (?), n. [Sp. Cf. Lebeccio.] (Meteor.) A dry sirocco of Spain.

Le`vo*ro*ta"tion (?), n. [Written also lævorotation.] [Levo- + rotation.] (Physics & Chem.) Rotation in the direction of an outgoing right-handed screw; counter-clockwise rotation; -- applied chiefly to the turning of the plane of polarization of light.

Li`bel*lee" (?), n. (Law) (a) The party against whom a libel has been filed; -- corresponding to defendant in a common law action. (b) The defendant in an action of libel.

||Lie"der*kranz, n. [G. See Lied, and Grants.] (Mus.) Lit., wreath of songs; -- used as the title of a group of songs, and esp. as the common name for German vocal clubs of men.

Light"*struck`, a. (Photog.) Damaged by accidental exposure to light; light-fogged; -- said of plates or films.

Light"weight` (?), n. One of less than average weight; specif.: (a) In boxing, wrestling, etc., one weighingnot more than 133 pounds (U. S. amateur rules 135 pounds, Eng. 140 pounds). (b) A person of small impotance or mental ability. [Colloq., Chiefly U. S.]

Light"weight`, a. Light in weight, as a coin; specif., applied to a man or animal who is a lightweight.

Light year. (Astron.) The distance over which light can travel in a year's time; -- used as a unit in expressing stellar distances. It is more than 63,000 times as great as the distance from the earth to the sun.

Like, n. (Golf) The stroke which equalizes the number of strokes played by the opposing player or side; as, to play the like.

||Li"kin`, n. [Written also lekin.] [ Chin. li kin; li the thousandth part of a tael + kin money.] A Chinese provincial tax levied at many inland stations upon imports or articles in transit.

"Likin," which used to be regarded as illegal, as one of the many, "squeezes" imposed by the mandarins, is, in Jamieson's opinion, just as legal as any other form of taxation.

A. R. Colquhoun.

Lil"y, n. (Auction Bridge) A royal spade; -- usually in pl. See Royal spade, below.

{Lim"burg cheese, Lim"burg*er, n., Lim"burg*er cheese} (?). A soft cheese made in the Belgian province of Limburg (Limbourg), and usually not eaten until the curing has developed a peculiar and, to most people, unpleasant odor.

Lime"light`, n. (Theat.) That part of the stage upon which the limelight as cast, usually where the most important action is progressing or where the leading player or players are placed and upon which the attention of the spectators is therefore concentrated. Hence, consspicuous position before the public; as, politicians who are never happy except in the limelight.

Lim"er*ick (?), n. [Said to be from a song with the same verse construction, current in Ireland, the refrain of which contains the place name Limerick.] A nonsense poem of five anapestic lines, of which lines 1, 2, and 5 are of there feet, and rime, and lines 3 and 4 are of two feet, and rime; as --

There was a young lady, Amanda,
Whose Ballades Lyriques were quite fin de
Siècle, I deem
But her Journal Intime
Was what sent her papa to Uganda.

Li`mou*sine" (?), n. [Cf. F. limousine a kind of cloak, fr. Limousin, an old province in central France.] An automobile body with seats and permanent top like a coupé, and with the top projecting over the driver and a projecting front; also, an automobile with such a body.

{ Line"-up`, Line"up` } (?), n. The formation of football players before the start or a restart of play; hence (Colloq.), any arrangement of persons (rarely, of things), esp. when having a common purpose or sentiment; as, the line-up at a ticket-office window; the line-up of political factions.

||Lin`ge*rie (?), n. [F.] Linen goods collectively; linen underwear, esp. of women; the clothing of linen and cotton with its lace, etc., worn by a women.

Lin"gua Fran"ca. Any hybrid or other language used over a wide area as a common or commercial tongue among peoples of different speech.

Link (?), n. [See Linch.] 1. A hill or ridge, as a sand hill, or a wooded or turfy bank between cultivated fields, etc. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

2. A winding of a river; also, the ground along such a winding; a meander; -- usually in pl. [Scot.]

The windings or "links" of the Forth above and below Stirling are extremely tortuous.

Encyc. Brit.

3. pl. Sand hills with the surrounding level or undulating land, such as occur along the seashore, a river bank, etc. [Scot.]

Golf may be played on any park or common, but its original home is the "links" or common land which is found by the seashore, where the short close tuft, the sandy subsoil, and the many natural obstacles in the shape of bents, whins, sand holes, and banks, supply the conditions which are easential to the proper pursuit of the game.

Encyc. of Sport.

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4. pl. Hence, any such piece of ground where golf is played.

Links (?), n. [The pl. form of Link, but often construed as a sing.] A tract of ground laid out for the game of golf; a golfing green.

A second links has recently been opened at Prestwick, and another at Troon, on the same coast.

P. P. Alexander.

Lin"o*type (?), n. [See Line ; Type.] (Print.) (a) A kind of typesetting machine which produces castings, each of which corresponds to a line of separate types. By pressing upon keys like those of a typewriter the matrices for one line are properly arranged; the stereotype, or slug, is then cast and planed, and the matrices are returned to their proper places, the whole process being automatic. (b) The slug produced by the machine, or matter composed in such lines. -- Lin"o*typ`ist (#), n.

Li"on, n. -- Lion of Lucerne, a famous sculptured lion at Lucerne, Switzerland, designed by Thorwaldsen and dedicated in 1821 as a memorial to the Swiss Guards who fell defending Louis XVI. in the attack of the mob on the Tuileries, Aug. 10, 1792. The animal, which is hewn out of the face of a rock, is represented as transfixed with a broken spear and dying, but still trying to protect with its paw a shield bearing the fleur-de-lis of France. -- Lion of St. Mark, a winged lion, the emblem of the evangelist Mark, especially that of bronze surmounting a granite column in the Piazzetta at Venice, and holding in its fore paws an open book representing St. Mark's Gospel. -- Lion of the North, Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632), King of Sweden, the hero of the Protestant faith in the Thirty Years' War.

Liq"uid air. (Physics) A transparent limpid liquid, slightly blue in color, consisting of a mixture of liquefied oxygen and nitrogen. It is prepared by subjecting air to great pressure and then cooling it by its own expansion to a temperature below the boiling point of its constituents (N -194° C; O - 183° C.).

List (?), v. t. 1. To plow and plant with a lister.

2. In cotton culture, to prepare, as land, for the crop by making alternating beds and alleys with the hoe. [Southern U. S.]

List"er (?), n. [Cf. List a strip, border, prob. applied to the furrow or the ridge of earth along the furrow.] A double-moldboard plow which throws a deep furrow, and at the same time plants and covers grain in the bottom of the furrow.

Lis"ter*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. -ized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. -izing (?).] (Med.) To make antiseptic.

Li"tchi` (?), n. (Bot.) A genus of East Indian sapindaceous trees consisting of a single species (Litchi Chinensis, syn. Nephelium Litchi) which bears the litchi nut.

Lith"o*phane (?), n. [Litho- + Gr. &?; to show, reveal.] Porcelain impressed with figures which are made distinct by transmitted light, as in a lamp shade. -- Lith`o*phan"ic (#), a. -- Li*thoph"a*ny (#), n.

Lith"o*sphere (?), n. [Litho- + sphere.] (Phys. Geog.) (a) The solid earth as distinguished from its fluid envelopes, the hydrosphere and atmosphere. (b) The outer part of the solid earth, the portion undergoing change through the gradual transfer of material by volcanic eruption, the circulation of underground water, and the process of erosion and deposition. It is, therefore, regarded as a third mobile envelope comparable with the hydrosphere and atmosphere.

Lith"o*type (?), n. 1. An etched stone surface for printing, having the design in relief; also, the process of printing from such a surface, or that which is printed from it.

2. A machine, with a keyboard like that of a typewriter, for making a lithographic transfer sheet. It produces a perforated strip of paper which controls the printing.

Lit"tle, a. -- Little Englander, an Englishman opposed to territorial expansion of the British Empire. See Antiimperialism, above. Hence: Little Englandism. -- Little-neck clam, or Little neck (Zoöl.), the quahog, or round clam. -- Little peach, a disease of peaches in which the fruit is much dwarfed, and the leaves grow small and thin. The cause is not known. -- Little Rhod"y (&?;), Rhode Island; -- a nickname alluding to its small size. It is the smallest State of the United States. -- Little Sisters of the Poor (R. C. Ch.), an order of women who care for old men and women and infirm poor, for whom special houses are built. It was established at St. Servan, Britany, France, in 1840, by the Abbé Le Pailleur. -- Little slam (Bridge Whist), the winning of 12 out of the 13 tricks. It counts 20 points on the honor score.

Liv"ing pic"ture. A tableau in which persons take part; also, specif., such a tableau as imitating a work of art.

Lob (?), n. The act of lobbing; specif., an (often gentle) stroke which sends a ball up into the air, as in tennis to avoid a player at the net.

Lob"ster, n. As a term of opprobrium or contempt: A gullible, awkward, bungling, or undesirable person. [Slang]

Lo"co (?), n. (Bot.) Any one of various leguminous plants or weeds besides Astragalus, whose herbage is poisonous to cattle, as Spiesia Lambertii, syn. Oxytropis Lambertii.

Lo"co, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Locoed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Locoing.] To poison with loco; to affect with the loco disease; hence (Colloq.), to render insane or mad. "The locoed novelist." W. D. Howells.

Lo"co, n. A locomotive. [Colloq.] Kipling.

Loco disease. (Veter.) A chronic nervous affection of cattle, horses, and sheep, caused by eating the loco weed and characterized by a slow, measured gait, high step, glassy eyes with defective vision, delirium, and gradual emaciation.

Loft (?), n. (Golf) Pitch or slope of the face of a club (tending to drive the ball upward).

Loft, v. t. To make or furnish with a loft; to cause to have loft; as, a lofted house; a lofted golf-club head.

A wooden club with a lofted face.

Encyc. of Sport.

Loft, v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Lofted; p. pr. & vb. n. Lofting.] To raise aloft; to send into the air; esp. (Golf), to strike (the ball) so that it will go over an obstacle.

Loft"er (?), n. (Golf) An iron club used in lofting the ball; -- called also lofting iron.

Loft"ing iron. (Golf) Same as Lofter.

Lon"don smoke. A neutral tint given to spectacles, shade glasses for optical instruments, etc., which reduces the intensity without materially changing the color of the transmitted light.

London tuft. (Bot.) The Sweet William (Dianthus barbatus).

Lone-Star State. Texas; -- a nickname alluding to the single star on its coat of arms, being the device used on its flag and seal when it was a republic.

Long, a. (Finance & Com.) Having a supply of stocks or goods; prepared for, or depending for a profit upon, advance in prices; as, long of cotton. Hence, the phrases: to be, or go, long of the market, to be on the long side of the market, to hold products or securities for a rise in price, esp. when bought on a margin.

{ Lo*ret"o (?), or Lo*ret"to (?), nuns }. [From Loreto, a city in Italy famous for its Holy House, said to be that in which Jesus lived, brought by angels from Nazareth.] (R. C. Ch.) Members of a congregation of nuns founded by Mrs. Mary Teresa Ball, near Dublin, Ireland, in 1822, and now spread over Ireland, India, Canada, and the United States. The nuns are called also Ladies of Loreto. They are engaged in teaching girls.

Lo`ret*tine" (?), n. [From Loreto in Italy.] (R. C. Ch.) (a) One of an order of nuns founded in 1812 at Loretto, in Kentucky. The members of the order (called also Sisters of Loretto, or Friends of Mary at the Foot of the Cross) devote themselves to the cause of education and the care of destitute orphans, their labors being chiefly confined to the western United States. (b) A Loreto nun.

||Loup`-ga`rou" (?), n.; pl. Loups-garous (#). [F., fr. loup wolf + a Teutonic word akin to E. werewolf.] A werewolf; a lycanthrope.

The superstition of the loup-garou, or werewolf, belongs to the folklore of most modern nations, and has its reflex in the story of "Little Red Riding-hood" and others.


Loup"ing (?). [From Loup to leap.] (Veter.) An enzoötic, often fatal, disease of sheep and other domestic animals, of unknown cause. It is characterized by muscular tremors and spasms, followed by more or less complete paralysis. The principal lesion is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

Lov"ing cup`. A large ornamental drinking vessel having two or more handles, intended to pass from hand to hand, as at a banquet.

Low"boy` (?), n. A chest of drawers not more than four feet high; -- applied commonly to the lower half of a tallboy from which the upper half has been removed. [U. S.]

Low steel. See under Low.

Luf"fa (?), n. [NL., fr. Ar. lfah.] (Bot.) (a) A small genus of tropical cucurbitaceous plants having white flowers, the staminate borne in racemes, and large fruits with a dry fibrous pericarp. The fruit of several species and the species themselves, esp. L. Ægyptiaca, are called dishcloth gourds. (b) Any plant of this genus, or its fruit. (c) The fibrous skeleton of the fruit, used as a sponge and in the manufacture of caps and women's hats; -- written also loofah.

Lum"ber State. Maine; -- a nickname.

||Lu"men (?), n.; pl. L. Lumina (#), E. Lumens (#). [L., light, an opening for light.] 1. (Photom.) (a) A unit of illumination, being the amount of illumination of a unit area of spherical surface, due to a light of unit intensity placed at the center of the sphere. (b) A unit of light flux, being the flux through one square meter of surface the illumination of which is uniform and of unit brightness.

2. (Biol.) An opening, space, or cavity, esp. a tubular cavity; a vacuole.

Lu`mi*nes"cence (?), n. [See Luminescent.] 1. (Physics) Any emission of light not ascribable directly to incandescence, and therefore occurring at low temperatures, as in phosphorescence and fluorescence or other luminous radiation resulting from vital processes, chemical action, friction, solution, or the influence of light or of ultraviolet or cathode rays, etc.

2. (Zoöl.) (a) The faculty or power of voluntarily producing light, as in the firefly and glowworm. (b) The light thus produced; luminosity; phosphorescence.

Lu`mi*nes"cent (?), a. [L. luminare to illuminate + -escent.] (Physics) Shining with a light due to any of the various causes which produce luminescence.

Lump"y-jaw`. (Med.) Actinomycosis. [Colloq.]

Lush (?), n. [Etymol uncertain; said to be fr. Lushington, name of a London brewer.] Liquor, esp. intoxicating liquor; drink. [Slang] C. Lever.

Lu*te"ci*um (?), n. (Chem.) A metallic element separated from ytterbium in 1907, by Urbain in Paris and by von Welsbach in Vienna. Symbol, Lu; at. wt. 174.0.

||Ly`cée" (?), n. [F. Cf. Lyceum.] A French lyceum, or secondary school supported by the French government, for preparing students for the university.

Lydd"ite (?), n. (Chem.) A high explosive consisting principally of picric acid, used as a shell explosive in the British service; -- so named from the proving grounds at Lydd, England.

Lymph, n. (Physiol. Chem.) A fluid containing certain products resulting from the growth of specific microörganisms upon some culture medium, and supposed to be possessed of curative properties.

Lymph node. (Anat.) A lymphatic gland.


||Ma`cé`doine" (?), n. [F., apparently the same word as Macédoine Macedonia.] A kind of mixed dish, as of cooked vegetables with white sauce, sweet jelly with whole fruit, etc. Also, fig., a medley.

Mack"i*naw boat. A flat-bottomed boat with a pointed prow and square stern, using oars or sails or both, used esp. on the upper Great Lakes and their tributaries.

Mackinaw coat. A short, heavy, double-breasted plaid coat, the design of which is large and striking. [Local, U. S.]

Mackinaw trout. The namaycush.

M'-Naught" (mak*nt"), v. t. (Steam Engines) To increase the power of (a single- cylinder beam engine) by adding a small high-pressure cylinder with a piston acting on the beam between the center and the flywheel end, using high-pressure steam and working as a compound engine, -- a plan introduced by M'Naught, a Scottish engineer, in 1845.

Mac"ro*graph (?), n. [Macro- + -graph.] A picture of an object as seen by the naked eye (that is, unmagnified); as, a macrograph of a metallic fracture.

Ma*crog"ra*phy (?), n. Examination or study with the naked eye, as distinguished from micrography.

Ma*dei"ra vine (?). (Bot.) A herbaceous climbing vine (Boussingaultia baselloides) very popular in cultivation, having shining entire leaves and racemes of small fragrant white flowers.

Madeira wood. (Bot.) (a) The mahogany tree (Swietenia Mahogoni). (b) A West Indian leguminous tree (Lysiloma Latisiliqua) the wood of which is used for boat trimming.

Ma*dras" (?), n. [So named after Madras, a city and presidency of India.] A large silk-and- cotton kerchief, usually of bright colors, such as those often used by negroes for turbans.

A black woman in blue cotton gown, red-and-yellow madras turban . . . crouched against the wall.

G. W. Cable.

{ ||Maf"fi*a (?), ||Ma"fi*a (?) }, n. [It. maffia.] A secret society which organized in Sicily as a political organization, but is now widespread among Italians, and is used to further or protect private interests, reputedly by illegal methods.

{ ||Maf`fi*o"so (?), ||Ma`fi*o"so (?) }, n.; pl. -si (#). [It. maffioso.] A member of the maffia.

Mag`a*zine", n. 1. A country or district especially rich in natural products.

2. A city viewed as a marketing center.

3. A reservoir or supply chamber for a stove, battery, camera, typesetting machine, or other apparatus.

4. A store, or shop, where goods are kept for sale.

Magazine camera. (Photog.) A camera in which a number of plates can be exposed without reloading.

Mag`net*o*mo"tive (?), a. [Magneto- + motive, a.] (Elec.) Pertaining to, or designating, a force producing magnetic flux, analogous to electromotive force, and equal to the magnetic flux multiplied by the magnetic reluctance.

Ma*hat"ma (?), n. [Skr. mahtman, lit., great-souled, wise.] (Theosophy) One of a class of sages, or "adepts," reputed to have knowledge and powers of a higher order than those of ordinary men. -- Ma*hat"ma*ism (#), n.

Mah"di*ism (?), n. See Mahdism.

Mah"dism (?), n. Belief in the coming of the Mahdi; fanatical devotion to the cause of the Mahdi or a pretender to that title. -- Mah"dist (#), n.

Mahdism has proved the most shameful and terrible instrument of bloodshed and oppression which the modern world has ever witnessed.

E. N. Bennett.

||Mai*dan" (?), n. [Written also midan, meidan, mydan, etc.] [Hind. & Per. maidn, fr. Ar. maidn.] In various parts of Asia, an open space, as for military exercises, or for a market place; an open grassy tract; an esplanade.

A gallop on the green maidan.

M. Crawford.

Make and break. (Elec.) Any apparatus for making and breaking an electric circuit; a circuit breaker.

Malaria parasite. Any of several minute protozoans of the genus Plasmodium (syn. Hæmatozoön) which in their adult condition live in the tissues of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (which see) and when transferred to the blood of man, by the bite of the mosquito, produce malaria. The young parasites, or sporozoites, enter the red blood corpuscles, growing at their expense, undergoing sporulation, and finally destroying the corpuscles, thus liberating in the blood plasma an immense number of small spores called merozoites. An indefinite but not ultimated number of such generations may follow, but if meanwhile the host is bitten by a mosquito, the parasites develop into gametes in the stomach of the insect. These conjugate, the zygote thus produced divides, forming spores, and eventually sporozoites, which, penetrating to the salivary glands of the mosquito, may be introduced into a new host. The attacks of the disease coincide with the dissolution of the corpuscles and liberation of the spores and products of growth of the parasites into the blood plasma. Several species of the parasite are distinguished, as P. vivax, producing tertian malaria; P. malariæ, quartan malaria; and P. (subgenus Laverania) falciferum, the malarial fever of summer and autumn common in the tropics.

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Mal"lee (?), n. [Native name.] 1. (Bot.) A dwarf Australian eucalypt with a number of thin stems springing from a thickened stock. The most common species are Eucalyptus dumosa and E. Gracilis.

2. Scrub or thicket formed by the mallee. [Australia]

Mal"pais` (?), n. [Cf. Sp. mal, malo, bad, and país country.] (Geol.) The rough surface of a congealed lava stream. [Southwestern U. S.]

Man, n. -- Man of sin (Script.), one who is the embodiment of evil, whose coming is represented (2 Thess. ii. 3) as preceding the second coming of Christ. [A Hebraistic expression] -- Man-stopping bullet (Mil.), a bullet which will produce a sufficient shock to stop a soldier advancing in a charge; specif., a small-caliber bullet so modified as to expand when striking the human body. Such bullets are chiefly used in wars with savage tribes.

Man"bird` (?), n. An aviator. [Colloq.]

Man*do"la (?), n. [It. See Mandolin.] (Mus.) An instrument closely resembling the mandolin, but of larger size and tuned lower.

Man`ga*nese" steel. Cast steel containing a considerable percentage of manganese, which makes it very hard and tough. See Alloy steel, above.

Man*han"dle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. -handled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. -handling (?).] 1. To move, or manage, by human force without mechanical aid; as, to manhandle a cannon.

2. To handle roughly; as, the captive was manhandled.

Man`hès" proc"ess (?). (Copper Metal.) A process by which copper matte is treated by passing through it a blast of air, to oxidize and remove sulphur. It is analogous in apparatus to the Bessemer process for decarbonizing cast iron. So called from Pierre Manhès, a French metallurgist, who invented it.

Man"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; mad, frenzied.] (Med.) Of or pert. to, or characterized by, mania, or excitement.

Man"i*cure, n. The care of the hands and nails.

Man"i*cure, v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Manicured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Manicuring (?).] To care for (the hands and nails); to care for the hands and nails of; to do manicure work.

||Män"ner*chor` (?), n.; G. pl. -chöre (#). [G.; männer, pl. of mann man + chor chorus.] A German men's chorus or singing club.

||Ma"no (?), n. [Sp., lit., hand.] The muller, or crushing and grinding stone, used in grinding corn on a metate. [Mexico & Local U. S.]

Man"o*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; thin, rare + -graph: cf. F. manographe.] (Engin.) An optical device for making an indicator diagram for high-speed engines. It consists of a light-tight box or camera having at one end a small convex mirror which reflects a beam of light on to the ground glass or photographic plate at the other end. The mirror is pivoted so that it can be moved in one direction by a small plunger operated by an elastic metal diaphragm which closes a tube connected with the engine cylinder. It is also moved at right angles to this direction by a reducing motion, called a reproducer, so as to copy accurately on a smaller scale the motion of the engine piston. The resultant of these two movements imparts to the reflected beam of light a motion similar to that of the pencil of the ordinary indicator, and this can be traced on the sheet of ground glass, or photographed.

Man`tel*let"ta (?), n. [It. mantelletta. See Mantelet.] (R. C. Ch.) A silk or woolen vestment without sleeves worn by cardinals, bishops, abbots, and the prelates of the Roman court. It has a low collar, is fastened in front, and reaches almost to the knees.

Man`za*nil"la (?), n. (Olive Trade) A kind of small roundish olive with a small freestone pit, a fine skin, and a peculiar bitterish flavor. Manzanillas are commonly pitted and stuffed with Spanish pimientos.

Mar`a*bou" (?), n. A kind of thrown raw silk, nearly white naturally, but capable of being dyed without scouring; also, a thin fabric made from it, as for scarfs, which resembles the feathers of the marabou in delicacy, -- whence the name.

{ Ma*ra"thi (?), Mah*rat"ta (?) }, n. A Sanskritic language of western India, prob. descended from the Maharastri Prakrit, spoken by the Marathas and neighboring peoples. It has an abundant literature dating from the 13th century. It has a book alphabet nearly the same as Devanagari and a cursive script translation between the Devanagari and the Gujarati.

Mar*co"ni (?), a. [After Guglielmo Marconi (b. 1874), Italian inventor.] Designating, or pert. to, Marconi's system of wireless telegraphy; as, Marconi aërial, coherer, station, system, etc.

Mar*co"ni*gram (?), n. [Marconi + -gram.] A Marconi wireless message.

Mar*co"ni*graph (?), n. [Marconi + -graph.] The apparatus used in Marconi wireless telegraphy.

Mar*co"ni's law (?). (Wireless Teleg.) The law that the maximum good signaling distance varies directly as the square of the height of the transmitting antenna.

Mar*co"nism (?), n. The theory or practice of Marconi's wireless telegraph system.

Mar*co"ni system (?). (Elec.) A system or wireless telegraphy developed by G. Marconi, an Italian physicist, in which Hertzian waves are used in transmission and a coherer is used as the receiving instrument.

||Ma"re clau"sum (?). [L.] (Internat. Law) Lit., closed sea; hence, a body of water within the separate jurisdiction of the nation; -- opposed to open sea, the water open to all nations and over which no single nation has special control.

Mar"ga*rine (?), n. [F.] 1. Artificial butter; oleomargarine.

The word margarine shall mean all substances, whether compounds or otherwise, prepared in imitation of butter, and whether mixed with butter or not.

Margarine Act, 1887 (50 & 51 Vict. c. 29).

2. Margarin.

Mar"ga*ry*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. -ized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. -izing (?).] [(J. J. Lloyd) Margary, inventor of the process + -ize.] To impregnate (wood) with a preservative solution of copper sulphate (often called Mar"ga*ry's flu"id [-rz]).

Ma*ri"nism (?), n. A bombastic literary style marked by the use of metaphors and antitheses characteristic of the Italian poet Giambattista Marini (1569- 1625). -- Ma*ri"nist (#), n.

Mar"riage, n. In bézique, penuchle, and similar games at cards, the combination of a king and queen of the same suit. If of the trump suit, it is called a royal marriage.

Mar"tian (?), a. [L. Martius.] Of or pertaining to Mars, the Roman god of war, or to the planet bearing his name; martial.

Mar"tian, n. An inhabitant of the planet Mars. Du Maurier.

{ Mash"ie, Mash"y } (?), n.; pl. Mashies (#). [Etym. uncert.] A golf club like the iron, but with a shorter head, slightly more lofted, used chiefly for short approaches.

Mask (?), n. 1. A person wearing a mask; a masker.

The mask that has the arm of the Indian queen.

G. W. Cable.

2. (Sporting) The head or face of a fox.

Death mask, a cast of the face of a dead person.

Mas"sage (?), v. t. (Med.) To treat by means of massage; to rub or knead; as, to massage a patient with ointment.

Mas"sag*ist (?), n. One who practices massage; a masseur or masseuse.

||Mas`seur" (m`sûr"), n.; pl. -seurs (-sûrz"; F. -sûr"). [F. See Massage.] 1. A man who practices massage.

2. An instrument used in the performance of massage.

||Mas`seuse" (m*sûz"), n.; pl. -seuses (F. -sûz"). [F.] A woman who practices massage.

Mast, n. (Aëronautics) A spar or strut to which tie wires or guys are attached for stiffening purposes.

{ Mas"ta*ba (?), n. Also Mas"ta*bah }. [Ar. maçtabah a large stone bench.] 1. In Mohammedan countries, a fixed seat, common in dwellings and in public places.

2. (Egyptology) A type of tomb, of the time of the Memphite dynasties, comprising an oblong structure with sloping sides (sometimes containing a decorated chamber, sometimes of solid masonry), and connected with a mummy chamber in the rock beneath.

Mas"ter vi"bra*tor. In an internal-combustion engine with two or more cylinders, an induction coil and vibrator placed in the circuit between the battery or magneto and the coils for the different cylinders, which are used without vibrators of their own.

Mas`toid*i*tis (?), n. [NL. See Mastoid, and -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation in the mastoid process of the temporal bone.

{ Mat`a*be"le (?), or Mat`a*be"les (?) }, n. pl., sing. Matabele. [Written also Matabili.] (Ethnol.) A warlike South African Kaffir tribe.

Mat"a*dor (?), n. 1. [Skat] The jack of clubs, or any other trump held in sequence with it, whether by the player or by his adversaries.

2. A certain game of dominoes in which four dominoes (the 4-3, 5-2, 6-1, and double blank), called matadors, may be played at any time in any way.

Ma`ta*jue"lo (mä`t*hw"l; 239), n. [Cf. Sp. matajudío a kind of fish.] A large squirrel fish (Holocentrus ascensionis) of Florida and the West Indies.

Ma`ta*jue"lo blan"co (?). [Sp. blanco white.] A West Indian food fish (Malacanthus plumieri) related to the tilefish.

Match game. A game arranged as a test of superiority; also, one of a series of such games.

Match play. (Golf) Play in which the score is reckoned by counting the holes won or lost by each side; -- disting. from medal play.

||Mate`las`sé" (?), a. [F., p.p. of matelasser to cushion, to cover as with a mattress, fr. matelas mattress. See Mattress.] Ornamented by means of an imitation or suggestion of quilting, the surface being marked by depressed lines which form squares or lozenges in relief; as, matelassé silks.

||Mate`las`sé", n. A quilted ornamented dress fabric of silk or silk and wool.

{ Mat"e*lote (?), Mat"e*lotte (?) }, n. [F. matelote, fr. matelot a sailor; properly, a dish such as a sailors prepare.] 1. A stew, commonly of fish, flavored with wine, and served with a wine sauce containing onions, mushrooms, etc.

2. An old dance of sailors, in double time, and somewhat like a hornpipe.

Mat"toid (?), n. [It. matto mad (cf. L. mattus, matus, drunk) + -oid.] A person of congenitally abnormal mind bordering on insanity or degeneracy.

||Mat*toir" (?), n. [F. matoir.] (Engraving) A kind of coarse punch with a rasplike face, used for making a rough surface on etching ground, or on the naked copper, the effect after biting being very similar to stippled lines.

Maun"dy (?), n. [See Maundy Thursday.] 1. The sacrament of the Lord's Supper. [Obs.]

2. The ceremony of washing the feet of the poor on Maundy Thursday.

3. The alms distributed in connection with this ceremony or on Maundy Thursday.

In England, the foot washing is obsolete, but the "royal maundy" is distributed annually on behalf of the sovereign. Since 1890 this distribution has been made from Westminster Abbey.

{ Maundy coins or money }. Silver coins or money of the nominal value of 1d., 2d., 3d., and 4d., struck annually for the Maundy alms.

Mav"er*ick (?), v. t. To take a maverick. [Western U. S.]

Maverick brand. A brand originated by a dishonest cattleman, who, without owning any stock, gradually accumulates a herd by finding mavericks. [Western U. S.]

{ Ma*vour"nin, Ma*vour"neen } (m*vr"nn), n. [Ir. mo mhuirnin my darling; mo my + mhuirnin darling.] My darling; -- an Irish term of endearment for a girl or woman. "Erin mavournin." Campbell.

Max"im gun` (?). A kind of machine gun; -- named after its inventor, Hiram S. Maxim.

Ma"yan (?), a. 1. Designating, or pertaining to, an American Indian linguistic stock occupying the Mexican States of Veracruz, Chiapas, Tabasco, Campeche, and Yucatan, together with a part of Guatemala and a part of Salvador. The Mayan peoples are dark, short, and brachycephallic, and at the time of the discovery had attained a higher grade of culture than any other American people. They cultivated a variety of crops, were expert in the manufacture and dyeing of cotton fabrics, used cacao as a medium of exchange, and were workers of gold, silver, and copper. Their architecture comprised elaborately carved temples and places, and they possessed a superior calendar, and a developed system of hieroglyphic writing, with records said to go back to about 700 a. d.

2. Of or pertaining to the Mayas.

{ Mayan arch, or Maya arch }. A form of corbel arch employing regular small corbels.

May laws. 1. See Kulturkampf, above.

2. In Russia, severe oppressive laws against Jews, which have given occasion for great persecution; -- so called because they received the assent of the czar in May, 1882, and because likened to the Prussian May laws (see Kulturkampf).

Maz`a*rine" (?), n. (Cookery) A forcemeat entrée.

Med"al play`. (Golf) Play in which the score is reckoned by counting the number of strokes.

Med"i*cine, n. 1. (a) Among the North American Indians, any object supposed to give control over natural or magical forces, to act as a protective charm, or to cause healing; also, magical power itself; the potency which a charm, token, or rite is supposed to exert.

The North American Indian boy usually took as his medicine the first animal of which he dreamed during the long and solitary fast that he observed at puberty.

F. H. Giddings.

(b) Hence, a similar object or agency among other savages.

2. Short for Medicine man.

3. Intoxicating liquor; drink. [Slang]

Mediterranean fruit fly. A two-winged fly (Ceratitis capitata) with black and white markings, native of the Mediterranean countries, but now widely distributed. Its larva lives in ripening oranges, peaches, and other fruits, causing them to decay and fall.

{ Me*dji"di*e, Me*dji"di*eh } (?), n. [Turk. majdieh (prop. fem. a., fr. Ar. mejd glorious); -- so called after the sultan Abdul Mejid, lit., "servant of the Glorious One," i.e., of God.] 1. (a) A silver coin of Turkey formerly rated at twenty, but since 1880 at nineteen, piasters (about 83 cents). (b) A gold coin of Turkey equal to one hundred piastres ($4.396 or 18s. ¾d.); a lira, or Turkish pound.

2. A Turkish honorary order established in 1851 by Abdul-Mejid, having as its badge a medallion surrounded by seven silver rays and crescents. It is often conferred on foreigners.

{ ||Meg`a*lo*ce*pha"li*a (?), Meg`a*lo*ceph"a*ly (?) }, n. [NL. megalocephalia, fr. Gr. &?; having a large head.] (Med.) The condition of having an abnormally large head. -- Meg`a*lo*ce*phal"ic (#), a.

{ Meg`a*scop"ic (?), Meg`a*scop"ic*al (?) }, a. 1. (Physics) Of or pertaining to the megascope or the projection upon a screen of images of opaque objects. (b) Enlarged or magnified; -- said of images or of photographic pictures, etc.

2. (Geol.) Large enough to be seen; -- said of the larger structural features and components of rocks which do not require the use of the microscope to be perceived. Opposed to microscopic.

Mel`an*co`ni*a"ce*æ (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Bot.) A family of fungi constituting the order Melanconiales. -- Mel`an*co`ni*a"ceous (#), a.

Mel`an*co`ni*a"les (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Melanconium, name of the typical genus, fr. Gr. &?; black + &?; dust, in allusion to the dark spores.] (Bot.) The smallest of the three orders of Fungi Imperfecti, including those with no asci nor pycnidia, but as a rule having the spores in cavities without special walls. They cause many of the plant diseases known as anthracnose.

Mel"a*nism (?), n. (Ethnol.) The character of having a high degree of pigmentation, as shown in dark skin, eyes, and hair.

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||Mel`a*no"ma (?), n.; L. pl. - nomata (#). [NL.; Gr. &?;, &?;, black + -oma.] (Med.) (a) A tumor containing dark pigment. (b) Development of dark-pigmented tumors.

Meld (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Melded; p. pr. & vb. n. Melding.] [G. melden to announce.] (Card Playing) In the game of pinochle, to declare or announce for a score; as, to meld a sequence.

Meld, n. (Card Playing) Any combination or score which may be declared, or melded, in pinochle.

||Mê`lée" (?), n. A cavalry exercise in which two groups of riders try to cut paper plumes off the helmets of their opponents, the contest continuing until no member of one group retains his plume; -- sometimes called Balaklava mêlée.

Mé"lin*ite (?), n. [F.] (Chem.) A high explosive similar to lyddite, consisting principally of picric acid, used in the French military service.

Me*lun"geon (?), n. [Cf. F. mélanger to mix, mélange a mixture.] One of a mixed white and Indian people living in parts of Tennessee and the Carolinas. They are descendants of early intermixtures of white settlers with natives. In North Carolina the Croatan Indians, regarded as descended from Raleigh's lost colony of Croatan, formerly classed with negroes, are now legally recognized as distinct.

||Me*men"to mo"ri (?). [L.] Lit., remember to die, i.e., that you must die; a warning to be prepared for death; an object, as a death's-head or a personal ornament, usually emblematic, used as a reminder of death.

Me*mo"ri*al Day. A day, May 30, appointed for commemorating, by decorating their graves with flowers, by patriotic exercises, etc., the dead soldiers and sailors who served the Civil War (1861-65) in the United States; Decoration Day. It is a legal holiday in most of the States. In the Southern States, the Confederate Memorial Day is: May 30 in Virginia; April 26 in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi; May 10 in North Carolina and South Carolina; the second Friday in May in Tennessee; June 3 in Louisiana. [U. S.]

Memorial rose. A Japanese evergreen rose (Rosa wichuraiana) with creeping branches, shining leaves, and single white flowers. It is often planted in cemeteries.

||Mem"-sa`hib (?), n. [Hind. mem- shib; mem (fr. E. ma'am) + Ar. çhib master. See Sahib.] Lady; mistress; -- used by Hindustani-speaking natives in India in addressing European women.

Men*de"li*an (?), a. [See Mendel's law.] (Biol.) Pert. to Mendel, or to Mendel's law. -- Men*de"li*an*ism (#), Men*del"ism (#), n.

Mendelian character. (Biol.) A character which obeys Mendel's law in regard to its hereditary transmission.

Men"del's law (?). A principle governing the inheritance of many characters in animals and plants, discovered by Gregor J. Mendel (Austrian Augustinian abbot, 1822-84) in breeding experiments with peas. He showed that the height, color, and other characters depend on the presence of determinating factors behaving as units. In any given germ cell each of these is either present or absent. The following example (using letters as symbols of the determining factors and hence also of the individuals possessing them) shows the operation of the law: Tallness being due to a factor T, a tall plant, arising by the union in fertilization of two germ cells both bearing this factor, is TT; a dwarf, being without T, is tt. Crossing these, crossbreeds, Tt, result (called generation F1). In the formation of the germ cells of these crossbreeds a process of segregation occurs such that germ cells, whether male or female, are produced of two kinds, T and t, in equal numbers. The T cells bear the factor "tallness," the t cells are devoid of it. The offspring, generation F2, which arise from the chance union of these germ cells in pairs, according to the law of probability, are therefore on an average in the following proportions:

1 TT : 2 Tt : 1 tt;

and thus plants pure in tallness (TT) and dwarfness (tt), as well as crossbreeds (Tt), are formed by the interbreeding of crossbreeds. Frequently, as in this example, owning to what is called the dominance of a factor, the operation of Mendel's law may be complicated by the fact that when a dominant factor (as T) occurs with its allelomorph (as t), called recessive, in the crossbreed Tt, the individual Tt is itself indistinguishable from the pure form TT. Generation F1, containing only the Tt form, consists entirely of dominants (tall plants) and generation F2 consists of three dominants (2 Tt, 1 TT) to one dwarf (tt), which, displaying the feature suppressed in F1, is called recessive. Such qualitative and numerical regularity has been proved to exist in regard to very diverse qualities or characters which compose living things, both wild and domesticated, such as colors of flowers, of hair or eyes, patterns, structure, chemical composition, and power of resisting certain diseases. The diversity of forms produced in crossbreeding by horticulturists and fanciers generally results from a process of analytical variation or recombination of the factors composing the parental types. Purity of type consequently acquires a specific meaning. An individual is pure in respect of a given character when it results from the union of two sexual cells both bearing that character, or both without it.

Mer"cer*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. -ized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. -izing (?).] [From (John) Mercer (1791-1866), an English calico printer who introduced the process + -ize.] To treat (cotton fiber or fabrics) with a solution of caustic alkali. Such treatment causes the fiber to shrink in length and become stronger and more receptive of dyes. If the yarn or cloth is kept under tension during the process, it assumes a silky luster. -- Mer`cer*i*za"tion (#), n.

Mer*cu"ri*al*ism (?), n. [Mercurial + -ism.] (Med.) The morbid condition produced by the excessive use of mercury, or by exposure to its fumes, as in mining or smelting.

||Me"ro (?), n. [Sp.; cf. Pg. mero.] Any of several large groupers of warm seas, esp. the guasa (Epinephelus guaza), the red grouper (E. morio), the black grouper (E. nigritas), distinguished as Me"ro de lo al"to (&?;), and a species called also rock hind, distinguished as Me"ro ca*brol"la (&?;).

Mer`o*zo"ite (?), n. [Gr. &?; part + Sporozoa.] (Zoöl.) A form of spore, usually elongate or falciform, and somewhat amœboid, produced by segmentation of the schizonts of certain Sporozoa, as the malaria parasite.

||Mes`o*my*ce"tes (?), n. pl. [NL.; meso- + mycetes.] (Bot.) One of the three classes into which the fungi are divided in Brefeld's classification. -- ||Mes`o*my*ce"tous (#), a.

||Mes`o*tho"ri*um (?), n. [NL.; meso- + thorium.] (Chem.) A radioactive product intermediate between thorium and radiothorium, with a period of 5.5 years.

Mes*qui"te bean. The pod or seed of the mesquite.

Mess, v. t. To make a mess of; to disorder or muddle; to muss; to jumble; to disturb.

It was n't right either to be messing another man's sleep.

Scribner's Mag.

Mes"sage stick. A stick, carved with lines and dots, used, esp. by Australian aborigines, to convey information.

Mess beef. Barreled salt beef, packed with about 80 pounds chuck and rump, two flanks, and the rest plates.

Me*tab"o*lism (?), n. (Biol.) The series of chemical changes which take place in an organism, by means of which food is manufactured and utilized and waste materials are eliminated.

Me*tal"lo*phone (?), n. [L. metallum metal + Gr. &?; sound.] (Music) (a) An instrument like a pianoforte, but having metal bars instead of strings. (b) An instrument like the xylophone, but having metallic instead of wooden bars.

||Me*ta"te (?), n. [Sp., fr. Mex. metlatl.] A flat or somewhat hollowed stone upon which grain or other food is ground, by means of a smaller stone or pestle. [Southwestern U. S. & Sp. Amer.]

Meth`a*nom"e*ter (?), n. [Methane + -meter.] An instrument, resembling a eudiometer, to detect the presence and amount of methane, as in coal mines.

||Mé`tier" (?), n. [F.] Calling; vocation; business; trade.

Not only is it the business of no one to preach the truth but it is the métier of many to conceal it.

A. R. Colquhoun.

Me"tol (?), n. [G.; trade name, fr. meta- + kresol cresol.] A whitish soluble powder used as a developer in photography. Chemically, it is the sulphate of methyl-p-amino-m-cresol.

Met"ric ton. A weight of 1,000 kilograms, or 2,204.6 pounds avoirdupois.

||Me"um (?), n. [L., neut. of meus mine.] Lit., mine; that which is mine; -- used in the phrase meum et tuum, or meum and tuum; as, to confound meum and tuum, to fail to distinguish one's own property from that of others; to be dishonest.

Ancestors . . . generally esteemed more renowned for ancient family and high courage than for accurately regarding the trifling distinction of meum and tuum.

Sir W. Scott.

||Mez"za ma*jol"i*ca (?). [It. See Mezzo; Majolica.] (Ceramics) Italian pottery of the epoch and general character of majolica, but less brilliantly decorated, esp. such pottery without tin enamel, but painted and glazed.

Mez"za*nine (?), n. 1. A flooring laid over a floor to bring it up to some height or level.

2. Also mezzanine floor. (Theat.) A floor under the stage, from which various contrivances, as traps, are worked.

Mho (?), n. [Anagram of ohm.] (Elec.) A unit of conductivity, being the reciprocal of the ohm.

Mhom"e*ter (?), n. [Mho + - meter.] (Elec.) An instrument for measuring conductivity.

Mi`cro*a*nal"y*sis (?), n. [Micro- + analysis.] Analysis of the structure of materials from careful observation of photomicrographs.

Mi`cro*bar"o*graph (?), n. [Micro- + barograph.] An instrument for recording minor fluctuations of atmospheric pressure, as opposed to general barometric surges.

Mi`cro*bi*ol"o*gy (?), n. [See Microbe; -logy.] The study of minute organisms, or microbes, as the bacteria. -- Mi`cro*bi`o*log"ic*al (#), a. -- Mi`cro*bi*ol"o*gist (#), n.

Mi*crog"ra*phy (?), n. [Micro- + -graphy.] Examination or study by means of the microscope, as of an etched surface of metal to determine its structure.

Mi`cro*par"a*site (?), n. A parasitic microörganism. -- Mi`cro*par`a*sit"ic (#), a.

Mi`cro*phon"ic (?), a. Of or pert. to a microphone; serving to intensify weak sounds.

Mi"cro*seism (?), n. [Micro- + Gr. &?; an earthquake, fr. &?; to shake.] A feeble earth tremor not directly perceptible, but detected only by means of specially constructed apparatus. -- Mi`cro*seis"mic (#), *seis"mic*al (#), a.

Mi`cro*seis"mo*graph (?), n. [Microseiem + -graph.] A microseismometer; specif., a microseismometer producing a graphic record.

Mi`cro*seis*mol"o*gy (?), n. [Microseiem + -logy.] Science or study of microseisms.

Mi`cro*seis*mom"e*ter (?), n. [Microseism + -meter.] A seismometer for measuring amplitudes or periods, or both, of microseisms. -- Mi`cro*seis*mom"e*try (#), n.

{ Mi`cro*tom"ic (?), Mi`cro*tom"ic*al (?) }, a. Of or pert. to the microtome or microtomy; cutting thin slices.

{ Mid"gard (md"gärd), n. Also Mid"garth (-gär), ||Mith"garthr (Icel. m"gärr') }. [Icel. miðgarðr.] (Teut. Myth.) The middle space or region between heaven and hell, the abode of human beings; the earth.

Mid"night` sun. The sun shining at midnight in the arctic or antarctic summer.

Mi*la"dy (?), n. [F., fr. English.] Lit., my lady; hence (as used on the Continent), an English noblewoman or gentlewoman.

||Mi`lieu" (?), n. [F., fr. mi middle (L. medius) + lieu place. See Demi-, Lieu.] Environment.

The intellectual and moral milieu created by multitudes of self-centered, cultivated personalities.

J. A. Symonds.

It is one of the great outstanding facts of his progressive relation to the elements of his social milieu.

J. M. Baldwin.

Milk (?), v. i. 1. To draw or to yield milk.

2. (Elec.) To give off small gas bubbles during the final part of the charging operation; -- said of a storage battery.

Milk sickness. (Veter.) A peculiar malignant disease, occurring in parts of the western United States, and affecting certain kinds of farm stock (esp. cows), and persons using the meat or dairy products of infected cattle. Its chief symptoms in man are uncontrollable vomiting, obstinate constipation, pain, and muscular tremors. Its origin in cattle has been variously ascribed to the presence of certain plants in their food, and to polluted water.

Mill (?), v. i. 1. To undergo hulling, as maize.

2. To move in a circle, as cattle upon a plain.

The deer and the pig and the nilghar were milling round and round in a circle of eight or ten miles radius.


3. To swim suddenly in a new direction; -- said of whales.

4. To take part in a mill; to box. [Cant]

Mill, n. 1. Short for Treadmill.

2. The raised or ridged edge or surface made in milling anything, as a coin or screw.

Mill, v. t. 1. (Mining) To fill (a winze or interior incline) with broken ore, to be drawn out at the bottom.

2. To cause to mill, or circle round, as cattle.

Mil"li*mi`cron (?), n. [Milli- + micron.] The thousandish part of a micron or the millionth part of a millimeter; -- a unit of length used in measuring light waves, etc.

Mi*lord" (?), n. [F. (also It., Sp., Russ.), fr. E. my lord.] Lit., my lord; hence (as used on the Continent), an English nobleman or gentleman.

Min"er*al*ize, v. t. To charge or impregnate with ore.

Min"i*mal (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or having a character of, a minim or minimum; least; smallest; as, a minimal amount or value.

||Mi`no*rat" (?), n. [G. Cf. Minor, a.] (Law) A custom or right, analogous to borough-English in England, formerly existing in various parts of Europe, and surviving in parts of Germany and Austria, by which certain entailed estates, as a homestead and adjacent land, descend to the youngest male heir.

Mint sauce. 1. A sauce of vinegar and sugar flavored with spearmint leaves.

2. Money. [Slang, Eng.]

Min*yan" (?), n. (Jewish Relig.) A quorum, or number necessary, for conducting public worship.

Mir"li*ton (?), n. [F.] A kind of musical toy into which one sings, hums, or speaks, producing a coarse, reedy sound.

Trilby singing "Ben Bolt" into a mirliton was a thing to be remembered, whether one would or no!

Du Maurier.

Mir"ror*scope (?), n. [Mirror + -scope.] See Projector, below.

Mir"ya*chit` (?), n. [Written also myriachit.] [Yakoot merjäk epileptic, fr. imerek jerk, rage.] (Med.) A nervous disease in which the patient involuntarily imitates the words or action of another.

Mi"tis cast`ing (?). [Perh. fr. L. mitis mild.] A process, invented by P. Ostberg, for producing malleable iron castings by melting wrought iron, to which from 0.05 to 0.1 per cent of aluminium is added to lower the melting point, usually in a petroleum furnace, keeping the molten metal at the bubbling point until it becomes quiet, and then pouring the molten metal into a mold lined with a special mixture consisting essentially of molasses and ground burnt fire clay; also, a casting made by this process; -- called also wrought-iron casting.

Mitis metal. The malleable iron produced by mitis casting; -- called also simply mitis.

Mi*tot"ic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to mitosis; karyokinetic; as, mitotic cell division; -- opposed to amitotic. -- Mi*tot"ic*al*ly (#), adv.

||Mi`tra`illeur" (?), n. A mitralleuse.

Mix"er, n. A person who has social intercourse with others of many sorts; a person viewed as to his casual sociability; -- commonly used with some characterizing adjective; as, a good mixer; a bad mixer. [Colloq. or Slang, U. S.]

Mo"ab*ite stone (?). (Archæol.) A block of black basalt, found at Dibon in Moab by Rev. F. A. Klein, Aug. 19, 1868, which bears an inscription of thirty-four lines, dating from the 9th century b. c., and written in the Moabite alphabet, the oldest Phœnician type of the Semitic alphabet. It records the victories of Mesha, king of Moab, esp. those over Israel (2 Kings iii. 4, 5, 27).

Mod"ern*ism, n. Certain methods and tendencies which, in Biblical questions, apologetics, and the theory of dogma, in the endeavor to reconcile the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church with the conclusions of modern science, replace the authority of the church by purely subjective criteria; -- so called officially by Pope Pius X.

Mod"ern*ist, n. An advocate of the teaching of modern subjects, as modern languages, in preference to the ancient classics.

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||Mo`diste" (?), n. [F. See Mode; cf. Modist.] One, esp. woman, who makes, or deals in, articles of fashion, esp. of the fashionable dress of ladies; a dress- maker or milliner.

||Mo"dus vi*ven"di (?). [L.] Mode, or manner, of living; hence, a temporary arrangement of affairs until disputed matters can be settled.

Mog (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Mogged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mogging.] [Etym. unknown.] To move away; to go off. [Prov. Eng. or Local, U. S.]

Mo*gul", n. A great personage; magnate; autocrat.

Mo*ham"med*an cal"en*dar. A lunar calendar reckoning from the year of the hegira, 622 a. d. Thirty of its years constitute a cycle, of which the 2d, 5th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 16th, 18th, 21st, 24th, 26th, and 29th are leap years, having 355 days; the others are common, having 354 days. By the following tables any Mohammedan date may be changed into the Christian date, or vice versa, for the years 1900-1935 a. d.

Months of the Mohammedan year.

1 Muharram . . . .. 30 2 Safar . . . . . . .. 29 3 Rabia I . . . . . . 30 4 Rabia II . . . .. 29 5 Jumada I . . . .. 30 6 Jumada II . . . . 29 7 Rajab . . . . . . .. 30 8 Shaban . . . . . . . 29 9 Ramadan . . . . . . 30 10 Shawwal . . . . . . 29 11 Zu'lkadah . . . . 30 12 Zu'lhijjah . . . 29* * in leap year, 30 days

a. h. a. d. a. h. a. d.

1317 begins May 12, 1899 1336* begins Oct.17, 1917 1318 May 1, 1900 1337 Oct. 7, 1918 1319* Apr.20, 1901 1338* Sept.26,1919 1320 Apr.10, 1902 1339 Sept.15,1920 1321+ Mar.30, 1903 1340 Sept.4, 1921 1322* Mar.18, 1904 1341* Aug.24, 1922 1323 Mar. 8, 1905 1342 Aug.14, 1923 1324 Feb.25, 1906 1343 Aug. 2, 1924 1325* Feb.14, 1907 1344* July 22,1925 1326 Feb. 4, 1908 1345 July 12,1926 1327* Jan.23, 1909 1346* July 1, 1927 1328 Jan.13, 1910 1347 June 20,1928 1329 Jan. 2, 1911 1348 June 9, 1929 1330* Dec.22, 1911 1349* May 29, 1930 1331 Dec.11, 1912 1350 May 19, 1931 1332 Nov.30, 1913 1351++ May 7, 1932 1333* Nov.19, 1914 1352* Apr.26, 1933 1334 Nov. 9, 1915 1353 Apr.16, 1934 1335 Oct.28, 1916 1354 Apr. 5, 1935 * Leap year + First year of the 45th cycle ++ First year of the 46th cycle

The following general rule for finding the date of commencement of any Mohammedan year has a maximum error of a day: Multiply 970,224 by the Mohammedan year, point off six decimal places, and add 621.5774. The whole number will be the year a. d., and the decimal multiplied by 365 will give the day of the year.

Mohammedan Era. The era in use in Mohammedan countries. See Mohammedan year, below.

Mohammedan year. The year used by Mohammedans, consisting of twelve lunar months without intercalation, so that they retrograde through all the seasons in about 32½ years. The Mohammedan era begins with the year 622 a.d., the first day of the Mohammedan year 1332 begin Nov. 30, 1913, acording to the Gregorian calendar.

||Moi`ré" (?), a. [F., p.p. of moirer to water (silk, etc.). See Moire.] Watered; having a watered or clouded appearance; -- as of silk or metals.

||Moi`ré" (?), n. 1. A watered, clouded, or frosted appearance on textile fabrics or metallic surfaces.

2. Erroneously, moire, the fabric.

Moi*ré" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Moiréed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Moiréeing (?).] Also Moire. [F. moiré.] To give a watered or clouded appearance to (a surface).

Mo*jar"ra (?), n. [Sp.] Any of certain basslike marine fishes (mostly of tropical seas, and having a deep, compressed body, protracile mouth, and large silvery scales) constituting the family Gerridæ, as Gerres plumieri, found from Florida to Brazil and used as food. Also, any of numerous other fishes of similar appearance but belonging to other families.

Moke (?), n. 1. A stupid person; a dolt; a donkey.

2. A negro. [U. S.]

3. (Theat. Slang) [More fully musical moke.] A performer, as a minstrel, who plays on several instruments.

{ Mol`o*ka"ne (?), Mol`o*ka"ny }, n. pl. [Russ. molokane.] See Raskolnik.

Mon (?), n. [Jap.] (Japan) The badge of a family, esp. of a family of the ancient feudal nobility. The most frequent form of the mon is circular, and it commonly consists of conventionalized forms from nature, flowers, birds, insects, the lightnings, the waves of the sea, or of geometrical symbolic figures; color is only a secondary character. It appears on lacquer and pottery, and embroidered on, or woven in, fabrics. The imperial chrysanthemum, the mon of the reigning family, is used as a national emblem. Formerly the mon of the shoguns of the Tokugawa family was so used.

Mon"goose (?), n.; pl. Mongooses (#). [Tamil manegos.] A Madagascan lemur (Lemur mongos).

||Mo*nil`i*a"les (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. monile necklace, -- because the conidia are produced in chains.] (Bot.) The largest of the three orders into which the Fungi Imperfecti are divided, including various forms.

Mon"ism (?), n. The doctrine that the universe is an organized unitary being or total self-inclusive structure.

Monism means that the whole of reality, i.e., everything that is, constitutes one inseparable and indivisible entirety. Monism accordingly is a unitary conception of the world. It always bears in mind that our words are abstracts representing parts or features of the One and All, and not separate existences. Not only are matter and mind, soul and body, abstracts, but also such scientific terms as atoms and molecules, and also religious terms such as God and world.

Paul Carus.

Mon"i*tor, n. A monitor nozzle.

Monitor nozzle. A nozzle capable of turning completely round in a horizontal plane and having a limited play in a vertical plane, used in hydraulic mining, fire-extinguishing apparatus, etc.

{ Mon`o*sac"cha*ride (?), n. Also - rid }. [Mono- + saccharide.] (Chem.) A simple sugar; any of a number of sugars (including the trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, etc.), not decomposable into simpler sugars by hydrolysis. Specif., as used by some, a hexose. The monosaccharides are all open-chain compounds containing hydroxyl groups and either an aldehyde group or a ketone group.

Mon"o*type (?), n. [Mono- + - type.] 1. (Biol.) The only representative of its group, as a single species constituting a genus.

2. A print (but one impression can be taken) made by painting on metal and then transferring the painting to paper by pressure; also, the process of making such prints.

3. A kind of typesetting and casting machine that makes and sets individual types.

||Mon"te (?), n. In Spanish America, a wood; forest; timber land; esp., in parts of South America, a comparatively wooden region.

Mon*teith" (?), n. A kind of cotton handkerchief having a uniform colored ground with a regular pattern of white spots produced by discharging the color; -- so called from the Glasgow manufactures.

||Monte"-jus" (?), n. [F., fr. monter to bring up + jus juice.] An apparatus for raising a liquid by pressure of air or steam in a reservoir containing the liquid.

Mon`tes*so"ri Meth"od (?). (Pedagogy) A system of training and instruction, primarily for use with normal children aged from three to six years, devised by Dr. Maria Montessori while teaching in the "Houses of Childhood" (schools in the poorest tenement districts of Rome, Italy), and first fully described by her in 1909. Leading features are freedom for physical activity (no stationary desks and chairs), informal and individual instruction, the very early development of writing, and an extended sensory and motor training (with special emphasis on vision, touch, perception of movement, and their interconnections), mediated by a patented, standardized system of "didactic apparatus," which is declared to be "auto-regulative." Most of the chief features of the method are borrowed from current methods used in many institutions for training feeble-minded children, and dating back especially to the work of the French-American physician Edouard O. Seguin (1812-80).

Mon"tre (?), n. [F., show, show case, organ case.] 1. (Organ Building) A stop, usually the open diapason, having its pipes "shown" as part of the organ case, or otherwise specially mounted.

2. A hole in the wall of a pottery kiln, by which the state of the pieces within can be judged.

Moon"light`er (?), n. One who follows an occupation or pastime by moonlight; as: (a) A moonshiner. (b) In Ireland, one of a band that engaged in agrarian outrages by night. (c) A serenader by moonlight. [Local, U. S.]

Moon"shine` (?), n. Liquor smuggled or illicitly distilled. [Dial. Eng., & Colloq. or Slang, U. S.]

Moon"shine`, a. 1. Empty; trivial; idle.

2. Designating, or pertaining to, illicit liquor; as, moonshine whisky. [Dial. Eng., & Colloq. or Slang, U. S.]

Moon"shin`ing (?), n. Illicit distilling. [Slang or Colloq., U. S.]

Moose (?), n. A member of the Progressive Party; a Bull Moose. [Cant]

||Mor`a*to"ri*um (?), n. [NL. See Moratory.] (Law) A period during which an obligor has a legal right to delay meeting an obligation, esp. such a period granted, as to a bank, by a moratory law.

Mor"a*to*ry (?), a. [L. moratorius delaying, fr. morari to delay.] Of or pertaining to delay; esp., designating a law passed, as in a time of financial panic, to postpone or delay for a period the time at which notes, bills of exchange, and other obligations, shall mature or become due.

||Mo"res (m"rz), n. pl.; sing. Mos (ms). [L.] Customs; habits; esp., customs conformity to which is more or less obligatory; customary law.

Mor"gan (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of a celebrated breed of American trotting horses; -- so called from the name of the stud from which the breed originated in Vermont.

Mor"mon, n. (Eccl.) A member of a sect, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus of Latterday Saints, which has always rejected polygamy. It was organized in 1852, and is represented in about forty States and Territories of the United States.

Mo"ron (?), n. (Pedagogy) A person whose intellectual development proceeds normally up to about the eighth year of age and is then arrested so that there is little or no further development.

Mo*ron" (?), n.; Sp. pl. Morones (#). [Sp.] An inferior olive size having a woody pulp and a large clingstone pit, growing in the mountainous and high-valley districts around the city of Moron, in Spain.

Mo"ros (?), n. pl.; sing. Moro (&?;). [Sp., pl. of Moro Moor.] (Ethnol.) The Mohammedan tribes of the southern Philippine Islands, said to have formerly migrated from Borneo. Some of them are warlike and addicted to piracy.

Mor"ris-chair` (?), n. [Prob. fr. the proper name Morris.] A kind of easy-chair with a back which may be lowered or raised.

||Mor"ro (?), n. [Sp., any spherical object.] A round hill or point of land; hence, Morro castle, a castle on a hill.

Morse" code" (?). (Teleg.) The telegraphic code, consisting of dots, dashes, and spaces, invented by Samuel B. Morse. The Alphabetic code which is in use in North America is given below. In length, or duration, one dash is theoretically equal to three dots; the space between the elements of a letter is equal to one dot; the interval in spaced letters, as O . ., is equal to three dots. There are no spaces in any letter composed wholly or in part of dashes.


A .-          H ....       O . .          V ...-

B - . . . I .. P ..... W .--

C .. . J -.-. Q ..-. X .-..

D -.. K -.- R . .. Y .. ..

E . L — S ... Z ... .

F .-. M -- T -- & . ...

G --. N -. U ..-


1 .--. 4 . . . .- 7 --..

2 ..-.. 5 --- 8 - . . . .

3 . . . -. 6 . . . . . . 9 -..-

0 ---- Period ..--.. Comma .-.-

The International (Morse) code used elsewhere is the same as the above with the following exceptions.

C -.-. L .-.. Q --.- Y -.--

F ..-. O --- R .-. Z --..

J .--- P .--. X -..- The Morse code is used chiefly with the electric telegraph, but is also employed in signalling with flags, lights, etc.

Mort (?), n. [F. mort dummy, lit., dead.] A variety of dummy whist for three players; also, the exposed or dummy hand in this game.

Mos (?), n., sing. of Mores.

Mo"sey (?), v. i. [Perh. fr. Vamose.] To go, or move (in a certain manner); -- usually with out, off, along, etc. [Colloq.] E. N. Wescott.

Most (?), adv. -- Most-favored- nation clause (Diplomacy), a clause, often inserted in treaties, by which each of the contracting nations binds itself to grant to the other in certain stipulated matters the same terms as are then, or may be thereafter, granted to the nation which receives from it the most favorable terms in respect of those matters.

There was a "most-favored-nation" clause with provisions for the good treatment of strangers entering the Republic.

James Bryce.

Steam navigation was secured by the Japanese as far as Chungking, and under the most-favored-nation clause the right accrued to us.

A. R. Colquhoun.

Moth"er's Day. A day appointed for the honor and uplift of motherhood by the loving remembrance of each person of his mother through the performance of some act of kindness, visit, tribute, or letter. The founder of the day is Anna Jarvis, of Philadelphia, who designated the second Sunday in May, or for schools the second Friday, as the time, and a white carnation as the badge.

||Mo`tif" (?), n. [F.] 1. In literature and the fine arts, a salient feature or element of a composition or work; esp., the theme, or central or dominant feature; specif. (Music), a motive.

This motif, of old things lost, is a favorite one for the serious ballade.

R. M. Alden.

The design . . . is . . . based on the peacock -- a motif favored by decorative artists of all ages.

R. D. Benn.

2. (Dressmaking) A decorative appliqué design or figure, as of lace or velvet, used in trimming.

Mo"tile (?), a. [See Motive.] 1. (Biol.) Exhibiting, or capable of, spontaneous movement; as, motile cilia, motile spores, etc.

2. Producing motion; as, motile powers.

Mo"tile, n. (Psychol.) A person whose prevailing mental imagery takes the form of inner feelings of action, such as incipient pronunciation of words, muscular innervations, etc.

Mo"tion pic"ture. A moving picture.

Mo"ti*vate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. -vated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. -vating (?).] [From Motive, n.] To provide with a motive; to move; impel; induce; incite. - - Mo`ti*va"tion (#), n. William James.

Mo"to*graph (?), n. [L. movere, motum, to move + -graph.] (Elec.) A device utilized in the making of a loud-speaking telephone, depending on the fact that the friction between a metallic point and a moving cylinder of moistened chalk, or a moving slip of paper, on which it rests is diminished by the passage of a current between the point and the moving surface. -- Mo`to*graph"ic (#), a.

Mo"tor, n. A motor car; an automobile. [Colloq.]

{ Motor car, or Mo"tor*car` }, n. 1. An automobile, locomobile, or locomotive designed to run and be steered on a street or roadway; esp., an automobile specially designed for passengers.

2. (Elec. Railroads) Any car containing motors for propulsion. [U. S.]

{ Motor cycle, or Mo"tor*cy`cle }, n. A bicycle having a motor attached so as to be self-propelled. In Great Britain the term motor cycle is treated by statute (3 Ed VII. c. 36) as limited to motor cars (self-propelled vehicles) designed to travel on not more than three wheels, and weighing unladen (that is, without water, fuel, or accumulators necessary for propulsion) not more than three hundred weight (336 lbs.).

Mo`tor-driv`en, a. (Mach.) Driven or actuated by a motor, esp. by an individual electric motor. An electric motor forms an integral part of many machine tools in numerous modern machine shops.

Motor generator. The combination consisting of a generator and a driving motor mechanically connected, usually on a common bedplate and with the two shafts directly coupled or combined into a single shaft.

Mo"tor*ing (?), n. Act or recreation of riding in or driving a motor car or automobile.

Mo"tor*ing, a. Pertaining to motor cars or automobiles, or to the technology of such; addicted to riding in or driving automobiles; as, motoring parlance; my motoring friend.

Mo"tor*ize (m"tr*z), v. t. [Motor + -ize.] To substitute motor- driven vehicles, or automobiles, for the horses and horse-drawn vehicles of (a fire department, city, etc.). -- Mo`tor*i*za"tion (#), n.

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Mount, n. (Palmistry) Any one of seven fleshy prominences in the palm of the hand which are taken as significant of the influence of "planets," and called the mounts of Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Saturn, the Sun or Apollo, and Venus.

Moun"tain spec"ter. An optical phenomenon sometimes seen on the summit of mountains (as on the Brocken) when the observer is between the sun and a mass of cloud. The figures of the observer and surrounding objects are seen projected on the cloud, greatly enlarged and often encircled by rainbow colors.

Moun"tain State. Montana; -- a nickname.

Mount"ing, n. (Aëronautics) = Carriage.

||Mous`que*taire" (?), n. [F.] 1. A musketeer, esp. one of the French royal musketeers of the 17th and 18th centuries, conspicuous both for their daring and their fine dress.

2. A mosquetaire cuff or glove, or other article of dress fancied to resemble those worn by the French mosquetaires.

Mousquetaire cuff. A deep flaring cuff.

Mousquetaire glove. A woman's glove with a long, loosely fitting wrist.

Mousse (ms), n. [F.] (Cookery) A frozen dessert of a frothy texture, made of sweetened and flavored whipped cream, sometimes with the addition of egg yolks and gelatin. Mousse differs from ice cream in being beaten before -- not during -- the freezing process.

||Mousse`line de soie" (?). [F.] A soft thin silk fabric with a weave like that of muslin.

Mov"ie (?), n. A moving picture or a moving picture show; -- commonly used in pl. [Slang or Colloq.]

Moving picture. A series of pictures, usually photographs taken with a special machine, presented to the eye in very rapid succession, with some or all of the objects in the picture represented in slightly changed positions, producing, by persistence of vision, the optical effect of a continuous picture in which the objects move in some manner, as that of some original scene. The usual form of moving pictures is that produced by the cinematograph.

Muck rake. A rake for scraping up muck or dung. See Muckrake, v. i., below.

Muck"rake` (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. -raked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. -raking (?).] To seek for, expose, or charge, esp. habitually, corruption, real or alleged, on the part of public men and corporations. On April 14, 1906, President Roosevelt delivered a speech on "The Man with the Muck Rake," in which he deprecated sweeping and unjust charges of corruption against public men and corporations. The phrase was taken up by the press, and the verb to muck"rake`, in the above sense, and the noun muck"rak`er (&?;), to designate one so engaged, were speedily coined and obtained wide currency. The original allusion was to a character in Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" so intent on raking up muck that he could not see a celestial crown held above him.

Mu"coid (?), n. [Mucin + - oid.] (Physiol. Chem.) One of a class of mucinlike substances yielding on decomposition a reducing carbohydrate together with some form of proteid matter.

Mud"sill`, n. Fig.: A person of the lowest stratum of society; -- a term of opprobrium or contempt. [Southern U. S.]

Muf"fler, n. (Mach.) Any of various devices to deaden the noise of escaping gases or vapors, as a tube filled with obstructions, through which the exhaust gases of an internal-combustion engine, as on an automobile, are passed (called also silencer).

{ Mug"ger (?), n. Also Mug"gar, Mug"gur }. [Hind. magar, fr. Skr. makara sea monster.] The common crocodile (Crocodilus palustris) of India, the East Indies, etc. It becomes twelve feet or more long.

Mug"gins (?), n. [Etym. unknown.] 1. A game of dominoes in which the object is to make the sum of the two ends of the line some multiple of five.

2. A game at cards which depends upon building in suits or matching exposed cards, the object being to get rid of one's cards.

Mug"gins, v. t. In certain games, to score against, or take an advantage over (an opponent), as for an error, announcing the act by saying "muggins."

Mule killer. Any of several arthropods erroneously supposed to kill live stock, in the southern United States, by stinging or by being swallowed; as: (a) A whip scorpion. [Florida] (b) A walking- stick insect. [Texas] (c) A mantis. (d) A wheel bug.

Mul"ti*graph (?), n. [Multi- + -graph.] A combined rotary type-setting and printing machine for office use. The type is transferred semi-automatically by means of keys from a type-supply drum to a printing drum. The printing may be done by means of an inked ribbon to print "typewritten" letters, or directly from inked type or a stereotype plate, as in a printing press.

Mul"ti*phase (?), a. [Multi- + phase.] Having many phases; specif. (Elec.), pertaining to, or designating, a generator producing, or any system conveying or utilizing, two or more waves of pressure, or electromotive force, not in phase with each other; polyphase.

Mul"ti*plane (?), a. Having several or many planes or plane surfaces; as, a multiplane kite.

Mul"ti*plane, n. [Multi- + plane.] (Aëronautics) An aëroplane with three or more superposed main planes.

Mul`ti*po"lar (?), a. [Multi- + polar.] 1. Having many poles; in Anat., designating specif. a nerve cell which has several dendrites.

2. (Elec.) Having, or pertaining to, many poles, as a field magnet or armature of a dynamo, or a dynamo having such a field magnet or (sometimes) armature.

Mum"bo Jum"bo (?), n. [Perh. fr. the native name of an African god.] Among the Mandingos of the western Sudan, a bugbear by means of which the women are terrified and disciplined by societies of the men, one of whom assumes a masquerade for the purpose; hence, loosely, any Negro idol, fetish, or bugaboo.

Mun"go (?), n. A material of short fiber and inferior quality obtained by deviling woolen rags or the remnants of woolen goods, specif. those of felted, milled, or hard- spun woolen cloth, as distinguished from shoddy, or the deviled product of loose-textured woolen goods or worsted, -- a distinction often disregarded.

Mu*nic"i*pal*ize (?), v. t. [Municipal + -ize.] To bring under municipal oversight or control; as, a municipalized industry.

London people are now determined to centralize and to municipalize such services.

The Century.

Mus"cle read`ing. The art of making discriminations between objects of choice, of discovering the whereabouts of hidden objects, etc., by inference from the involuntary movements of one whose hand the reader holds or with whom he is otherwise in muscular contact.

Mush (?), n. [Perh. short for mush on, a corrupt of E. marchons, the cry of the voyageurs and coureurs de bois to their dogs.] A march on foot, esp. across the snow with dogs; as, he had a long mush before him; -- also used attributively. [Colloq., Alaska & Northwestern U. S.]

Mush, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Mushed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Mushing.] To travel on foot, esp. across the snow with dogs. -- v. t. To cause to travel or journey. [Rare] [Colloq., Alaska & Northwestern U. S.]

Mush, v. t. To notch, cut, or indent, as cloth, with a stamp.

Mu"sic dra`ma. An opera in which the text and action are not interrupted by set arias, duets, etc., the music being determined throughout by dramatic appropriateness; musical drama of this character, in general. It involves the use of a kind of melodious declamation, the development of leitmotif, great orchestral elaboration, and a fusion of poetry, music, action, and scene into an organic whole. The term is applied esp. to the later works of Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde," "Die Meistersinger," "Rheingold," "Walküre," "Siegfried," "Götterdämmerung," and "Parsifal."

Music hall. A place for public musical entertainments; specif. (Eng.), esp. a public hall for vaudeville performances, in which smoking and drinking are usually allowed in the auditorium.

Must (mst), n. [Hind. mast intoxicated, ruttish, fr. Skr. matta, p.p. of mad to rejoice, intoxicate.] (Zoöl.) Being in a condition of dangerous frenzy, usually connected with sexual excitement; -- said of adult male elephants which become so at irregular intervals. -- n. (a) The condition of frenzy. (b) An elephant in must.

Mus`tah"fiz` (?), n. [Turk. & Ar. mustafi who trusts to another's keeping, a soldier of a garrison.] See Army organization, above.

Mu*ta"tion (?), n. 1. (Biol.) Gradual definitely tending variation, such as may be observed in a group of organisms in the fossils of successive geological levels.

2. (Biol.) (a) As now employed (first by de Vries), a sudden variation (the offspring differing from its parents in some well-marked character or characters) as distinguished from a gradual variation in which the new characters become fully developed only in the course of many generations. The occurrence of mutations, and the hereditary transmission, under some conditions, of the characters so appearing, are well-established facts; whether the process has played an important part in the evolution of the existing species and other groups of organisms is a disputed question. (b) The result of the above process; a suddenly produced variation.

Mu*tes`sa*rif" (?), n. [Turk. & Ar. muteçarif freely disposing of anything, master.] In Turkey, an administrative authority of any of certain sanjaks. They are appointed directly by the Sultan.

Mu*tes`sa*ri*fat" (?), n. [Turk. & Ar. muteçarifah office of a mutessarif.] In Turkey, a sanjak whose head is a mutessarif.

Mu"to*scope (?), n. [L. mutare to change + -scope.] A simple form of moving-picture machine in which the series of views, exhibiting the successive phases of a scene, are printed on paper and mounted around the periphery of a wheel. The rotation of the wheel brings them rapidly into sight, one after another, and the blended effect gives a semblance of motion.

||My*ce`to*zo"a (?), n. pl. [NL.; Gr. &?;, &?;, fungus + &?; pl. of &?; an animal.] (Zoöl.) The Myxomycetes; -- so called by those who regard them as a class of animals. -- My*ce`to*zo"an (#), a.

My"kiss (?), n. [Russ. muikize, prob. fr. a native name.] (Zoöl.) A salmon (Salmo mykiss, syn. S. purpuratus) marked with black spots and a red throat, found in most of the rivers from Alaska to the Colorado River, and in Siberia; -- called also black-spotted trout, cutthroat trout, and redthroat trout.

Myr"me*co*phyte` (?), n. [Gr. my`rmhx, my`rmhkos, ant + fyto`n plant.] (Bot.) A plant that affords shelter and food to certain species of ants which live in symbiotic relations with it. Special adaptations for this purpose exist; thus, Acacia spadicigera has large hollows thorns, and species of Cecropia have stem cavities. -- Myr`me*co*phyt"ic (#), a.

||Myx`œ*de"ma (?), n. [NL. fr. Gr. &?; mucus + œdema.] (Med.) A disease producing a peculiar cretinoid appearance of the face, slow speech, and dullness of intellect, and due to failure of the functions of the thyroid gland. -- Myx`œ*dem"a*tous (#), a., Myx`œ*dem"ic (#), a.

||Myx`o*my*ce"tes (?), n. pl. [NL.; Gr. &?; mucus, slime + myceles.] (Bot.) A class of peculiar organisms, the slime molds, formerly regarded as animals (Mycetozoa), but now generally thought to be plants and often separated as a distinct phylum (Myxophyta). They are found on damp earth and decaying vegetable matter, and consist of naked masses of protoplasm, often of considerable size, which creep very slowly over the surface and ingest solid food. -- Myx`o*my*ce"tous (#), a.

||Myx*oph"y*ta (?), n. pl. [NL.; Gr. &?; mucus, slime + &?; plant.] (Bot.) A phylum of the vegetable kingdom consisting of the class Myxomycetes. By some botanists it is not separated from the Thallophyta.


Na*celle" (?), n. [F.] 1. A small boat. [Obs.]

2. The basket suspended from a balloon; hence, the framework forming the body of a dirigible balloon, and containing the machinery, passengers, etc.

3. A boatlike, inclosed body of an aëroplane.

||Na`cré" (?), a. [F. See Nacre.] (Art) Having the peculiar iridescence of nacre, or mother-of-pearl, or an iridescence resembling it; as, nacré ware.

Na*ga"na (?), n. [Prob. native name.] (Med.) The disease caused by the tsetse fly. [South Africa]

Na"nism (?), n. [Gr. &?; + -ism: cf. F. nanisme.] The condition of being abnormally small in stature; dwarfishness; -- opposed to gigantism.

Nap (?), n. Same as Napoleon, 1, below.

Na*po"le*on (?), n. 1. (Card Playing) (a) A game in which each player holds five cards, the eldest hand stating the number of tricks he will bid to take, any subsequent player having the right to overbid him or a previous bidder, the highest bidder naming the trump and winning a number of points equal to his bid if he makes so many tricks, or losing the same number of points if he fails to make them. (b) A bid to take five tricks at napoleon. It is ordinarily the highest bid; but sometimes bids are allowed of wellington, or of blucher, to take five tricks, or pay double, or treble, if unsuccessful.

2. A Napoleon gun.

3. A kind of top boot of the middle of the 19th century.

4. A shape and size of cigar. It is about seven inches long.

Na*tal" boil (?). (Med.) = Aleppo boil.

||Na`ti*o*nal"rath` (?), n. [G.] (Switzerland) See Legislature.

Na"tive steel. A sort of steel which has been found where a burning coal seam had reduced and carbonized adjacent iron ore.

Nat"u*ral*ism, n. 1. The theory that art or literature should conform to nature; realism; also, the quality, rendering, or expression of art or literature executed according to this theory.

2. Specif., the principles and characteristics professed or represented by a 19th-century school of realistic writers, notably by Zola and Maupassant, who aimed to give a literal transcription of reality, and laid special stress on the analytic study of character, and on the scientific and experimental nature of their observation of life.

Nat"u*ral steel. Steel made by the direct refining of cast iron in a finery, or, as wootz, by a direct process from the ore.

Nau"heim treat`ment (?). (Med.) Orig., a method of therapeutic treatment administered, esp. for chronic diseases of the curculatory system, at Bad Nauheim, Germany, by G. Schott, consisting in baths in the natural mineral waters of that place, which are charged with carbonic acid, and the use of a graduated course of rest, physical exercises, massage, etc.; hence, any similar treatment using waters artificially charged with the essential ingredients of the natural mineral waters of Bad Nauheim. Hence, Nauheim bath, etc.

Na"vel or"ange. A type of orange in which the fruit incloses a small secondary fruit, the rind showing on the exterior a navel-like pit or depression at the apex. There are several varieties; they are usually seedless, or nearly so, and are much grown in California.

Na"vy blue`. Prussian blue.

Na*wab" (?), n. A rich, retired Anglo-Indian; a nabob.

Ne*an"der*thal` (?), a. (Anthropol.) Of, pertaining to, or named from, the Neanderthal, a valley in the Rhine Province, in which were found parts of a skeleton of an early type of man. The skull is characterized by extreme dolichocephaly, flat, retreating forehead, with closed frontal sutures, and enormous superciliary ridges. The cranial capacity is estimated at about 1,220 cubic centimeters, being about midway between that of the Pithecanthropus and modern man. Hence, designating the Neanderthal race, or man, a species supposed to have been widespread in paleolithic Europe.

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Ne*an`der*thal"oid (?), a. [Neanderthal + -oid.] (Anthropol.) Like, or pertaining to, the Neanderthal skull, or the type of man it represents.

{ Ne`a*pol"i*tan ice, Neapolitan ice cream }. (a) An ice or ice cream containing eggs as well as cream. (b) An ice or ice cream prepared in layers, as vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate ice cream, and orange or lemon water ice.

Near beer. Any of various malt liquors (see Citation).

Near beer is a term of common currency used to designate all that class of malt liquors which contain so little alcohol that they will not produce intoxication, though drunk to excess, and includes in its meaning all malt liquors which are not within the purview of the general prohibition law.

Cambell v. City of Thomasville, Georgia Appeal Records, 6 212.

Nec*rot"o*my (?), n. [Gr. &?; dead person + &?; to cut.] (Med.) The dissection of dead bodies; also, excision of necrosed bone. -- Nec`ro*tom"ic (#), a. -- Nec*rot"o*mist (#), n.

Ne'er"-do-well` (?), n. A person who never does, or fares, well; a good for nothing.

The idle and dissolute ne'er-do-wells of their communities.

Harper's Mag.

Ne"gro*head` (?), n. An inferior commercial variety of India rubber made up into round masses.

Ne"groid (?), n. [Negro + - oid.] A member of any one of several East African tribes whose physical characters show an admixture with other races.

Ne`o*clas"sic (?), a. [Neo- + classic.] Belonging to, or designating, the modern revival of classical, esp. Greco-Roman, taste and manner of work in architecture, etc.

Neoclassic architecture. All that architecture which, since the beginning of the Italian Renaissance, about 1420, has been designed with deliberate imitation of Greco-Roman buildings.

Ne`o*crit"i*cism (?), n. [Neo- + classicism.] The form of Neo-Kantianism developed by French idealists, following C. Renouvier. It rejects the noumena of Kant, restricting knowledge to phenomena as constituted by a priori categories.

Ne`o-Dar"win*ism (?), n. The theory which holds natural selection, as explained by Darwin, to be the chief factor in the evolution of plants and animals, and denies the inheritance of acquired characters; -- esp. opposed to Neo- Lamarckism. Weismannism is an example of extreme Neo- Darwinism. -- Ne`o-Dar*win"i*an, a. & n.

Ne`o*dym"i*um (?), n. [NL. See Neo- , Didymium.] (Chem.) A rare metallic element occurring in combination with cerium, lanthanum, and other rare metals, and forming amethyst-colored salts. It was separated in 1885 by von Welsbach from praseodymium, the two having previously been regarded as a single element (didymium). It is chiefly trivalent. Symbol Nd; at. wt. 144.3.

Ne`o*gram*ma"ri*an (?), n. [Neo- + grammarian; a translation of G. junggrammatiker.] One of a group of philologists who apply phonetic laws more widely and strictly than was formerly done, and who maintain that these laws admit of no real exceptions. -- Ne`o*gram*mat"ic*al (#), a.

Ne`o-Greek", n. A member of a body of French painters (F. les néo-Grecs) of the middle 19th century. The term is rather one applied by outsiders to certain artists of grave and refined style, such as Hamon and Aubert, than a name adopted by the artists themselves.

Ne`o-He*bra"ic, a. Of, pert. to, or designating, modern Hebrew, or Hebrew of later date than the Biblical.

Neo-Hebraic, n. The modern Hebrew language.

Ne`o-He*ge"li*an, a. Of or pertaining to Neo-Hegelianism.

Neo-Hegelian, n. An adherent of Neo-Hegelianism.

Ne`o-He*ge"li*an*ism, n. The philosophy of a school of British and American idealists who follow Hegel in dialectical or logical method and in the general outcome of their doctrine. The founders and leaders of Neo-Hegelianism include: in England, T. H. Green (1836-1882); in Scotland, J. (1820-98) and E. (1835-1908) Caird; in the United States, W. T. Harris (1835-1909) and Josiah Royce (1855- -).

Ne`o-Hel*len"ic, n. Same as Romaic.

Ne`o-Hel"len*ism (?), n. Hellenism as surviving or revival in modern times; the practice or pursuit of ancient Greek ideals in modern life, art, or literature, as in the Renaissance.

Ne`o*im*pres"sion*ism (?), n. (Painting) A theory or practice which is a further development, on more rigorously scientific lines, of the theory and practice of Impressionism, originated by George Seurat (1859-91), and carried on by Paul Signac (1863- -) and others. Its method is marked by the laying of pure primary colors in minute dots upon a white ground, any given line being produced by a variation in the proportionate quantity of the primary colors employed. This method is also known as Pointillism (stippling).

Ne`o-Kant"i*an, a. Of or pertaining to Neo-Kantianism.

Neo-Kantian, n. An adherent of Neo- Kantianism.

Ne`o-Kant"i*an*ism, n. The philosophy of modern thinkers who follow Kant in his general theory of knowledge, esp. of a group of German philosophers including F. A. Lange, H. Cohen, Paul Natorp, and others.

Ne`o-La*marck"ism, n. (Biol.) Lamarckism as revived, modified, and expounded by recent biologists, esp. as maintaining that the offspring inherits characters acquired by the parent from change of environment, use or disuse of parts, etc.; -- opposed of Neo-Darwinism (which see, above). -- Ne`o-La*marck"i*an, a. & n.

Ne`o-Mal*thu"sian, a. Designating, or pertaining to, a group of modern economists who hold to the Malthusianism doctrine that permanent betterment of the general standard of living is impossible without decrease of competition by limitation of the number of births. -- Ne`o- Mal*thu"sian, Ne`o-Mal*thu"sian*ism, n.

Ne`o*pa"gan*ism, n. [Neo- + paganism.] Revived or new paganism.

Ne`o-Scho*las"tic, a. Of or pert. to Neo-Scholasticism.

Ne`o-Scho*las"ti*cism, n. The modern revival of the Scholastic philosophy, esp. of that of Thomas Aquinas, with critical revision to suit the exigencies of the general advance in learning. The Neo-Scholastic movement received a great impetus from Leo XIII.'s interest in it.

||Ne plus ul"tra (?). [L., no further; ne no, not + plus more + ultra beyond.] 1. The uttermost point to which one can go or attain; hence, the summit of achievement; the highest point or degree; the acme.

2. A prohibition against proceeding further; an insuperable obstacle or limiting condition. [Obs. or R.]

Ner"ka (?), n. [Russ. niarka, prob. fr. native name.] (Zoöl.) The most important salmon of Alaska (Oncorhinchus nerka), ascending in spring most rivers and lakes from Alaska to Oregon, Washington, and Idaho; -- called also red salmon, redfish, blueback, and sawqui.

||Ne`ro-an*ti"co (?), n. [It.; nero black + antico ancient.] (Art) A beautiful black marble found in fragments among Roman ruins, and usually thought to have come from ancient Laconia.

||Ne Te"me*re (?). [So named from L. ne not + temere rashly, the first two words in the decree.] (R. C. Ch.) A decree of the Congregation of the Council declaring invalid [so far as the laws of the Roman Catholic Church are concerned] any marriage of a Roman Catholic, or of a person who has ever been a Roman Catholic, if not contracted before a duty qualified priest (or the bishop of the diocese) and at least two witnesses. The decree was issued Aug. 2, 1907, and took effect on Easter Apr. 19, 1908. The decree by its terms does not affect mixed marriages (those between Roman Catholics and persons of another faith) in Germany.

||Net"su*ke (?), n. [Jap.] In Japanese costume and decorative art, a small object carved in wood, ivory, bone, or horn, or wrought in metal, and pierced with holes for cords by which it is connected, for convenience, with the inro, the smoking pouch (tabako-ire), and similar objects carried in the girdle. It is now much used on purses sold in Europe and America.

||Neuf`châ`tel" (?), n. A kind of soft sweet-milk cheese; -- so called from Neufchâtel-en-Bray in France.

{ Neu"tro*phile (?), Neu"tro*phil (?) }, n. [L. neuter + Gr. &?; loving.] (Physiol.) One of a group of leucocytes whose granules stain only with neutral dyes. -- Neu"tro*phil"ic (#), a., Neu*troph"i*lous (#), a.

New Thought. Any form of belief in mental healing other than (1) Christian Science and (2) hypnotism or psychotherapy. Its central principle is affirmative thought, or suggestion, employed with the conviction that man produces changes in his health, his finances, and his life by the adoption of a favorable mental attitude. AS a therapeutic doctrine it stands for silent and absent mental treatment, and the theory that all diseases are mental in origin. As a cult it has its unifying idea the inculcation of workable optimism in contrast with the "old thought" of sin, evil, predestination, and pessimistic resignation. The term is essentially synonymous with the term High Thought, used in England.

Ni"be*lung`en*lied` (?), n. [G. See Nibelungs; Lied.] A great medieval German epic of unknown authorship containing traditions which refer to the Burgundians at the time of Attila (called Etzel in the poem) and mythological elements pointing to heathen times.

Ni"be*lungs (?), n. pl.; sing. Nibelung (&?;) . In German mythology, the children of the mist, a race of dwarfs or demonic beings, the original possessors of the famous hoard and ring won by Siegfrid; also, the Burgundian kings in the Nibelungenlied.

Nick`el*o"de*on (?), n. [Nickel + odeon.] A place of entertainment, as for moving picture exhibition, charging a fee or admission price of five cents. [U. S.]

Nickel steel. A kind of cast steel containing nickel, which greatly increases its strength. It is used for armor plate, bicycle tubing, propeller shafts, etc.

Nic"o*tin*ism (?), n. [Nicotine + -ism.] (Med.) The morbid condition produced by the excessive use of tobacco.

Ni*el"lo (?), n. An impression on paper taken from the engraved or incised surface before the niello alloy has been inlaid.

Niep"ce's proc"ess (?). (Photog.) A process, now no longer used, invented by J. N. Niepce, a French chemist, in 1829. It depends upon the action of light in rendering a thin layer of bitumen, with which the plate is coated, insoluble.

Nig"ger*head` (?), n. A strong black chewing tobacco, usually in twisted plug form; negro head.

Nig"gle, v. t. 1. To use, spend, or do in a petty or trifling manner.

2. To elaborate excessively, as in art.

Nig"gle, v. i. (Chiefly Eng.) 1. To move about restlessly or without result; to fidget.

2. To be finicky or excessively critical; to potter; esp., to work with excessive care for trifling details, as in painting.

Nig"gling (?), n. Finicky or pottering work; specif. (Fine Arts), minute and very careful workmanship in drawing, painting, or the like, esp. when bestowed on unimportant detail.

{ Night letter, Night lettergram }. See Letter, above.

Night terrors. (Med.) A sudden awkening associated with a sensation of terror, occurring in children, esp. those of unstable nervous constitution.

Ni*grit"ic (?), a. (Ethnol.) Pertaining to, or having the characteristics of, negroes, or of the Negritos, Papuans, and the Melanesian races; negritic.

||Ni"sus (?), n. (Physiol.) (a) The periodic procreative desire manifested in the spring by birds, etc. (b) The contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles to evacuate feces or urine.

Nix"ie (?). 1. Nothing. [Slang]

2. (U. S. Mail Service) A piece of mail matter which cannot be delivered, either because no post office exists at the place to which is it addressed, or because there is no place of the name mentioned in the designated State, Territory, or the like. [Cant]

Nixie clerk. A post-office clerk in charge of the nixies.

||Ni*zam" (?), n.; pl. Nizam. [Turk. nizm.] A regular soldier of the Turkish army. See Army organization, above.

No*bel" prizes (?). Prizes for the encouragement of men and women who work for the interests of humanity, established by the will of A. B. Nobel (1833-96), the Swedish inventor of dynamite, who left his entire estate for this purpose. They are awarded yearly for what is regarded as the most important work during the year in physics, chemistry, medicine or physiology, idealistic literature, and service in the interest of peace. The prizes, averaging $40,000 each, were first awarded in 1901.

No"bert's lines (?). [After F. A. Nobert, German manufacturer in Pomerania.] Fine lines ruled on glass in a series of groups of different closeness of line, and used to test the power of a microscope.

No"bi*li's rings (?). [After Leopoldo Nobili, an Italian physicist who first described them in 1826.] (Physics) Colored rings formed upon a metal plate by the electrolytic disposition of copper, lead peroxide, etc. They may be produced by touching with a pointed zinc rod a silver plate on which is a solution of copper sulphate.

Noil (?), n. [Prob. fr. Prov. E. oil, ile, ail, a beard of grain (OE. eil, AS. egl) combined with the indef. article, an oil becoming a noil.] A short or waste piece or knot of wool separated from the longer staple by combing; also, a similar piece or shred of waste silk.

Non*mor"al (?), a. Not moral nor immoral; having no connection with morals; not in the sphere of morals or ethics; not ethical.

Non*un"ion (?), a. 1. Not belonging to, or affiliated with, a trades union; as, a nonunoin carpenter.

2. Not recognizing or favoring trades unions or trades-unionists; as, a nonunion contractor. -- Non*un"ion*ism (#), n.

Nor"folk (?), n. Short for Norfolk Jacket.

Norfolk dumpling. (Eng.) (a) A kind of boiled dumpling made in Norfolk. (b) A native or inhabitant of Norfolk.

Norfolk jacket. A kind of loose-fitting plaited jacket, having a loose belt.

Norfolk plover. The stone curlew.

Norfolk spaniel. One of a breed of field spaniels similar to the clumbers, but shorter in body and of a liver-and-white or black-and-white color.

Nor"land (?), n. [For Northland.] 1. The land in the north; north country. [Chiefly Poetic]

2. = Norlander. [Scot. & Eng.]

Nor"land*er, n. A northener; a person from the north country.

North Star State. Minnesota; -- a nickname.

Nose, v. t. 1. To confront; be closely face to face or opposite to; meet.

2. To furnish with a nose; as, to nose a stair tread.

3. To examine with the nose or sense of smell.

4. To make by advancing the nose or front end; as, the train nosed its way into the statio; (Racing Slang) to beat by (the length of) a nose.

Nose (?), v. i. To push or move with the nose or front forward.

A train of cable cars came nosing along.

Hamlin Garland.

Nos"o*phen (?), n. [Nose + phenol; orig. used for affections of the nose.] (Pharm.) An iodine compound obtained as a yellowish gray, odorless, tasteless powder by the action of iodine on phenolphthalein.

||Nos`o*pho"bi*a (?), n. [NL.; &?; disease + &?; fear.] (Med.) Morbid dread of disease.

||Nous (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; mind.] (Philos.) The reason; the highest intellect; God regarded as the World Reason.

{ ||Nou`veau" riche" (?), m., ||Nou`velle" riche" (?), f. }; pl. m. Noveaux riches (#), f. Nouvelles riches (#). [F.] A person newly rich.

||No"va (n"v), n.; pl. L. Novæ (-v), E. Novas (-vz). [L., fem. sing. of novus new.] (Astron.) A new star, usually appearing suddenly, shining for a brief period, and then sinking into obscurity. Such appearances are supposed to result from cosmic collisions, as of a dark star with interstellar nebulosities. The most important modern novæ are: -- ||No"va Co*ro"næ Bo`re*a"lis (&?;) [1866]; ||No"va Cyg"ni (&?;) [1876]; ||No"va An*dro"me*dæ (&?;) [1885]; ||No"va Au*ri"gæ (&?;) [1891-92]; ||No"va Per"se*i (&?;) [1901]. There are two novæ called Nova Persei. They are: (a) A small nova which appeared in 1881. (b) An extraordinary nova which appeared in Perseus in 1901. It was first sighted on February 22, and for one night (February 23) was the brightest star in the sky. By July it had almost disappeared, after which faint surrounding nebulous masses were discovered, apparently moving radially outward from the star at incredible velocity.

||No`yade" (?), n. [F., fr. noyer to drown, L. necare to kill.] A drowning of many persons at once, -- a method of execution practiced at Nantes in France during the Reign of Terror, by Jean Baptiste Carrier.

||Nul"lah (?), n. [Hind. nl, fr. Skr. nla tube.] A water course, esp. a dry one; a gully; a gorge; -- orig. an East Indian term. E. Arnold.

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Nu"na*tak (?), n.; pl. - taks (#) (the pl. form Nunatakker is Swedish). [Eskimo nunættak.] In Greenland, an insular hill or mountain surrounded by an ice sheet.

||Nunc" di*mit"tis (?). [L. nunc now + dimittis thou lettest depart.] (Eccl.) The song of Simeon (Luke ii. 29-32), used in the ritual of many churches. It begins with these words in the Vulgate.

{||Nu*ra"ghe (?), n.; It. pl. - ghi (&?